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Cellular Telephone Use Behavior Richard A. Hudiburg and Undergraduate Research Team University of North Alabama.

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Telephone Use Behavior Richard A. Hudiburg and Undergraduate Research Team University of North Alabama."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cellular Telephone Use Behavior Richard A. Hudiburg and Undergraduate Research Team University of North Alabama

2 Cell-Phone Users Need to Hang Up and Drive Oct 04, 2000 – Seattle Press Online To the Editor: A few months ago, after a near head-on collision with a distracted cell-phone driver who drifted into my lane, I posted a sign saying, "Hang up and drive!" on the front and rear of my van. I've been studiously noting the reaction in traffic to the signs, and have identified four particular categories of individuals who frequently give me a smile and "thumbs up." They are: school bus drivers, highway workers, pedestrians and "driver safety" instructors. The real surprise, though, has been the response from SUV owners, particularly on the east side. After driving up really close behind me, presumably to better read the sign, they often pull alongside and offer a salute which tells me "You're number one!" Go figure... David Arntuffus

3 Purpose of Study The current study is an update of the cell phone study of Hudiburg, Jefcoat, & Alred (2002) present at the 79 th annual meeting of AAS. That study was based on data collected in 2001. There have been some changes in cell phone users. In 1985 there were 340,000 users, in 2001 129 million users, and in 2006 an estimated 200 million users in the United States. Worldwide the estimate is over 2 billion uers. Increase variety of cell phone contracts, including: rollover minutes, free on network calls and family plans. Increase number of cell phone features: cameras, internet, and MP3 players. Possible change is interpersonal behavior related to cell phone use behavior. Academic issues are a concern with cell phones in the classroom (disturbances, tests).

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5 Design of Study A questionnaire was developed with assistance of undergraduate Research Team. The questionnaire was available on-line to anonymous cell phone users: http://www2.una.edu/psychology/onlinestudy.htm Questionnaire sought background information of cell phone users, cell phone features questions, cell phone use activity, cell phone use behaviors, situations of cell phone use, moods related to cell phone use, cell phone use attitudes, and other cell phone use behaviors. Psychological scales included that measured self-esteem, self-monitoring, need for affiliation, and personality dimensions (the big five). Only students enrolled at University of North Alabama were participants. Data presented are preliminary and doesnt include the analysis of the psychological scales.

6 Preliminary Results N = 117 Students (2 week data capture) Age M = 23.17 years (SD=5.92) Male 17.2% Female 82.1% Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate 20.5% 17.1%23.1% 26.5% 11.1% International Student: Yes 3.4% No 94.9%

7 Cell Phone Features How old were you when you got your first cell phone? M = 18.03 years (4.77) Do your parents have a cell phone? Yes 91.5% No 7.7% Type of cell phone plan: prepaid 2.6% individual calling plan 37.6% shared plan 58.1% Extras: free weekends/nights 93.2% free on network calls 75.2% unlimited text messages 23.9% rollover minutes 48.7% Coverage: local regional national international 2.6% 5.1% 86.3% 4.3% Cell phone features: text messaging 87.2% MP3 8.5% Internet 47.9% camera 53.8% entertainment 42.7 % Do you have a special download cell phone ring? Yes 53.8% No 44.4%

8 Cell Phone Use: costs and calls Do you have primary responsibility for paying your cell phone bill? Yes 47.0% No 51.3% Average amount of monthly cell phone bill: $ 71.89 (SD=35.50) Have you recently changed plans due to excessive charges? Yes 10.3% No 88.9% How many times in the last year have you exceeded or gone over your anytime minutes? M = 1.37 (SD=3.54) How many calls do you make in an average day? M = 7.46 (SD=6.40) How many calls do you receive in an average day? M = 7.41 (SD=6.34)

9 Cell Phone Use Behavior Comparatively, do you use your cell phone more or less than your friends? a lot more more about the same less a lot less 5.1% 7.7%47.9% 23.9% 14.5% How do you rate your cell phone usage? use heavily above average average below average barely use 10.3%17.9% 45.3% 17.9% 7.7% Who do you call most often on your cell phone? Parent 31.6% Friend 29.1% Significant other (spouse/girlfriend/boyfriend) 35.0% Child 0.9% Employer 2.6% Who calls you most often on your cell phone? Parent 31.6% Friend 35.9% Significant other (spouse/girlfriend/boyfriend) 27.4 % Child 1.7% Employer 2.6%

10 Cell Phone Use Behavior Which of the following indicates why you use your cell phone Safety precautions/emergency 82.9% Job necessity 17.1% Casual conversation 78.6% To keep up with certain people 65.0% Convenience 86.3% Primary telephone number 59.8% Certain people to keep up with me 47.9%

11 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Situations of Use (%) Do you allow others to use your cell phone? Do you turn off your cell phone when you are out-of-area, so to avoid roaming charges? Do you turn off your cell phone when you are out of anytime minutes? Do you think that cell phone calls received during inopportune times (i.e., movie theater, classroom, meetings, church, etc.) should be answered? Do you make cell phone calls at any free moment (i.e., like immediately after leaving a class)? Do you have scheduled breaks during your day in order to talk on your cell phone? Do you answer calls while you are driving a car? 13.735.936.810.31.7 86.3 5.1 2.60.93.4 88.0 4.3 2.60.92.6 58.125.612.80.00.9 11.118.835.018.815.4 74.410.312.02.60.0 1.7 19.724.851.3 Practic ally never Once in a great while Some- times Fairly often Very often

12 ©Mike Lane, Cagle Cartoons

13 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Situations of Use (%) Do you make calls while you are driving a car? Do you use the entertainment functions of your cell phone? Do you sometimes ring yourself on your cell phone to appear to be busy on a cell phone? Do you stop an on going conversation to answer your cell phone. Do you text message during inopportune times (i.e., movie theater, classroom, meetings, church, etc.)? Do you pretend to talk on the cell phone to avoid people? Do you get upset when your call is unanswered and you have to leave a message? 3.46.826.523.937.6 34.229.920.510.33.4 92.26.00.90.00.9 17.929.942.74.3 47.914.515.412.88.5 70.917.17.72.60.9 30.829.927.46.05.1 Practic ally never Once in a great while Some- times Fairly often Very often

14 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Mood of Use (%) Rate the likelihood that you would make a call on your cell phone during these moods. Bored Upset Excited Happy Lonely Afraid Practic ally never Once in a great while Some- times Fairly often Very often 6.86.029.125.631.6 7.712.029.1 21.4 1.73.419.729.944.4 2.69.435.929.121.4 6.014.535.923.119.7 15.412.026.522.221.4

15 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Mood of Use (%) Rate the likelihood that you would answer a call on your cell phone during these moods. Bored Upset Excited Happy Lonely Afraid Practic ally never Once in a great while Some- times Fairly often Very often 0.91.712.023.161.5 6.818.845.315.412.8 1.7 16.226.5 53.0 2.60.914.531.649.6 1.72.620.531.642.7 5.18.523.923.136.8

16 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Same time activities (%) Watching television Surf the Internet Use the computer for school work While having a face-to-face interaction with other people Listening to music While attending class Eating 17.912.035.920.512.8 17.111.127.424.818.8 20.517.129.916.215.4 36.833.321.44.33.4 22.214.533.315.413.7 80.312.04.30.91.7 19.724.833.315.46.0 Practic ally never Once in a great while Some- times Fairly often Very often

17 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Attitudes about Use (%) I believe that cell phone use may one day be discovered to cause brain cancer. I believe that I am safer with a cell phone. I believe that use of a cell phone fulfills my need to be in contact with people. I believe that I function effectively as a person with my cell phone. I believe that cell phone accessories are important. I believe I would be lost without my cell phone. Strongly disagree DisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly agree 18.827.431.618.80.0 3.45.447.031.6 1.717.920.536.820.5 3.44.323.150.416.2 30.832.512.05.1 12.026.512.829.117.1

18 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Attitudes about Use (%) I believe talking on cell phone while driving interferes with driving. I believe talking on cell phone while driving is more distracting than tuning a car radio/CD player/MP3 player. I believe talking on cell phone while driving is more distracting than eating or drinking behind the wheel. I believe talking on cell phone while driving increases the risk of an accident. I believe talking on cell phone while driving using a handheld cell must be banned. I believe all types of talking on cell phone while driving must be banned. Strongly disagree DisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly agree 5.112.825.638.514.5 11.126.517.130.811.1 12.039.39.723.13.4 0.94.323.153.815.4 14.535.028.215.44.3 34.241.913.76.01.7

19 Cell Phone Use Behavior: Attitudes about Use (%) Seo & Torabi (2004) study N = 1185 I believe talking on cell phone while driving interferes with driving. I believe talking on cell phone while driving is more distracting than tuning a car radio/CD player/MP3 player. I believe talking on cell phone while driving is more distracting than eating or drinking behind the wheel. I believe talking on cell phone while driving increases the risk of an accident. I believe talking on cell phone while driving using a handheld cell must be banned. I believe all types of talking on cell phone while driving must be banned. Strongly disagree DisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly agree 2.010.020.053.015.0 4.026.021.034.014.0 6.039.023.022.010.0 1.06.018.053.021.0 20.037.027.011.05.0 39.0 15.03.0

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21 Other Cell Phone Use Behavior (%) If you are sitting alone in a public place how likely would you use your cell phone? If you are sitting alone in a public place how likely are you to use your cell phones entertainment functions to keep busy? When answering your cell phone what is the likelihood you use your THUMB? When dialing your cell phone what is the likelihood you use your THUMB? When text messaging what is the likelihood you use your THUMB? Very unlikely Fairly unlikely Somewhat likely Fairly likely Very likely 1.711.129.929.125.6 26.512.08.217.113.7 10.36.06.88.565.8 6.05.13.47.775.2 12.83.4 73.5

22 Discussion Current results are similar to those found by Hudiburg et al. (2002). Most common use of cell phone is for safety, causal conversation, and convenience. More likely to make a cell phone call when bored, upset, and excited. More likely to answer a cell phone call when bored, excited, happy, lonely, and afraid. Most commonly surf the Internet while talking on cell phone. Most agree that a cell phone makes one effective, fulfils needs, and safer. Inconsistency between attitudes and behavior related to cell phone use while driving a car. Slight decrease in the use of the thumb in answering cell phone compared to 2001 (74% v. 86%).

23 Conclusions This study is ongoing and data collection will continue for another month. Analysis of psychological variables when data collection is completed should reveal some interesting relationships between cell phone use behavior and self-esteem, self-monitoring, need for affiliation, and personality dimensions (the big five). Undergraduate Research Team includes UNA Psychology students: Mary Brasseale, Shawn Geron, Derek Green, Jennifer Skowron, Jeannie Swann, Melonee Tubb, and Oscar White. References Hudiburg, R., Jefcoat, G. & Alred, M. (2002). "Cellular telephone use and the need for affiliation: a preliminary study." Alabama Academy of Science, 79th annual meeting, University of West Alabama, Livingston, AL. March, 2002. Seo, D. & Torabi, M. R. (2004). The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell- Phone Use on Accidents or Near accidents among Collage Students. Journal of American College Health, 53, 101-107.

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