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© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Three Network Technologies Telephone Network –The largest worldwide computer network, specialized for voice –Switching technique: Circuit-switching Internet –The global public information infrastructure for data –Switching technique: Datagram packet switching ATM –Was intended to replace telephone networks and data networks, but lost momentum due the success of the Internet –Switching technique: VC packet switching
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Telephone Network
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Telephone Networks Starting in 1876, the public switched telephone network (PSTN) has become a global infrastructure for voice communications PBX Central Office Long-haul network Toll switch (Backbone switch)
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Central Office and Local Loop Each phone user (subscriber) has a direct connection to a switch in the central office. This is called the local loop The local loop has a length of km The switches in the central office are called (local) exchange A company which provides local telephone service is called a local exchange carrier or LEC (e.g., Bell Atlantic) PBX Central Office Long-haul network Toll switch
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 PBX Central Office Long-haul network Toll switch PBX A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a telephone system within an enterprise that switches calls within the enterprise on local lines, while allowing all users to share a certain number of external lines to the central office The main purpose of a PBX is to save the cost of requiring a line for each user to the telephone company's central office.
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 PBX Central Office Long-haul network Toll switch The long-haul network Toll or backbone switches provide long-distance connectivity over long- distance trunks There are only about 500 toll switches in the United States. Each toll switch can run more than 100,000 simultaneous phone calls
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 How is voice transmitted ? Voice can be transmitted in two ways: –Analog voice transmission: Each voice channel is allocated a bandwidth of 3.5 kHz –Digital voice transmission: Analog voice stream is converted in a digital stream: Standard scheme for a voice call: Obtain 8000 samples per second, each with length 8 bit
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 How is voice transmitted ? Until 1960s: –Entire telephone network is analog –Frequency-division multiplexing Today: –The local loop is analog. –The rest of the network is digital (based on TDM) All digital: When do we get an all digital network? –ISDN (Integrated services Digital Network) is an all digital circuit- switching technology. ISDN is available since the early-1990s (in Europe) or mid-1990s (US). No wide deployment in US –Another all digital –but not circuit-switched – telephony solution is IP telephony.
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 All analog telephone network The telephone switch bundles (multiplexes) multiple voice calls on a high-bandwidth link The multiplexing method is FDM.
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Analog local loop / digital network The first telephone switch digitizes a voice call ( bit samples per second) Switching method is TDM. –Switch bundles multiple calls, by interleaving samples in time. Each call receives one 8-bit slot every 125 s 1-byte voice samples
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 All digital telephone network The telephone at the subscriber digitizes voice and sends one 8-bit samples every 125 s
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Digital Multiplexing Digital Signaling (DS) transmission hierarchy used in the US for multiplexing digital voice channels Number of voice circuits Bandwidth DS0164 kbps DS Mbps DS Mbps DS
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Addressing and Routing Each subscriber has an address (telephone number) Addresses are hierarchical Example: Dominos Pizza in downtown Charlottesville The information contained in a telephone address is exploited when establishing a route from caller to callee subscriber number number of local exchange area code country code
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Signaling Signaling refers to the control functions performed to setup a phone call Signaling between users and the local exchange in the central office is quite simple: dial-tone, punch numbers, put phone down, etc. Signaling between exchanges/switches is more complicated and is done via a separate network, which uses packet switching QuiescentOffhookDialingWait TalkingDisconnectingRinging Pick up phone DialSet up complete Put phone down Remote site picks up Disconnect
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Switching in the Telephone Network Telephone switch has two parts: –Switch controller responsible for signaling (control plane) –Switching hardware responsible for handling voice data (data plane)
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Signaling Network Signaling between switch controllers is done over a (packet switching) network that is separate from the data plane This is called out-of-band signaling. Packet network is called Signaling System 7 (SS7). SS7 has a complete protocol stack.
© Jörg Liebeherr, CS757 Other Topics on Telephone networks Toll-Free numbers Cellular telephone networks ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Networks) Billing VoIP (Voice over IP networks)
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