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Introduction Contain slides by Leon-Garcia and Widjaja.

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1 Introduction Contain slides by Leon-Garcia and Widjaja

2 Communication Services & Applications A communication service enables the exchange of information between users at different locations. Communication services & applications are everywhere. Web Browsing Web server Retrieval of information from web servers

3 Many other examples! Peer-to-peer applications Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa file exchange Searching for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Audio & video streaming Network games On-line purchasing Text messaging in PDAs, cell phones (SMS) Voice-over-Internet

4 Services & Applications Service: Basic information transfer capability Internet transfer of individual block of information Internet reliable transfer of a stream of bytes Real-time transfer of a voice signal Applications build on communication services E-mail & web build on reliable stream service Fax and modems build on basic telephone service New applications build on multiple networks SMS builds on Internet reliable stream service and cellular telephone text messaging

5 What is a communication network? The equipment (hardware & software) and facilities that provide the basic communication service Virtually invisible to the user; Usually represented by a cloud Communication Network Equipment Routers, servers, switches, multiplexers, hubs, modems, … Facilities Copper wires, coaxial cables, optical fiber Ducts, conduits, telephone poles … How are communication networks designed and operated?

6 Bells Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (1875) working on harmonic telegraph to multiplex telegraph signals Discovered voice signals can be transmitted directly Microphone converts voice pressure variation (sound) into analogous electrical signal Loudspeaker converts electrical signal back into sound Telephone patent granted in 1876 Bell Telephone Company founded in 1877 Signal for ae as in cat MicrophoneLoudspeaker analog electrical signal sound

7 Signaling Signaling required to establish a call Flashing light and ringing devices to alert the called party of incoming call Called party information to operator to establish calls Signaling + voice signal transfer

8 The N 2 Problem For N users to be fully connected directly Requires N(N – 1)/2 connections Requires too much space for cables Inefficient & costly since connections not always on N = 1000 N(N – 1)/2 = 499500 1 2 3 4 N...

9 Telephone Pole Congestion

10 Circuit Switching Patchcord panel switch invented in 1877 Operators connect users on demand Establish circuit to allow electrical current to flow from inlet to outlet Only N connections required to central office 1 2 3 N – 1 N

11 Manual Switching

12 Strowger Switch Human operators intelligent & flexible But expensive and not always discreet Strowger invented automated switch in 1888 Each current pulse advances wiper by 1 position User dialing controls connection setup Decimal telephone numbering system Hierarchical network structure simplifies routing Area code, exchange (CO), station number...... 0 9 0 9...... 0 9 0 9...... 1 st digit2 nd digit...

13 Strowger Switch

14 Telephone subscribers connected to local CO (central office) Tandem & Toll switches connect COs Hierarchical Network Structure Tandem CO Toll CO Tandem CO = central office

15 Digitization of Telephone Network Pulse Code Modulation digital voice signal Voice gives 8 bits/sample x 8000 samples/sec = 64x10 3 bps Time Division Multiplexing for digital voice T-1 multiplexing (1961): 24 voice signals = 1.544x10 6 bps Digital Switching (1980s) Switch TDM signals without conversion to analog form Digital Cellular Telephony (1990s) Optical Digital Transmission (1990s) One OC-192 optical signal = 10x10 9 bps One optical fiber carries 160 OC-192 signals = 1.6x10 12 bps! All digital transmission, switching, and control

16 Digital Transmission Evolution Morse T-1 Carrier SONET Optical Carrier Information transfer per second Wavelength Division Multiplexing ? Baudot

17 Elements of Telephone Network Architecture Digital transmission & switching Digital voice; Time Division Multiplexing Circuit switching User signals for call setup and tear-down Route selected during connection setup End-to-end connection across network Signaling coordinates connection setup Hierarchical Network Decimal numbering system Hierarchical structure; simplified routing; scalability Signaling Network Intelligence inside the network

18 Computer Network Evolution Overview 1950s: Telegraph technology adapted to computers 1960s: Dumb terminals access shared host computer SABRE airline reservation system 1970s: Computers connect directly to each other ARPANET packet switching network TCP/IP internet protocols Ethernet local area network 1980s & 1990s: New applications and Internet growth Commercialization of Internet E-mail, file transfer, web, P2P,... Internet traffic surpasses voice traffic

19 What is a protocol? Communications between computers requires very specific unambiguous rules A protocol is a set of rules that governs how two or more communicating parties are to interact Internet Protocol (IP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

20 Terminal-Oriented Networks Early computer systems very expensive Time-sharing methods allowed multiple terminals to share local computer Remote access via telephone modems Host computer Terminal... Terminal Modem Telephone Network

21 Dedicated communication lines were expensive Terminals generated messages sporadically Frames carried messages to/from attached terminals Address in frame header identified terminal Medium Access Controls for sharing a line were developed Example: Polling protocol on a multidrop line Medium Access Control Host computer Terminal... Terminal Terminals at different locations in a city Must avoid collisions on inbound line Polling frames & output frames input frames

22 Statistical Multiplexing Statistical multiplexer allows a line to carry frames that contain messages to/from multiple terminals Frames are buffered at multiplexer until line becomes available, i.e. store-and-forward Address in frame header identifies terminal Header carries other control information CRC Information Header Header Information CRC Host computer Terminal... Terminal Multiplexer Frame

23 Error Control Protocol Communication lines introduced errors Error checking codes used on frames Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) calculated based on frame header and information payload, and appended Header also carries ACK/NAK control information Retransmission requested when errors detected Header Information CRC CRC Information Header Terminal

24 Tree Topology Networks National & international terminal-oriented networks Routing was very simple (to/from host) Each network typically handled a single application New York City San Francisco Chicago Atlanta.................. T T...... T

25 Computer-to-Computer Networks As cost of computing dropped, terminal-oriented networks viewed as too inflexible and costly Need to develop flexible computer networks Interconnect computers as required Support many applications Application Examples File transfer between arbitrary computers Execution of a program on another computer Multiprocess operation over multiple computers

26 Packet Switching Network should support multiple applications Transfer arbitrary message size Low delay for interactive applications But in store-and-forward operation, long messages induce high delay on interactive messages Packet switching introduced Network transfers packets using store-and-forward Packets have maximum length Break long messages into multiple packets ARPANET testbed led to many innovations

27 ARPANET Packet Switching Packet Switch Message Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 1 Packet 2 Message Host generates message Source packet switch converts message to packet(s) Packets transferred independently across network Destination packet switch delivers message Destination packet switch reasembles message

28 ARPANET Routing Packet Switch Packets header includes source & destination addresses Packet switches have table with next hop per destination No connection setup prior to packet transmission Routing tables calculated by packet switches using distributed algorithm PacketHdr Dest: Next Hop: xyz abc wvr edf Routing is highly nontrivial in mesh networks

29 Other ARPANET Protocols Packet Switch Congestion control between source & destination packet switches limit number of packets in transit Error control between adjacent packet switches Flow control between host computers prevents buffer overflow Error Control Congestion Control Flow Control


31 Ethernet Local Area Network In 1980s, affordable workstations available Need for low-cost, high-speed networks To interconnect local workstations To access local shared resources (printers, storage, servers) Low cost, high-speed communications with low error rate possible using coaxial cable Ethernet is the standard for high-speed wired access to computer networks

32 Ethernet Medium Access Control Network interface card (NIC) connects workstation to LAN Each NIC has globally unique address Frames are broadcast into coaxial cable NICs listen to medium for frames with their address Transmitting NICs listen for collisions with other stations, and abort and reschedule retransmissions Transceivers

33 The Internet Different network types emerged for data transfer between computers ARPA also explored packet switching using satellite and packet radio networks Each network has its protocols and is possibly built on different technologies Internetworking protocols required to enable communications between computers attached to different networks Internet: a network of networks

34 Internet Protocol (IP) Routers (gateways) interconnect different networks Host computers prepare IP packets and transmit them over their attached network Routers forward IP packets across networks Best-effort IP transfer service, no retransmission Net 1Net 2 Router

35 Addressing & Routing Hierarchical address: Net ID + Host ID IP packets routed according to Net ID Routers compute routing tables using distributed algorithm G G G G G G Net 1 Net 5 Net 3 Net 4 Net 2 H H H H

36 Transport Protocols Host computers run two transport protocols on top of IP to enable process-to-process communications User Datagram Protocol (UDP) enables best-effort transfer of individual block of information Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) enables reliable transfer of a stream of bytes Internet Transport Protocol

37 Names and IP Addresses Routing is done based on 32-bit IP addresses Dotted-decimal notation Hosts are also identified by name Easier to remember Hierarchical name structure Domain Name System (DNS) provided conversion between names and addresses

38 Internet Applications All Internet applications run on TCP or UDP TCP: HTTP (web); SMTP (e-mail); FTP (file transfer; telnet (remote terminal) UDP: DNS, RTP (voice & multimedia) TCP & UDP incorporated into computer operating systems Any application designed to operate over TCP or UDP will run over the Internet!!!

39 Elements of Computer Network Architecture Digital transmission Exchange of frames between adjacent equipment Framing and error control Medium access control regulates sharing of broadcast medium. Addresses identify attachment to network or internet. Transfer of packets across a packet network Distributed calculation of routing tables

40 Elements of Computer Network Architecture Congestion control inside the network Internetworking across multiple networks using routers Segmentation and reassembly of messages into packets into and out of a network or internetwork End-to-end transport protocols for process-to- process communications Applications that build on the transfer of messages between computers.

41 Trends in Network Evolution Its all about services Building networks involves huge expenditures Services that generate revenues drive the network architecture Current trends Packet switching vs. circuit switching Multimedia applications End of trust Networking is a business

42 Packet vs. Circuit Switching Architectures appear and disappear over time Telegraph (message switching) Telephone (circuit switching) Internet (packet switching) Trend towards packet switching at the edge IP enables rapid introduction of new applications New cellular voice networks packet-based IP supports real-time voice and telephone network will gradually be replaced However, large packet flows easier to manage by circuit-like methods

43 Optical Circuit Switching Optical signal transmission over fiber can carry huge volumes of information (Tbps) Optical signal processing very limited Optical logic circuits bulky and costly Optical packet switching will not happen soon Optical-to-Electronic conversion is expensive Maximum electronic speeds << Tbps Parallel electronic processing & high expense Thus trend towards optical circuit switching in the core

44 Multimedia Applications Trend towards digitization of all media Digital voice standard in cell phones Music cassettes replaced by CDs and MP3s Digital cameras replacing photography Video: digital storage and transmission Analog VCR cassettes largely replaced by DVDs Analog broadcast TV to be replaced by digital TV VCR cameras/recorders to be replaced by digital video recorders and cameras High-quality network-based multimedia applications now feasible

45 End of Trust Security Attacks Spam Denial of Service attacks Viruses Impersonators Firewalls & Filtering Control flow of traffic/data from Internet Protocols for privacy, integrity and authentication

46 P2P and Overlay Networks Client resources under-utilized in client-server Peer-to-Peer applications enable sharing Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa Processing & storage (SETI@home) Information & files (MP3s) Creation of virtual distributed servers P2P creates transient overlay networks Users (computers) currently online connect directly to each other to allow sharing of their resources Huge traffic volumes a challenge to network management Huge opportunity for new businesses

47 Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Billing Communication like transportation networks Traffic flows need to be monitored and controlled Tolls have to be collected Roads have to be maintained Need to forecast traffic and plan network growth Highly-developed in telephone network Entire organizations address OAM & Billing Becoming automated for flexibility & reduced cost Under development for IP networks

48 Success Factors for New Services Technology not only factor in success of a new service Three factors considered in new telecom services Technology Market Regulation Can it be implemented cost- effectively? Can there be demand for the service? Is the service allowed? New Service

49 Transmission Technology Relentless improvement in transmission High-speed transmission in copper pairs DSL Internet Access Higher call capacity in cellular networks Lower cost cellular phone service Enormous capacity and reach in optical fiber Plummeting cost for long distance telephone Faster and more information intensive applications

50 Processing Technology Relentless improvement in processing & storage Moores Law: doubling of transistors per integrated circuit every two years RAM: larger tables, larger systems Digital signal processing: transmission, multiplexing, framing, error control, encryption Network processors: hardware for routing, switching, forwarding, and traffic management Microprocessors: higher layer protocols and applications Higher speeds and higher throughputs in network protocols and applications

51 1972 1982 1992 2002 4004 8080 8086 80286 486 DX Pentium Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium III P4 Transistor count Intel DX2 Moores Law

52 Market The network effect: usefulness of a service increases with size of community Metcalfe's Law: usefulness is proportional to the square of the number of users Phone, fax, email, ICQ, … Economies of scale: per-user cost drops with increased volume Cell phones, PDAs, PCs Efficiencies from multiplexing S-curve: growth of new service has S-shaped curve, challenge is to reach the critical mass

53 The S Curve Service Penetration & Network Effect Telephone: T=30 years city-wide & inter-city links Automobile: T=30 years roads Others Fax Cellular & cordless phones Internet & WWW Napster and P2P T

54 Regulation & Competition Telegraph & Telephone originally monopolies Extremely high cost of infrastructure Profitable, predictable, slow to innovate Competition feasible with technology advances Long distance cost plummeted with optical tech Alternative local access through cable, wireless Radio spectrum: auctioned vs. unlicensed Basic connectivity vs. application provider Tussle for the revenue-generating parts

55 Standards New technologies very costly and risky Standards allow players to share risk and benefits of a new market Reduced cost of entry Interoperability and network effect Compete on innovation Completing the value chain Chips, systems, equipment vendors, service providers Example 802.11 wireless LAN products

56 Standards Bodies Internet Engineering Task Force Internet standards development Request for Comments (RFCs): International Telecommunications Union International telecom standards IEEE 802 Committee Local area and metropolitan area network standards Industry Organizations MPLS Forum, WiFi Alliance, World Wide Web Consortium

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