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Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Telephone Talk: Effects of Vocabulary and Timing on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech Elizabeth K. Hanson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD Caroline Sundheimer, M.A., CFY-SLP Sunshine Speech-Language Therapy Services Phoenix, AZ ISAAC - Montréal, Québec, Canada

2 Acknowledgements Tina Lombardi Richardson Independent School District Dallas, TX Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

3 Hello? Hello! Is anybody there? Problems using SGD to talk on the phone Limited telephone bandwidth decreases intelligibility (Milchard & Cullington (2004) ) Synthesized voice intelligibility worse over the telephone than sound field (Drager, Hustad, and Gable, 2004) Timing issues… Results: Hang up Rudeness Unsuccessful call Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

4 Hello? Hello! Is anybody there? The telephone is perhaps my greatest source of frustration. Colin Portnuff, 2007 Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

5 Attitudes Studies Japan study Content of initial message (e.g., caller cant speak and is using synthesized speech) Timing of message delivery (e.g., 3 sec. delay) Results: Initial explanation at start improved attitudes toward caller Presence or absence of delay - no effect Nakamura, Arima, Sakamoto, & Toyota (1993) Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

6 Attitudes Studies Japan/Wisconsin study Content of initial message (e.g., brief introduction and request for info) Results (comparing locations): More positive attitudes in Wisconsin Fewer hang-ups in Wisconsin Explanatory message decreased # hang- ups in Japan Nakamura, Vanderheiden, & Smith (1993) Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

7 Strategic Competence Using a floorholder message Person using SGD starts with an explanatory message to hold the conversational floor Cues communication partner to wait Bedrosian, et al. (2003) Light (1989b, 1989) Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

8 Purpose Investigate impact of strategic message and delay times when using synthesized speech during telephone calls. Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

9 Methods 100 telephone calls to businesses advertising in Yellow Pages Randomly selected Asked for business hours Calls made during the day, to avoid contacting minors Calls audiotaped for review & reliability USD IRB# Telephone Talk: Effects of Strategic Communication Messages Using Synthesized Speech Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

10 Technology Telephone: Uniden landline telephone - speaker mode LG cellular telephone - speaker mode MT4 SGD by DynaVox Systems, LLC Voice: DECtalk®Betty Speech rate: 30 Volume: 70 Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

11 Conditions Explanation, no delay Please wait, Im using a computer to talk. What are your hours? … No explanation, no delay What are your hours? … Explanation, delay 3-second delay Please wait, Im using a computer to talk… No explanation, delay 3-second delay What are your hours? Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

12 Dependent Variable Successful call = obtained business hours Unsuccessful call = did not obtain business hours Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

13 Results

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16 Discussion Absence of explanatory message and or delayed start hurts success rate Starting call immediately enhances chance of success Starting with explanatory message enhances chance of success Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

17 Clinical Implications Teach strategic use of floorholder Timing issue difficult to control Effect of hostility and hang-ups on motivation to use telephone Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

18 Limitations Different phones Different regions DECtalk® still used but not current Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m.

19 Content of floorholder… Informative Instructional Personalized Stakeholder involvement Modify SGD technology? Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m. Future

20 Bedrosian, J.L., Hoag, L.A., & McCoy, K.F. (2003). Relevance and speed of message delivery trade-offs in augmentative and alternative communication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, Drager, K.D.R., Hustad, K.C., & Gable, K.L. (2004). Telephone communication: Synthetic and dysarthric speech intelligibility and listener preferences. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20(2), Light, J. (1988). Interaction involving individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems: State of the art and future directions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 54(2), Light, J. (1989b). Toward a definition of communicative competence for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(2), Milchard, A. J., & Cullington, H. E. (2004). An investigation into the effect of limiting the frequency of bandwidth of speech on speech recognition in adult cochlear implant users. International Journal of Audiology, 43, Nakamura, K., Arima, M., Sakamoto, A., & Toyota, R. (1993). Telephoning with a voice output device: Listener reactions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, Nakamura, K., Vanderheiden, G.C., & Smith, R.O. (1993). Attitudes and impressions toward receiving phone calls made with a voice output device in the United States and Japan. Technology and Disability, 2(2), Portnuff, C. (2007). AAC: A users perspective. Webcast. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from rerc.com/pages/news/Portnuff_webcast.htmhttp://www.aac- rerc.com/ Poster #12ISAAC * 2008 * Montréal 07 Aug 2008, 10:10-11:00 a.m. References

21 Results

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