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Aaker, Kumar, Day Sixth Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides

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Presentation on theme: "Aaker, Kumar, Day Sixth Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides"— Presentation transcript:

1 Aaker, Kumar, Day Sixth Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides
Marketing Research Aaker, Kumar, Day Sixth Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides

2 Information from Respondents: Survey Methods
Chapter Ten Information from Respondents: Survey Methods

3 Basic Survey Methods Personal Interview Telephone Interview
Mail Survey

4 Personal Interviews There Are Four Entities Involved Researcher
Interviewer Interviewee The Interview Environment

5 Personal Interviews (Contd.)
Methods Door to Door Interviewing Executive Interviewing Mall Intercept Surveys Self Administered Interviews Purchase Intercept Technique (PIT) Omnibus Surveys

6 Personal Interviews (Contd.)
Advantages Can arouse and keep interest Can build rapport Ask complex questions with the help of visual and other aids Clarify misunderstandings High degree of flexibility Probe for more complete answers Accurate for neutral questions Do not need an explicit or current list of households or individuals

7 Personal Interviews (Contd.)
Disadvantages Bias of Interviewer Response Bias Embarrassing/personal questions Time Requirements Cost Per Completed Interview Is High

8 Telephone Interviewing
The Important Aspects of Telephone Interviewing Are Selecting telephone numbers Pre specified list A directory Random dialing procedure Random digit dialing Systematic random digit dialing (SRDD) The introduction When to call Call reports

9 Telephone Interviewing (Contd.)
Advantages Central location, under supervision, at own hours More interviews can be conducted in a given time Travelling time is saved More hours of the day are productive Repeated call backs at lower cost Absence of administrative costs Lower cost per completed interview Intrusiveness of the phone and ease of call backs Less sample bias

10 Telephone Interviewing (Contd.)
Limitations Inability to employ visual aids or complex tasks Can't be longer than 5-10 min. Or they get boring Amount of data that can be collected is relatively less A capable interviewer essential Sample bias As all people do not have phones, or are not listed

11 Mail Surveys Requires a broad identification of the individuals to be sampled before data collection begins Some Decisions That Need to Be Taken Are Type of Return Envelope Postage Method of Addressing Cover Letter The Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color, Format Etc Method of Notification Incentive to Be Given

12 Mail Surveys (Contd.) Advantages Lower cost
Better results, including a shorter response time Reliable answers as no inhibiting intermediary Survey answered at respondents discretion

13 Mail Surveys (Contd.) Disadvantages
The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlled No control over whom the respondent consults before answering the questions The speed of the response can't be monitored No control on the order in which the questions are exposed or answered

14 Mail Surveys (Contd.) Disadvantages (Contd.)
The respondent may not clearly understand the question and no opportunity to clarify No long questionnaires Subject to availability of a mailing list Response rate is generally poor Number of problems such as obsolescence, omissions, duplications, etc

15 Factors Affecting the Response Rate
Perceived amount of work required, and the length of the questionnaire Intrinsic interest in the topic Characteristics of the sample Credibility of the sponsoring organization Level of induced motivation

16 Combination of Survey Methods
The Telephone Pre-notification Approach The Lockbox Approach The Drop-off Approach

17 Comprehensive Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Methods
Table 10-3 Survey Method: Personal Interviewing Advantages There are sample designs that can be implemented best by personal interview (e.g. area probability samples). Personal interview procedures are probably the most effective way of enlisting cooperation. Advantages of interview questions-probing for adequate answers, accurately following complex instructions or sequences are realized. Multimethod data collection, including observation, visual cues, and self administered sections, are feasible. Rapport and confidence building are possible. Probably longer interviews can be done in person.

18 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Personal Interviewing
Disadvantages It is likely to me more costly than alternatives. A trained staff of interviewers that is geographically near the sample is needed. The total data collection period is likely to be longer than for most procedures. Some samples (those in high-rise buildings or high crime areas, elites, employees, students) may be more accessible by some other mode.

19 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Telephone Interviewing
Advantages Lower costs than personal interviews. Random Digit-Dialing (RDD) sampling of general population. Better access to certain populations, especially as compared to personal interviews. Shorter data collection periods. The advantages of interviewer administration (In contrast to mail surveys). Interviewer staffing and management easier than personal interviews-smaller staff needed, not necessary to be near sample, supervision and quality control potentially better. Likely better response rate from a list sample than from mail

20 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Telephone Interviewing
Disadvantages Sampling limitations, especially as a result of omitting those without telephone. Nonresponse associated with RDD sampling is higher than with interviews. Questionnaires or measurement constraints, including limits on response alternatives, use of visual aids, and interviewer observations. Possibly less appropriate for personal or sensitive questions if no prior contact.

21 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Self-Administration Advantages
Ease of presenting questions requiring visual aids. Asking questions with long or complex response categories is fascilitated. Asking batteries of similar questions is possible. Disadvantages Especially careful questionnaire design is needed. Open questions usually are not useful. Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents. The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions objectives, or the quality of answers provided.

22 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Mail Procedures Relatively low cost
Advantages Relatively low cost Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities. Provides access to widely dispersed samples. Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers, look up records, or consult others. Disadvantages Ineffective as a way of enlisting cooperation. Various disadvantages of not having interviewer involved in data collection. Need for good mailing addresses for sample.

23 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Drop-off questionnaire Advantages
The interviewer can explain the study, answer questions, and designate a respondent. Response rates tend to be like those of personal interview studies. There is more opportunity to give thoughtful answers and consult records. Disadvantages Costs about as much as personal interviews. A field staff is required.

24 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Fax Surveys Advantages
Relatively low cost Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities Provides access to widely dispersed samples. Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers. Telephone charges are decreasing. Local faxes are free. Administrative costs are fixed. It is fast. Technology is improving. List management is easy. Can send and receive by computer. More reliable than mail in some countries.

25 Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Fax Surveys Disadvantages
Higher fixed costs for computer/fax equipment, multiple phone lines. Costs increase with minutes. Cost varies by time on line, time of day, distance, and telephone carrier. Currently limited to organizational populations. Loss of anonymity.

26 Trends in Survey Methods
Computer Interactive Interviewing Fax Surveys Electronic Mail Surveys

27 Surveys in the International Context
Personal Dominant mode of data collection outside the US Telephone Low levels of telephone ownership in some countries Poor communication network in some countries Mail Absence of mailing lists Poor mail services in some countries

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