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**Counting Principles, Permutations, and Combinations**

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**The Fundamental Counting Principle**

The number of ways a series of successive things can occur is found by multiplying the number of ways in which each thing can occur.

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Example Sue goes shopping for an outfit. She buys five blouses, three skirts and two pairs of shoes. How many different outfits can she make? Solution: (5)(3)(2) = 30

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Example An executive council is to be formed from a pool of 10 qualified candidates. The council will be composed of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer. All 10 candidates can be appointed for any positions. Solution: (10)(9)(8)(7) = 5040

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Text Example Telephone numbers in the United States begin with three-digit area codes followed by seven-digit local telephone numbers. Area codes and local telephone numbers cannot begin with 0 or 1. How many different telephone numbers are possible? Area Code Local Telephone Number Solution This situation involves making choices with ten groups of items. You cannot use 0 or 1 in these groups. There are only 8 choices: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. You can use 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 in these groups. There are 10 choices per group.

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Text Example cont. Telephone numbers in the United States begin with three-digit area codes followed by seven-digit local telephone numbers. Area codes and local telephone numbers cannot begin with 0 or 1. How many different telephone numbers are possible? Solution We use the Fundamental Counting Principle to determine the number of different telephone numbers that are possible. The total number of telephone numbers possible is = 6,400,000,000. There are six billion four hundred million different telephone numbers that are possible.

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Permutations The number of possible permutations if r items are taken from n items is

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Example Given the letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G, how many arrangements are there of these 7 letters taken 4 at a time. Solution:

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**Combinations of n Things Taken r at a Time**

The number of possible combinations if r items are taken from n items is

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Example In the game of bridge, each of 4 players is dealt 13 cards. How many 13-card hands can be dealt from a 52-card deck? Solution:

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**Counting Principles, Permutations, and Combinations**

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