2Information from Respondents: Survey Methods Chapter TenInformation from Respondents:Survey Methods
3Basic Survey Methods Personal Interview Telephone Interview Mail Survey
4Personal Interviews There Are Four Entities Involved Researcher InterviewerIntervieweeThe Interview Environment
5Personal Interviews (Contd.) MethodsDoor to Door InterviewingExecutive InterviewingMall Intercept SurveysSelf Administered InterviewsPurchase Intercept Technique (PIT)Omnibus Surveys
6Personal Interviews (Contd.) AdvantagesCan arouse and keep interestCan build rapportAsk complex questions with the help of visual and other aidsClarify misunderstandingsHigh degree of flexibilityProbe for more complete answersAccurate for neutral questionsDo not need an explicit or current list of households or individuals
7Personal Interviews (Contd.) DisadvantagesBias of InterviewerResponse BiasEmbarrassing/personal questionsTime RequirementsCost Per Completed Interview Is High
8Telephone Interviewing The Important Aspects of Telephone Interviewing AreSelecting telephone numbersPre specified listA directoryRandom dialing procedureRandom digit dialingSystematic random digit dialing (SRDD)The introductionWhen to callCall reports
9Telephone Interviewing (Contd.) AdvantagesCentral location, under supervision, at own hoursMore interviews can be conducted in a given timeTravelling time is savedMore hours of the day are productiveRepeated call backs at lower costAbsence of administrative costsLower cost per completed interviewIntrusiveness of the phone and ease of call backsLess sample bias
10Telephone Interviewing (Contd.) LimitationsInability to employ visual aids or complex tasksCan't be longer than 5-10 min. Or they get boringAmount of data that can be collected is relatively lessA capable interviewer essentialSample biasAs all people do not have phones, or are not listed
11Mail SurveysRequires a broad identification of the individuals to be sampled before data collection beginsSome Decisions That Need to Be Taken AreType of Return EnvelopePostageMethod of AddressingCover LetterThe Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color, Format EtcMethod of NotificationIncentive to Be Given
12Mail Surveys (Contd.) Advantages Lower cost Better results, including a shorter response timeReliable answers as no inhibiting intermediarySurvey answered at respondents discretion
13Mail Surveys (Contd.) Disadvantages The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlledNo control over whom the respondent consults before answering the questionsThe speed of the response can't be monitoredNo control on the order in which the questions are exposed or answered
14Mail Surveys (Contd.) Disadvantages (Contd.) The respondent may not clearly understand the question and no opportunity to clarifyNo long questionnairesSubject to availability of a mailing listResponse rate is generally poorNumber of problems such as obsolescence, omissions, duplications, etc
15Factors Affecting the Response Rate Perceived amount of work required, and the length of the questionnaireIntrinsic interest in the topicCharacteristics of the sampleCredibility of the sponsoring organizationLevel of induced motivation
16Combination of Survey Methods The Telephone Pre-notification ApproachThe Lockbox ApproachThe Drop-off Approach
17Comprehensive Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Methods Table 10-3Survey Method: Personal InterviewingAdvantagesThere are sample designs that can be implemented best by personal interview (e.g. area probability samples).Personal interview procedures are probably the most effective way of enlisting cooperation.Advantages of interview questions-probing for adequate answers, accurately following complex instructions or sequences are realized.Multimethod data collection, including observation, visual cues, and self administered sections, are feasible.Rapport and confidence building are possible.Probably longer interviews can be done in person.
18Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Personal Interviewing DisadvantagesIt is likely to me more costly than alternatives.A trained staff of interviewers that is geographically near the sample is needed.The total data collection period is likely to be longer than for most procedures.Some samples (those in high-rise buildings or high crime areas, elites, employees, students) may be more accessible by some other mode.
19Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Telephone Interviewing AdvantagesLower costs than personal interviews.Random Digit-Dialing (RDD) sampling of general population.Better access to certain populations, especially as compared to personal interviews.Shorter data collection periods.The advantages of interviewer administration (In contrast to mail surveys).Interviewer staffing and management easier than personal interviews-smaller staff needed, not necessary to be near sample, supervision and quality control potentially better.Likely better response rate from a list sample than from mail
20Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Telephone Interviewing DisadvantagesSampling limitations, especially as a result of omitting those without telephone.Nonresponse associated with RDD sampling is higher than with interviews.Questionnaires or measurement constraints, including limits on response alternatives, use of visual aids, and interviewer observations.Possibly less appropriate for personal or sensitive questions if no prior contact.
21Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Self-Administration Advantages Ease of presenting questions requiring visual aids.Asking questions with long or complex response categories is fascilitated.Asking batteries of similar questions is possible.DisadvantagesEspecially careful questionnaire design is needed.Open questions usually are not useful.Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents.The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions objectives, or the quality of answers provided.
22Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Mail Procedures Relatively low cost AdvantagesRelatively low costCan be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities.Provides access to widely dispersed samples.Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers, look up records, or consult others.DisadvantagesIneffective as a way of enlisting cooperation.Various disadvantages of not having interviewer involved in data collection.Need for good mailing addresses for sample.
23Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Drop-off questionnaire Advantages The interviewer can explain the study, answer questions, and designate a respondent.Response rates tend to be like those of personal interview studies.There is more opportunity to give thoughtful answers and consult records.DisadvantagesCosts about as much as personal interviews.A field staff is required.
24Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Fax Surveys Advantages Relatively low costCan be accomplished with minimal staff and facilitiesProvides access to widely dispersed samples.Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers.Telephone charges are decreasing.Local faxes are free.Administrative costs are fixed.It is fast.Technology is improving.List management is easy.Can send and receive by computer.More reliable than mail in some countries.
25Table 10-3 (Cont.) Survey Method: Fax Surveys Disadvantages Higher fixed costs for computer/fax equipment, multiple phone lines.Costs increase with minutes.Cost varies by time on line, time of day, distance, and telephone carrier.Currently limited to organizational populations.Loss of anonymity.
26Trends in Survey Methods Computer Interactive InterviewingFax SurveysElectronic Mail Surveys
27Surveys in the International Context PersonalDominant mode of data collection outside the USTelephoneLow levels of telephone ownership in some countriesPoor communication network in some countriesMailAbsence of mailing listsPoor mail services in some countries