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Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota

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Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota"— Presentation transcript:

1 Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech
Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD Caroline Sundheimer, M.A., CFY-SLP Sunshine Speech-Language Therapy Services Phoenix, AZ ISAAC - Montréal, Québec, Canada Caroline

2 Richardson Independent School District
Acknowledgements Tina Lombardi Richardson Independent School District Dallas, TX Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

3 Hello? Hello! Is anybody there?
Problems using SGD to talk on the phone Limited telephone bandwidth decreases intelligibility (Milchard & Cullington (2004) ) Synthesized voice intelligibility worse over the telephone than sound field (Drager, Hustad, and Gable, 2004) Timing issues… Results: Hang up Rudeness Unsuccessful call Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

4 Hello? Hello! Is anybody there?
“The telephone is perhaps my greatest source of frustration.” Liz Colin Portnuff, 2007 Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

5 Attitudes Studies Japan study Content of initial message
(e.g., caller can’t speak and is using synthesized speech) Timing of message delivery (e.g., 3 sec. delay) Results: Initial explanation at start improved attitudes toward caller Presence or absence of delay - no effect Liz Nakamura, Arima, Sakamoto, & Toyota (1993) Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

6 Attitudes Studies Japan/Wisconsin study Content of initial message
(e.g., brief introduction and request for info) Results (comparing locations): More positive attitudes in Wisconsin Fewer hang-ups in Wisconsin Explanatory message decreased # hang-ups in Japan Liz Nakamura, Vanderheiden, & Smith (1993) Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

7 Strategic Competence Using a “floorholder” message
Light (1989b, 1989) Using a “floorholder” message Person using SGD starts with an explanatory message to hold the conversational floor Cues communication partner to wait Bedrosian, et al. (2003) Liz This idea of using an explanatory message at the beginning of a phone conversation is a demonstration of strategic competence, as defined by Light. Bedrosian and colleagues further describe such introductory messages as floorholder messages because they allow the speaker to gain or maintain the conversational floor. Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

8 Purpose Investigate impact of strategic message and delay times when using synthesized speech during telephone calls. Liz Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

9 Methods 100 telephone calls to businesses advertising in Yellow Pages
USD IRB# Telephone Talk: Effects of Strategic Communication Messages Using Synthesized Speech 100 telephone calls to businesses advertising in Yellow Pages Randomly selected Asked for business hours Calls made during the day, to avoid contacting minors Calls audiotaped for review & reliability Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

10 Technology Telephone: “MT4” SGD by DynaVox Systems, LLC
Uniden landline telephone - speaker mode LG cellular telephone - speaker mode “MT4” SGD by DynaVox Systems, LLC Voice: DECtalk®“Betty” Speech rate: “30” Volume: “70” Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

11 Conditions Explanation, no delay No explanation, no delay
“Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk. What are your hours? …” No explanation, no delay “What are your hours? …” Explanation, delay 3-second delay “Please wait, I’m using a computer to talk…” No explanation, delay 3-second delay “What are your hours?” Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

12 Successful call = Unsuccessful call = Dependent Variable
obtained business hours Unsuccessful call = did not obtain business hours Caroline Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

13 Results Liz Two-way contingency table analysis of frequencies.
Significant relation between condition and outcome. Follow up pair wise comparisons were done using Holm’s sequential Bonferroni method to control for Type 1 error at .05 level. Where was the difference? For the first comparison that was a significant difference(teal) , it was the presence or absence of the delay. For the second comparison (purple) it was both the explanation and the delay that were different. And for the third comparison (orange) that was significant, it was the delay.

14 Results Liz We looked at the individual contributions of the categories of unsuccessful calls. It seems the hang-up factor is most prominent here. Calls that were unsuccessful because the participant was Hostile and gave the wrong information or was simply unable to understand the speech but didn’t hang up were the least frequent.

15 Results Liz If we look at only the unsuccessful calls due to hang-ups, we would expect more immediate hang-ups in the delayed conditions, because the tendency is to hang up when we answer the phone and no one is there. That plays out in one delayed condition but not the other. There were more immediate hang-ups in the NoExp+Delay condition, which is not surprising because the participant hung up when there seemed to be no one there. But that would have been the same situation in the Exp+Delay condition, so the explanation should not have made a difference since the participant didn’t wait to hear it. So our expectation plays out in one condition, but not the other.

16 Absence of explanatory message and or delayed start hurts success rate
Discussion Absence of explanatory message and or delayed start hurts success rate Starting call immediately enhances chance of success Starting with explanatory message enhances chance of success Liz The presence or absence of that three-second delay seems to be the common factor among those conditions that were statistically significant. Although the explanation seemed to influence the outcome as well. Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

17 Clinical Implications
Teach strategic use of floorholder Timing issue difficult to control Effect of hostility and hang-ups on motivation to use telephone Liz Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

18 DECtalk® still used but not current
Limitations Different phones Different regions DECtalk® still used but not current Caroline: The use of two different phones may have confounded our results. And the new generation of synthetic voices sounds more natural, which may result in different outcomes than we found using DecTALK. Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

19 Content of floorholder…
Future Content of floorholder… Informative Instructional Personalized Stakeholder involvement Modify SGD technology? Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

20 References Bedrosian, J.L., Hoag, L.A., & McCoy, K.F. (2003). Relevance and speed of message delivery trade-offs in augmentative and alternative communication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, Drager, K.D.R., Hustad, K.C., & Gable, K.L. (2004). Telephone communication: Synthetic and dysarthric speech intelligibility and listener preferences. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20(2), Light, J. (1988). Interaction involving individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems: State of the art and future directions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 54(2), Light, J. (1989b). Toward a definition of communicative competence for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(2), Milchard, A. J., & Cullington, H. E. (2004). An investigation into the effect of limiting the frequency of bandwidth of speech on speech recognition in adult cochlear implant users. International Journal of Audiology, 43, Nakamura, K., Arima, M., Sakamoto, A., & Toyota, R. (1993). Telephoning with a voice output device: Listener reactions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, Nakamura, K., Vanderheiden, G.C., & Smith, R.O. (1993). Attitudes and impressions toward receiving phone calls made with a voice output device in the United States and Japan. Technology and Disability, 2(2), Portnuff, C. (2007). AAC: A user’s perspective. Webcast. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from Poster #12 ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

21 Results Liz

22 Results Liz


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