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Oklahoma Christian University San Antonio College Life of Christ: Matthew 1 Feb 2010 Bill Brewer.

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1 Oklahoma Christian University San Antonio College Life of Christ: Matthew 1 Feb 2010 Bill Brewer

2 This Week - Bill Brewer 2 1 Feb 2010 DateTopicAssignments Due 11-Jan-10Introduction 18-Jan-10Lineage, Birth of Jesussyllabus 25-Jan-10Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%)3, 4, 11, 14:1-12 8-Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living5; 6; 19:1-12 15-Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living7; paper 22-Feb-10Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom10, 23 1-Mar-10Parables of the Kingdom13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%)8, 9, 14 15-Mar-10Spring Break 22-Mar-10Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom12, 16 29-Mar-10The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon20-25 12-Apr-10The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion26-27 19-Apr-10The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%)28 26-Apr-10Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10FINAL EXAM (20%)

3 Objectives for Next Week 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Pharisees Sadducees Son of God Kingdom of Heaven Kingdom of God 2.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 3? 3.Explain the significance of the four baptisms in chapter 3. 4.Explain John the Baptists view of history. 5.Describe the four apologies Matthew appear to make in chapters 1-3. 6.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 4? 7.What is the kingdom of heaven? 8.What does the account of Jesus calling His disciples do? 9.What does the account of Jesus ministry in Galilee do? 10.What evaluations did Jesus make in chapter 11, beginning with His answer to Johns question about whether Jesus was the Messiah? 11.What passage is sometimes called the Johanine thunderbolt and why? - Bill Brewer 3 1 Feb 2010

4 Questions 1.Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about the Pharisees? A.They believed in angels and resurrection B.The synagogue was the center of their power C.They were the only group to survive the Roman-Jewish War D.They are among the groups identified by Flavius Josephus E.Matthew is careful to distinguish them from the Sadducees - Bill Brewer 4 1 Feb 2010

5 Questions 2.Which of the following statements IS TRUE about the Sadducees? A.They were less political than the Pharisees B.They were narrowly religious and inclined to Hellenism C.Matthew is careful to distinguish them from the Herodians D.They were one of the few groups to survive the Roman-Jewish War E.They likely trace back to Zadok, a leader in the Maccabean Revolt - Bill Brewer 5 1 Feb 2010

6 Questions 3.A claim to the title son of God... A.Was strictly blasphemous during OT times B.Necessarily entailed a claim to divinity in NT times C.Was separate from the notion of the Davidic Messiah D.Distinguished Israelite kingship from other Ancient Near Eastern nations E.All of the above F.None of the above - Bill Brewer 6 1 Feb 2010

7 Questions 4.In the Gospel of Matthew, the kingdom of God refers to... A.A way of ruling B.A source of rule C.The people being ruled D.The territory being ruled E.Both A and B F.Both D and E - Bill Brewer 7 1 Feb 2010

8 Questions 5.In the Gospel of Matthew, the kingdom of heaven is... A.Identical to the church B.A euphemism for kingdom of God C.Gods earthly rule separate from His universal rule D.Both A and B E.Both A and C F.Both B and C 6.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 3? It is the place where the Jews expect God to begin the restoration of His people - Bill Brewer 8 1 Feb 2010

9 Questions 7.Explain the significance of the four baptisms in chapter 3. Johns baptism is to prepare for Gods restoration Jesus baptism is His participation in the life of Israel The baptism of fire is the coming of Gods wrath Based on context, the baptism of the Spirit (wind) could form a hendiadys with fire to mean baptism of fiery wind But see Marks account The bigger issue is whether we let each gospel have its own theology without forcing a premature harmonization - Bill Brewer 9 1 Feb 2010

10 The Five Baptisms of the New Testament Matthew records all five? Johns baptism - Mt. 3:11 Holy Spirit baptism? Mt. 3:11 (see Mk 1:8) Baptism of fire Mt - 3:11-12 Baptism of Jesus (His personal baptism) - Mt 3:13-17 Christian baptism - Mt 28:18-20 What about baptism of the dead? See 1 Cor 15:29 1 Feb 2010 10 - Bill Brewer

11 Questions 8.Explain John the Baptists view of history. Johns view of history was apocalyptic in looking for God to intervene in history to change its course and fulfill the promises to Abraham and David - Bill Brewer 11 1 Feb 2010

12 Questions 9.Describe four apologies Matthew may be making in chapters 1-3. Accusation: Jesus was illegitimate Apology: the virgin birth Accusation: Jesus was a magician Apology: the flight to Egypt Accusation: Jesus was for Jews only Apology: the visit of the Magi Accusation: Jesus was born in Nazareth, not Bethlehem Apology: slaughter of the innocents and the move to Nazareth 10.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 4? Jesus reenacts Israels sojourn in the wilderness and remains faithful 11.What is the kingdom of heaven? A circumlocution for kingdom of God. - Bill Brewer 12 1 Feb 2010

13 Questions 12.What does the account of Jesus calling His disciples do in Matthews story of Jesus? Provides an audience of disciples for the Sermon on the Mount 13.What does the account of Jesus ministry in Galilee do? Shows the significance of the Gentiles. 14.What evaluations did Jesus make in chapter 11, beginning with His answer to Johns question about whether Jesus was the Messiah? Jesus evaluates (1) Himself, (2) John, (3) this generation, (4) the unbelieving cities, and (5) Gods wisdom in the way things are. 15.What passage is sometimes called the Johanine thunderbolt and why? Matt 11:24-30. It is reminiscent of Johns gospel; e.g., the high priestly prayer in John 17. - Bill Brewer 13 1 Feb 2010

14 Matthew 3:1-2 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, - Bill Brewer 14 1 Feb 2010 GALILEE SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Jerusalem Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Nazareth Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Salim According to the Gospel of John, all this took place in Bethany, aka Bethabara in some manuscripts This all happened at *Bethany on the other side of the Jordan, where John was baptizing– John 1:28 Betharbara aka Bethany Aenon

15 - Bill Brewer 15 1 Feb 2010 BiblePlaces.com. (2009; 2009). BiblePlaces.com Image Library. Logos Research System, Inc.; Bellingham, WA. Jordan River north of the Sea of Galilee

16 - Bill Brewer 16 1 Feb 2010 Isachar, H. (1997; 2009). Images of the Holy Land. Logos Research Systems, Inc.; Bellingham, WA.

17 - Bill Brewer 17 1 Feb 2010 Isachar, H. (1997; 2009). Images of the Holy Land. Logos Research Systems, Inc.; Bellingham, WA.

18 - Bill Brewer 18 1 Feb 2010 Isachar, H. (1997; 2009). Images of the Holy Land. Logos Research Systems, Inc.; Bellingham, WA.

19 - Bill Brewer 19 1 Feb 2010 BiblePlaces.com. (2009; 2009). BiblePlaces.com Image Library. Logos Research System, Inc.; Bellingham, WA. Jordan River by Bethany

20 Matthew 3:1-2 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, - Bill Brewer 20 1 Feb 2010 GALILEE SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Jerusalem Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Nazareth Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Betharbara aka Bethany Aenon Salim V1: In the wilderness reflects OT wilderness motif, e.g., Isa 40:3, a voice is calling, Clear the way for the Lord in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God.

21 Matthew 3:1-2 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, - Bill Brewer 21 1 Feb 2010 For Jews of the time, the wilderness had a powerful mystique as a place of... Evil Revolt Failure Shame Rejection Deception It also was understood as a place of... RomanceRefugeGrace RestorationRevelation Jesus made it a place of victory See article by Brewer

22 Matthew 3:1-2 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2 Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. - Bill Brewer 22 1 Feb 2010 GALILEE SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Jerusalem Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Nazareth Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Betharbara aka Bethany Aenon Salim Kingdom of heaven is a circumlocution for kingdom of God But kingdom of God does occur in four places: 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43

23 Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven Matthew uses kingdom of God in... 12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you 19:24... it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God 21:31... tax collectors and prostitutes will get into the kingdom of God before you 21:43 Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it Some people make a distinction between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven; e.g., the latter being Gods earthly rule and the former being His universal rule An alternative is to see kingdom of heaven as a Matthean circumlocution (or periphrasis) to avoid use of the word God Instances where Matthew uses kingdom of God would then be seen as reflecting Jesus use of the phrase - Bill Brewer 23 1 Feb 2010

24 Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven The basic meaning of the underlying Greek ( basileia) and Hebrew ( malkūt) is the idea of reign or rule, whereas the sense of the English word kingdom has shifted (in the last 300-400 years) to focus on the objects of rule (i.e., territory and people) rather than the act of ruling But in the 1700s, the words kingdom and tyranny had exactly the same semantic role they were just being different ways of ruling The difference between object of rule and act of ruling can be important When 1 Kgs 2:12 says, Solomons kingdom was firmly established, it means his rule was unchallenged In Lk 19:12, the nobleman who went to a distant country to receive a kingdom for himself and then return actually went to a higher authority to receive his appointment to rule just as Herod the Great did in going to Rome to obtain his rule over the Jews When Jesus says in John 18:36, my kingdom is not of this world, He means His kingship is not derived from any earthly authority, not that His rule is otherworldly or limited to personal or collective subjectivities - Bill Brewer 24 1 Feb 2010

25 Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven How does the preceding point (kingly rule vice territory and people) affect understanding of... Mt 3:2 Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand Mt 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven Mt 5:10 Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven Mt 5:20 For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven Mt 6:10 Your kingdom come. Your will be done, On earth as it is in heaven Mt 6:33 But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things will be added to you Mt 7:21 Not everyone who says to Me, Lord, Lord, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter Mt 18:3... Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven - Bill Brewer 25 1 Feb 2010

26 Matthew 3:1-2 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist *came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2 Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. V2: For some, at hand means is present - Bill Brewer 26 1 Feb 2010

27 The Kingdom is at Hand: Jewish Expectations in NT Times Coming of Elijah: Mal 4:5-6; Mt 11:13-14; 17:10 Return to the wilderness: Hos 2:14ff; Isa 40:1-5; Mt 3:1-3; Eze 47:1-12; Joel 3:18 Coming of the Messiah: Isa 61:1-4; Dan 7:13-14; Isa 9:6-7; Lk 1:31-33; Mal 3:1-4; Jer 23:5; Mk 11:15-17 Covenant renewal: Jer 31:31-34; Heb 8:8ff Reign of God: Ezek 20:33-38; Mic 4:1-7; Mk 1:15 Reign of the saints: Dan 7:23-27; Rev 5:9-10 Exaltation of Jerusalem: Jer 3:17; Lk 19:41, 44; Gal 4:25-26; Heb 12:22-23; Zech 14:1 - Bill Brewer 27 1 Feb 2010

28 The Kingdom is at Hand: Jewish Expectations in NT Times Pilgrimage of the nations: Isa 2:2-4;56:6-8; Mk 11:17 Jubilee reorganization of the social order: Lev 25:10; Lk 2:1-2; Isa 11:1-9; Mk 10:42-45; Mt 19:28-30 Re-gathering of the scattered people of God: Isa 11:11-12; Isa 43:1-8; Acts 2:5 Healing for the sick people of God: Isa 35:1-10; Isa 30:26; Isa 33:24; Lk 11:20; 7:20-22 Overthrow of evil in the heavenly realm: Isa 14:12-15; Lk 10:17-18; Rev 12:7-10 Crisis for the nations: Joel 3:1-17; Ps 2:1-2; Acts 4:25-27 - Bill Brewer 28 1 Feb 2010

29 The Kingdom is at Hand: Jewish Expectations in NT Times Crisis for Israel: Dan 12:1-10; Mt 12:41-42; Acts 2:40 Outpouring of the Spirit: Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-36 A divine banquet: Isa 25:6-8; Mt 26:29 Fulfillment of Gods promises to Abraham and David: Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:14-18 Washing away of Israels sin: Isa 1:16; 4:2-6; 52:13-15; Jer 4:14; Eze 36:24-27; 36:33; Zech 13:1; John 3:5; Acts 22:16; Roms 6:3-5; 1 Cor 10:1-2; 12:13; Gal 3:27; Eph 5:26; Col 2:11-12; 1 Pet 3:21 - Bill Brewer 29 1 Feb 2010

30 Recommendation on a book… The Institution of the Twelve The Sick Members of the People of God The Prayer for Gathering in the Our Father The Pilgrimage of the Nations The Crisis of Israel The Renunciation of Violence The City on the Hill The Church as the People of God The Presence of the Spirit The New Family The End of the Fathers The Church as Contrast-Society The Sign for the Nations The People from the Peoples The Social Dimension of Christian Faith - Bill Brewer 30 1 Feb 2010

31 The Kingdom is at Hand: Jewish Expectations in NT Times The Pilgrimage of the Nations The Crisis of Israel The Renunciation of Violence The New Family The End of the Fathers The Institution of the Twelve The Sign for the Nations The Prayer for Gathering in the Our Father The City on the Hill The Church as the People of God The Presence of the Spirit The People from the Peoples The Church as Contrast-Society - Bill Brewer 31 1 Feb 2010

32 Matthew 3:3-6 3 For this is the one referred to by Isaiah the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make His paths straight! 4 Now John himself had a garment of camels hair, and a leather belt about his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then Jerusalem was going out to him, and all Judea, and all the district around the Jordan; 6 and they were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, as they confessed their sins. - Bill Brewer 32 1 Feb 2010

33 Excursion to Mt 11 11:1 And it came about that when Jesus had finished giving instructions to His twelve disciples, He departed from there to teach and preach in their cities. - Bill Brewer 33 Matthew First of five major discoursesin Matthew Sermon on the Mount (5-7) Instructions to the Twelve (10) Parables of the Kingdom (13) Humility and Forgiveness Among Followers of Christ (18) The Olivet Discourse on Last Things (24-25) * And it came about that when Jesus had finished … * * * * * 1 Feb 2010 11:1ff 14:1ff

34 Major Topics – Hagner - Bill Brewer 34 1 Feb 2010

35 Detailed Outline – Hagner John the Baptist reappears in Mt 11 to introduce three collections of passages, all dealing with negative responses to Jesus There is no indication here (contra Dispensationalism) of Jesus rejection being a surprising development or causing a radical shift in Gods program - Bill Brewer 35 1 Feb 2010

36 Herods Fortress of Macherus Mt 11:2 Now when John in prison heard of the works of Christ, he sent word by his disciples John was being held prisoner in Herods fortress of Machaerus, east of the Dead Sea - Bill Brewer 36 1 Feb 2010 BiblePlaces.com. (2009; 2009). BiblePlaces.com Image Library. Logos Research System, Inc.; Bellingham, WA.

37 Matthew 11:2-6 2 Now when John in prison heard of the works of Christ, he sent word by his disciples, 3 and said to Him, Are You the Expected One, or shall we look for someone else? - Bill Brewer 37 Vv2-3: Johns expectations of the imminent appearance of Gods reign were not being realized so he had questions about the identify of Jesus as the Messiah V3: Expected One was a way of referring to the Messiah 1 Feb 2010

38 Matthew 11:2-6 4 And Jesus answered and said to them, Go and report to John what you hear and see: 5 the blind receive sight and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them. 6 And blessed is he who keeps from stumbling over Me. - Bill Brewer 38 Vv4ff: Jesus replied by suggesting a positive comparison of the events taking place through His ministry to popular messianic expectations But v6 telegraphs the prospect of more wide-ranging disappointments with His messiahship 1 Feb 2010

39 More Excursion: Marks of the Messiah Announced by a Forerunner Mal 4:5-6 See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the LORD comes. 6 He will turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers; or else I will come and strike the land with a curse. Mt 11:13-14 For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. 14 And if you are willing to accept it, he is the Elijah who was to come. Reader of minds: Isa 11:3 and he will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he hears with his ears Mt 9:4 Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said, Why do you entertain evil thoughts in your hearts? - Bill Brewer 39 1 Feb 2010

40 Marks of the Messiah Cleanse the Temple Mal 3:1-4 See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come, …. 3 He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; he will purify the Levites…. Then 4 … the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to the LORD…as in former years. Mt 21:12ff Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves. 1 Feb 2010 40 - Bill Brewer

41 Marks of the Messiah Restore the Law: John 4:25 The woman said, I know that Messiah (called Christ) is coming. When he comes, he will explain everything to us. Dt 18:15-18 The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. …. 18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. Mt 5:1-2ff Now when he saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2 and he began to teach them, saying: 1 Feb 2010 41 - Bill Brewer

42 Marks of the Messiah Defeat Israels enemies Lk 1:67-71 [Johns] father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied: 68 Praise be to the Lord, the God of Israel, because he has come and has redeemed his people. 69 He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David 70 (as he said through his holy prophets of long ago), 71 salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us Mt 12:15-21 …. Many followed him, and he healed all their sick, 16 warning them not to tell who he was. 17 This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah: 18 Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations. 19 He will not quarrel or cry out; no one will hear his voice in the streets. 20 A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out, till he leads justice to victory. 21 In his name the nations will put their hope. 1 Feb 2010 42 - Bill Brewer

43 But what happens when experience contradicts our presuppositions? Cleanse the temple? Restore the law? Defeat Israels enemies? 1 Feb 2010 43 - Bill Brewer

44 What happens when other experiences contradict belief? Belief Parents love their children Experience Abuse 1 Feb 2010 44 - Bill Brewer

45 My understanding of parenthood has changed Those folks were not my parents What happens when other experiences contradict belief? I was not abused 1 Feb 2010 45 - Bill Brewer

46 So what happened when Christian experience contradicted beliefs about the Messiah? Cleanse the temple? Restore the law? Defeat Israels enemies? 1 Feb 2010 46 - Bill Brewer

47 So what happened when Christian experience contradicted beliefs about the Messiah? My understanding of the Messiah has changed Jesus was not the Christ Jesus was not crucified 1 Feb 2010 47 - Bill Brewer

48 Use of the OT in the NT NT writers do not interpret the OT They reinterpret it! 1 Feb 2010 48 - Bill Brewer Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669). Saint Matthew Inspired by an Angel, 1661. Louvre, Paris, France. Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

49 Whats the difference? NT writers do not interpret the OT They reinterpret it! Jesus is the Christ Is it a logical deduction from an analysis of the OT? Jesus is the Christ Or is it a claim being imposed on the OT? 1 Feb 2010 49 - Bill Brewer

50 Return to Matthew 11:7-10 7 And as these were going away, Jesus began to speak to the multitudes about John, What did you go out into the wilderness to look at? A reed shaken by the wind? 8 But what did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothing? Behold, those who wear soft clothing are in kings palaces. 9 But why did you go out? To see a prophet? Yes, I say to you, and one who is more than a prophet. 10 This is the one about whom it is written, Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, Who will prepare Your way before You. V7 begins Jesus evaluation of John, starting with three questions that elicit agreement from listeners based on their past conduct The questions follow a pattern of two wrong answers followed by a right one First two answers are strikingly at odds with the John The last answer is not only correct; it is an understatement V10: the quote is from Mal 3:1 - Bill Brewer 50 1 Feb 2010

51 Matthew 11:11-15 11 Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffers violence, and violent men take it by force. 13 For all the prophets and the Law prophesied until John. 14 And if you care to accept it, he himself is Elijah, who was to come. 15 He who has ears to hear, let him hear. - Bill Brewer 51 John is a pivotal figure belonging both to the past era and the one coming into being The new era surpasses the old such that the least in the new era is greater than the greatest (John) in the old V12 is notoriously difficult, with four combinations of positive and negative meanings being possible Context argues it means the kingdom faces persecution and opposition V13: the prophets and the Law are cast as prophets pointing to John V14: John is the Elijah of Mal 4:5 V15: Not everyone will accept the preceding 1 Feb 2010

52 Matthew 11:16-19 16 But to what shall I compare this generation? It is like children sitting in the market places, who call out to the other children, 17 and say, We played the flute for you, and you did not dance; we sang a dirge, and you did not mourn. 18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He has a demon! 19 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax-gatherers and sinners! Yet wisdom is vindicated by her deeds. - Bill Brewer 52 V16ff illustrate those who dont have ears to hear by comparing them to alienated children For them, John was too holy Jesus was not holy enough 1 Feb 2010

53 Matthew 11:20-23 20 Then He began to reproach the cities in which most of His miracles were done, because they did not repent. 21 Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles had occurred in Tyre and Sidon which occurred in you, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 22 Nevertheless I say to you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment, than for you. - Bill Brewer 53 The judgment oracles of vv20-24 flow from the attitudes described in vv16-19 V21: Tyre and Sidon are ancient cities about which Isaiah prophesied GALILEE SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Jerusalem Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Nazareth Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Betharbara aka Bethany Aenon Salim Chorazin Capernaum Bethsaida 1 Feb 2010

54 Matthew 11:23-24 23 And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you? You shall descend to Hades; for if the miracles had occurred in Sodom which occurred in you, it would have remained to this day. 24 Nevertheless I say to you that it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for you. - Bill Brewer 54 The sum of Vv20-24 is that the greater the grace, the greater the accountability 1 Feb 2010

55 Matthew 11:24-30 25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I praise Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that Thou didst hide these things from the wise and intelligent and didst reveal them to babes. 26 Yes, Father, for thus it was well-pleasing in Thy sight. 27 All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son, except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him. 28 Come to Me, all who are weary and heavy- laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take My yoke upon you, and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart; and you shall find rest for your souls. 30 For My yoke is easy, and My load is light. - Bill Brewer 55 This passage is sometimes referred to as the Johanine thunderbolt because of the sudden, unexpected insertion of a way of speaking that is so characteristic of Johns gospel It functions to place the preceding descriptions of rejection, not just within Gods sovereignty, but also within His pleasure V27: this sovereignty is handed over to the Son Vv28-30 balance the determinacy of the preceding verses with an implied affirmation of human free will 1 Feb 2010

56 Excursion to Matthew 14:1-12 13:53 And it came about that when Jesus had finished these parables, He departed from there.... [Jesus returns to his home town] 58 And He did not do many miracles there because of their unbelief - Bill Brewer 56 Matthew First of five major discoursesin Matthew Sermon on the Mount (5-7) Instructions to the Twelve (10) Parables of the Kingdom (13) Humility and Forgiveness Among Followers of Christ (18) The Olivet Discourse on Last Things (24-25) * And it came about that when Jesus had finished … * * * * * 1 Feb 2010 11:1ff 14:1ff

57 Excursion to Matthew 14:1-12 14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard the news about Jesus, 2 and said to his servants, This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead; and that is why miraculous powers are at work in him. 3 For when Herod had John arrested, he bound him, and put him in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip. 4 For John had been saying to him, It is not lawful for you to have her. 5 And although he wanted to put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they regarded him as a prophet. - Bill Brewer 57 GALILEE SYRIA DECAPOLIS BATANEA SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA PEREA Dead Sea Sea of Galilee Capernaum Jerusalem 1 Feb 2010

58 The HERODS Antipater Phasaelus (Phasael): Gov. of Judea 43-40 BC Antipater (Antipas) Doris Mariamne I MalthaceCleopatra of Jerusalem Mariamne II AntipaterAlexanderAristobulus H. Philip II: Tetrarch of Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, 4 BC – AD 33/34 H. Agrippa I: ruled Palestine AD 41-44 Bernice H. of Chalcis Herodias H. Agrippa II: ruled parts of Palestine after AD 50 Salome marriage Politician supported by Mark Antony, Julius Caesar, Augustus; great builder Mt 2 Mt 2:22 Samaritan Banished to Gaul Mk 8:15; Lk 3:19ff; 13:31ff; Lk 23:7ff; Acts 4:27 Accused by Agrippa I of treason before Caligula; banished to Spain Lk 3:1 Mk 6:14ff; Lk 3:19ff Acts 12:1ff Drusilla Sided with the Romans in the Jewish War; had suspicious relationship with Bernice Acts 25-26 Wife of Felix Had a relationship with the Emperor Titus Salome Joseph Pheroras AntipaterBerenice I Mariamne Hasmonean Mariamne Aristobulus Idumaeans who claimed noble ancestry in the Return against accusations of lineage to Philistine slaves; commander under Alexander Jannaeus Cypros Nabatean Murdered by Herod Hyrcanus II mother relative brother Son husband 1 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer 58

59 Excursion to Matthew 14:1-12 14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard the news about Jesus, 2 and said to his servants, This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead; and that is why miraculous powers are at work in him. 3 For when Herod had John arrested, he bound him, and put him in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip. 4 For John had been saying to him, It is not lawful for you to have her. 5 And although he wanted to put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they regarded him as a prophet. Matthew follows his account of Jesus rejection in Nazareth with a flashback of Johns demise at the hand of Herod Antipas Part of the point may be that opposition to Jesus has reached a new level The immediate cause of Johns death was his opposition to an unlawful marriage (Herodias was Herods niece and wife of his half-brother) Unlawful marriage appears to be a concern for Matthew (cf. 5:32; 9:19) - Bill Brewer 59 1 Feb 2010

60 Matthew 14:6-9 6 But when Herods birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced before them and pleased Herod. 7 Thereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever she asked. 8 And having been prompted by her mother, she *said, Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptist. 9 And although he was grieved, the king commanded it to be given because of his oaths, and because of his dinner guests. - Bill Brewer 60 Johns death has parallels with and foreshadows Jesus death 11 And He answered and said, Elijah is coming and will restore all things; 12 but I say to you, that Elijah already came, and they did not recognize him, but did to him whatever they wished. So also the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands. 13 Then the disciples understood that He had spoken to them about John the Baptist– Mt 17:11-13 1 Feb 2010

61 Matthew 14:10-12 10 And he sent and had John beheaded in the prison. 11 And his head was brought on a platter and given to the girl; and she brought it to her mother. 12 And his disciples came and took away the body and buried it; and they went and reported to Jesus. - Bill Brewer 61 1 Feb 2010

62 Return to Matthew 3:7 7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for baptism, he said to them, You brood of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Pharisees are variously understood by scholars as a religious sect, religious leaders, political leaders, lay leaders, scholars, middle-class artisans, or combination thereof Key sources are the NT, Josephus, and rabbinic literature Uncritical acceptance of sources is a mistake Even NT has an agenda; i.e., each gospel portrays Pharisees and Sadducees a bit differently Center of power was the synagogue - Bill Brewer 62 1 Feb 2010

63 Pharisees - Bill Brewer 63 1 Feb 2010 ORIGINSHISTORICAL BACKGROUND THEOLOGYNT CONTACTDESTINY Arose as a religious and political party during the second- temple period (516 BC-AD 70) briefly after the Maccabean Revolt about 165-160 BC. They probably came from the Hassidim ("pious ones"). "Pharisee" may be from Hebrew stem meaning "to be separated"; i.e., separated from pagan practices and forces Arising from the mass of people, the Pharisees waged a vigorous struggle to remove Jewish religion from the control of the priests. They removed several ceremonies from the temple and placed them in the Jewish home. While the Sadducees occupied themselves with the temple, the Pharisees proclaimed to the people the law of God. They were more liberal and flexible in interpreting the Law than were the Sadducees God is omnipotent, all-wise, all- knowing, and all-present; He created man with two impulses, one to do evil and the other good. God urges him to do good, but man has the free will. The Torah consists of Written Law and Oral Law, both revealed by God to Moses; the Torah was to be interpreted with God-given reason, in view of the ideas of the knowledge of each age; not sacrifice but study of Torah was true worship; God is in total control, helping people to do good, and permitting them to do evil; believed in life after death, resurrection, and angels and other spirits NT references are likely against insincere Pharisees, who were even condemned by their fellows (cf. Sotah 111:4 and 22b). These Pharisees are called hypocrites and vipers (Mt. 23:5, 23ff; Lk 18:1ff.); Paul was proud of his heritage as a Pharisee (Acts 22). Pharisaic beliefs were in keeping with much of early Christian theology Survived into the present via Rabbinic Judaism H.W. House, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament, Academie Books, 1981

64 Matthew 3:7 7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for baptism, he said to them, You brood of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Sadducees most likely traced back to the high priest Zakok in the time of David Their center of power was the Temple They did not believe in final judgment, afterlife, resurrection (22:23), or fate Sadducees rejected anything not found in the Law of Moses Matthew pays little attention to the distinctions between the Pharisees and Sadducees - Bill Brewer 64 1 Feb 2010

65 Sadducees - Bill Brewer 65 1 Feb 2010 ORIGINSHISTORICAL BACKGROUND THEOLOGYNT CONTACTDESTINY Name may be from Zadok, high priest in the days of David (2 Sam 8:17; 15:24) and Solomon (1 Ki 1:34-35; 1 Chron 12:28). Eze 40:46; 43:19; 44:10-15 show Zadok family worthy to control the temple. Sadducees may then be Zadokite partisans, a party formed about 200 BC as the party of the high priests and aristocratic families; not all priests were Sadducees Sadducees controlled the temple and the affairs of the country as representatives of the priestly aristocracy, supporting the Hasmonean rulers. Even under Roman rule, through the Sanhedrin, in which many were members, they exercised considerable political control over the people of Palestine; they were more apt to adopt Hellenism and were favored by the Romans Sadducees had a more anthropomorphic view of God than the Pharisees; as the conservative element in Jewish religion, they rejected the Oral Law, accepting only the Written Law of Moses; they denied the resurrection of the body and the existence of angels; emphasized the sacrificial cult of the temple; considered God not interested in human affairs, and so rejected divine providence Sadducees were highly political and considerably opposed to Christian doctrine (Mt 22:23; Mk 12:18; Acts 4:5; 23:8); thus the church had most to fear from the Sadducees Vanished in the Roman Jewish War of AD 66- 70 H.W. House, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament, Academie Books, 1981

66 Origins and Destinies of the Pharisees and Sadducees - Bill Brewer 66 1 Feb 2010 Essenes Roman-Jewish War (66-70 Samaritans Rabbinic Judaism 432 BC – 3 rd Return, Nehemiah 538 BC – 1 st Return, Zerubbabel 458 BC – 2 nd Return, Ezra 586 BC - Fall of Jerusalem Chasidim The Pious Pharisees Haberim (associates) SadduceesZadikim The Righteous Israelite Cult Babylonian Captivity Jewish Religion (Ezra) Others Karaites

67 The Roman-Jewish War of AD 66-70 67 - Bill Brewer who warned you to flee from the wrath to come Mt 3:7 1 Feb 2010

68 Excursion: Flavius Josephus Flavius Josephus, 1 st century Jewish historian, politician, and soldier, was a Jewish general in Roman-Jewish War of AD 66-70, who was captured and subsequently became a collaborator with the Romans Vespasian and Titus against the Jewish factions that brought the Jewish nation to ruin After the War, he went on to become a powerful apologist for the Jewish people and religion His chief works, The Jewish War and Antiquities of the Jews, are among the most important source documents for reconstructing Jewish history between the testaments and into the first century Secular scholars tend to be highly critical of Josephus, seeing him as largely self-serving Many Christians tend to read Josephus uncritically Many scholars consider Josephus reference to Christ as more or less a Christian redaction of his work Bust allegedly of Joseph ben Mattathias, aka Flavius Josephus (AD 37 – c 100) - Bill Brewer 68 1 Feb 2010

69 Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) Circle is Qumran Cave 4, where the most of the DSS were found Jesus and John have similarities to the Qumran community but no proven connection - Bill Brewer 69 1 Feb 2010 GALILEE SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Jerusalem Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Nazareth Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Betharbara Qumran Aenon Salim

70 Matthew 3:8-10 8 Therefore bring forth fruit in keeping with repentance; 9 and do not suppose that you can say to yourselves, We have Abraham for our father; for I say to you, that God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham. 10 And the axe is already laid at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. V8: Repentance is the message of the prophets, who prepared God people for both redemption and judgment V9 answers what would have been a common objection to Johns baptism Trust in Abraham as father was likely a point of controversy between Matthews community and its opponents Aramaic words for stones and children are similar V10: another allusion to eschatological judgment Judgment based on good works is characteristic of Matthew - Bill Brewer 70 1 Feb 2010

71 Matthew 3:11 11 As for me, I baptize you with water for repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, and I am not fit to remove His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. - Bill Brewer 71 V11: Baptism had eschatological significance, with roots in purification rituals; e.g., the Qumran community It also had a role in conversion of Gentiles to Judaism John began a movement that became a powerful competitor of the ancient church (See article by Tony Ash) Every gospel is careful to subordinate John to Jesus (Mk 1:7-8; Lk 3:16; John 1:26-34) For repentance emphasizes preparatory nature of Johns baptism Theologically, baptism has creative and redemptive symbolism connoting the idea of order out of chaos. (See chart on Waters of Chaos Theme) 1 Feb 2010

72 "Waters of Chaos" Theme Rev 21:1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea (NASB) Primordial Chaos Gen 1:1-2 First AdamSpirit, Waters of ChaosRest, Covenant, Creation Fallen World Gen 7:11 Noah ("Rest")Wind, Dove, FloodRest, Covenant, Entry into a "new earth" Captivity in Egypt Isa 43:2ff; 43:15ff MosesWind, Red SeaRest, Covenant, Entry into Canaan Captivity in Babylon Isa 52:10-15; Eze 36:24ff Zerubbabel "the Servant" Spirit, SprinklingRest, Covenant, Return to Canaan Sin Rom 6:4 JesusSpirit, BaptismRest, Covenant, Entry into "Kingdom" Focus of Creation or Redemption "The Pioneer"Means and Materials Effect - Bill Brewer 72 1 Feb 2010

73 Matthew 3:11-14 11 As for me, I baptize you with water for repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, and I am not fit to remove His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. 12 And His winnowing fork is in His hand, and He will thoroughly clear His threshing floor; and He will gather His wheat into the barn, but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. - Bill Brewer 73 V11: baptism of Holy Spirit and fire most likely refers to only one thing (vice two); i.e., a holy wind of fire, in keeping with Johns single-minded emphasis on judgment, especially in light of v10 (ax at the root) and v12 (winnowing fork, gathering, and burning with unquenchable fire) See Isa 4:4, When the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purged the bloodshed of Jerusalem from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and [even] the spirit of burning 1 Feb 2010

74 Use of Greek kai in the NT 12345 CoordinateHendiadyticPleonasticEpexegetic (Self-Explanation) Ascensive plus many words (when one would do) in other words or even Mt 10:4Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot to the point of A + B = BA Noun A and Noun B Adjective B Noun A Mt 3:11 (?) Holy Spirit and fire or holy wind of fire Mt 5:12 Rejoice and be glad…. Mt 1:19... being a righteous man and [even] not wanting to disgrace her.... Mt 28:20... I am with you always, even to the end of the age A A = A + A - Bill Brewer 74 1 Feb 2010 A = BA + B

75 Matthew 3:15-17 13 Then Jesus *arrived from Galilee at the Jordan coming to John, to be baptized by him. 14 But John tried to prevent Him, saying, I have need to be baptized by You, and do You come to me? 15 But Jesus answering said to him, Permit it at this time; for in this way it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness.Then he *permitted Him. 16 And after being baptized, Jesus went up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming upon Him, 17 and behold, a voice out of the heavens, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased. - Bill Brewer 75 V15: Mark and Luke do not deal with the implications of repentance in Jesus baptism Johns gospel does but with different logic Repentance is implied, however, exists only if righteousness alludes to Gods moral demands An alternative is to see the righteousness of v15 in terms of Gods demands upon Himself; i.e., salvation history in which God proves Himself righteous by redeeming His people Jesus does that by reenacting the history of Israel but without sin 1 Feb 2010

76 Possible Accusations and Apologies in Mt 1-3 Accusation Jesus was illegitimate Jesus was for Jews only Jesus was from Nazareth, not Bethlehem Jesus learned magic in Egypt Jesus was simply a disciple of John Apology The virgin birth The visit of the Magi The birth narrative The flight into Egypt The baptism of Jesus - Bill Brewer 76 1 Feb 2010

77 Matthew 4:1 4:1 Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. - Bill Brewer 77 V1: The Spirit led Jesus into the wilderness just at God led Israel into the wilderness Dt 8:2, And you shall remember all the way which the Lord your God has led you in the wilderness these forty years, that He might humble you, testing you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not (NASB) 1 Feb 2010 Atlas of the Bible Lands, Scripture Press

78 James Tissot Matthew 4:2-4 2 And after He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He then became hungry. 3 And the tempter came and said to Him, If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4 But He answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God. - Bill Brewer 78 V2: Fasting follows the pattern of Moses (Dt 9:9) Also note tradition of Moses as Son of God (e.g., Ex 7:1) V3: Became hungry as Israel became hungry (Dt 8:3) V3: First of three temptations: (a) stones to bread, (b) jump from the pinnacle of the Temple, (c) worship Satan. (Lukes order differs– a, c, then b) Jesus responds with quotes from Dt 6-8, thereby sharpening parallels to Israels wilderness experience 1 Feb 2010

79 Son of God In the Ancient Near East (ANE), any prominent or talented individual could be called a god The OT reflects the custom to a remarkable degree Kings of course made the strongest claims to the title of god, with either god or son of god being a customary royal title throughout the ANE E.g., the kings of Israel were honored as sons God) at their inaugurations (cf. the royal psalms) Different cultures of course treated kingly claims to godhood with different degrees of seriousness In any case, the idea eventually took hold in the western provinces of the Roman Empire (e.g., worship of the genius of the emperor) All of this is background for Jesus claim to be the Son of God - Bill Brewer 79 1 Feb 2010 Stele of Hammurabi Hammurabi (1729-1686 BC) styled himself as the God of Kings

80 Son of God 2 Sam 7:11–16... The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. 12 When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 15 but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever. - Bill Brewer 80 1 Feb 2010 King David and Nathan the prophet

81 Psalm 89:1–29, the Lords covenant with David... 1 I will sing of the lovingkindness of the LORD forever; To all generations I will make known Your faithfulness with my mouth. 2 For I have said, Lovingkindness will be built up forever; In the heavens You will establish Your faithfulness. 3 I have made a covenant with My chosen; I have sworn to David My servant, 4 I will establish your seed forever And build up your throne to all generations.Selah. 5 The heavens will praise Your wonders, O LORD; Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones. 6 For who in the skies is comparable to the LORD? Who among the sons of the mighty is like the LORD, 7 A God greatly feared in the council of the holy ones, And awesome above all those who are around Him? 8 O LORD God of hosts, who is like You, O mighty LORD? Your faithfulness also surrounds You. 9 You rule the swelling of the sea; When its waves rise, You still them. 10 You Yourself crushed Rahab like one who is slain; You scattered Your enemies with Your mighty arm..... - Bill Brewer 81 1 Feb 2010

82 Psalm 89:1–29, the Lords covenant with David... 18 For our shield belongs to the LORD, And our king to the Holy One of Israel. 19 Once You spoke in vision to Your godly ones, And said, I have given help to one who is mighty; I have exalted one chosen from the people. 20 I have found David My servant; With My holy oil I have anointed him, 21 With whom My hand will be established; My arm also will strengthen him. 22 The enemy will not deceive him, Nor the son of wickedness afflict him. 23 But I shall crush his adversaries before him, And strike those who hate him. 24 My faithfulness and My lovingkindness will be with him, And in My name his horn will be exalted. 25 I shall also set his hand on the sea And his right hand on the rivers. 26 He will cry to Me, You are my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. 27 I also shall make him My firstborn, The highest of the kings of the earth. 28 My lovingkindness I will keep for him forever, And My covenant shall be confirmed to him. 29 So I will establish his descendants forever And his throne as the days of heaven. - Bill Brewer 82 1 Feb 2010

83 Matthew 4:5-7 5 Then the devil *took Him into the holy city; and he had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, 6 and *said to Him, If You are the Son of God throw Yourself down; for it is written, He will give His angels charge concerning You; and On their hands they will bear You up, Lest You strike Your foot against a stone. 7 Jesus said to him, On the other hand, it is written, You shall not put the Lord your God to the test. - Bill Brewer 83 In every temptation, Jesus responds as a human being living before God V6: the essence of the temptation may be an enticement to Messianic display in that a Rabbinic tradition held the Messiah would appear from the Temple roof 1 Feb 2010 James Tissot

84 Matthew 4:8-11 8 Again, the devil *took Him to a very high mountain, and *showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory; 9 and he said to Him, All these things will I give You, if You fall down and worship me. 10 Then Jesus *said to him, Begone, Satan! For it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only. 11 Then the devil *left Him; and behold, angels came and began to minister to Him. - Bill Brewer 84 V8: that no such view exists may indicate some degree of subjectivity The circumstances may be intentionally reminiscent of Moses on Mt Nebo The mountain in v8 where Jesus rejects all the kingdoms of the world may be the designated mountain of Mt 28:16ff where He lays claim to those kingdoms 1 Feb 2010 Alexandre Bida

85 Matthew 4:12-14 12 Now when He heard that John had been taken into custody, He withdrew into Galilee; 13 and leaving Nazareth, He came and settled in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali. 14 This was to fulfill what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, - Bill Brewer 85 V12: events in the life of John affect Jesus (14:13) V13: in Luke, Jesus goes to Capernaum after being rejected in Nazareth V14: this is the fifth of ten pesher (fulfillment) quotations in Matthew 1 Feb 2010 James Tissot

86 Matthew 4:15-17 - Bill Brewer 86 V15: the quote is from Isa 9:2 Way of the sea was an ancient road between Damascus and Caesarea, a branch of which ran along the western coast of the Sea of Galilee Jesus ministry begins with the Gentiles in mind V17: From that time is the first of two transition statements that divide Matthew into three sections. The second is 16:21 Repent... shows continuity with the ministry of John 1 Feb 2010 JUDEA IDUMEA DECAPOLIS PEREAPEREA Jordan River Jordan River Wilderness of Judah Bethlehem Dead Sea Sea of Galilee MEDITERRANEAN SEA Tyre Bethany Betharbara Qumran Capernaum Aenon Salim ZEBULUN NAPHTALI SAMARIA Nazareth GALILEE Jerusalem Way of the Sea 15 The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles: 16 The people who were sitting in darkness saw a great light, And to those who were sitting in the land and shadow of death, Upon them a light dawned. 17 From that time Jesus began to preach and say, Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

87 Matthew 4:18-20 18 And walking by the Sea of Galilee, He saw two brothers, Simon who was called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishermen. 19 And He *said to them, Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men. 20 And they immediately left the nets, and followed Him. - Bill Brewer 87 V18: Sea of Galilee, aka Sea of Gennesaret (Lk 5:1) and Sea of Tiberias (John 21:1) V18ff recount the first of two highly parallel callings: (1) Jesus moves, (2) observes two brothers, (3) they are fishing, (4) an invitation to discipleship is extended, (5) brothers respond, and (6) something is left behind Follow me reflects Rabbinic expectations 1 Feb 2010 Alexandre Bida

88 Matthew 4:21-22 21 And going on from there He saw two other brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and He called them. 22 And they immediately left the boat and their father, and followed Him. - Bill Brewer 88 Jesus (contra Rabbinic practice) takes the initiative in calling His disciples Four disciples are called Matthew is the only other disciple whose calling is specifically recounted (9:9) Matthew locates the calling of the disciples prior to the Sermon on the Mount to account for their presence since the Sermon is primarily for them 1 Feb 2010 Alexandre Bida

89 Matthew 4:23-25 23 And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people. 24 And the news about Him went out into all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, taken with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics, paralytics; and He healed them. 25 And great multitudes followed Him from Galilee and Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan. - Bill Brewer 89 1 Feb 2010 GALILEE SYRIA DECAPOLIS BATANEA SAMARIA JUDEA IDUMEA PEREA Dead Sea Sea of Galilee Capernaum Jerusalem

90 Matthew 4:23-25 23 And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people. 24 And the news about Him went out into all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, taken with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics, paralytics; and He healed them. 25 And great multitudes followed Him from Galilee and Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan. - Bill Brewer 90 Lists are given in each verse: Jesus activities (v23), types of healings (v24), and sources of followers (v25) 1 Feb 2010 Alexandre Bida

91 Lesson 3 Wrap Up 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Pharisees Sadducees Son of God Kingdom of Heaven (3) Kingdom of God (3) 2.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 3? 3.Explain the significance of the four baptisms in chapter 3. 4.Explain John the Baptists view of history. 5.Describe the four apologies Matthew makes in chapters 1-3. - Bill Brewer 91 1 Feb 2010

92 Lesson 3 Wrap Up (cont.) 6.In terms of story, what does the wilderness do in chapter 4? 7.What is the kingdom of heaven? 8.What does the account of Jesus calling His disciples do in Matthews story of Jesus? 9.What does the account of Jesus ministry in Galilee do? 10.What evaluations did Jesus make in chapter 11, beginning with His answer to Johns question about whether Jesus was the Messiah? 11.What passage is sometimes called the Johanine thunderbolt and why? - Bill Brewer 92 1 Feb 2010

93 Current Postings - Bill Brewer 93 1 Feb 2010

94 Next Week - Bill Brewer 94 1 Feb 2010 DateTopicAssignments Due 11-Jan-10Introduction 18-Jan-10Lineage, Birth of Jesussyllabus 25-Jan-10Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%)3, 4, 11, 14:1-12 8-Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living5; 6; 19:1-12 15-Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living7; paper 22-Feb-10Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom10, 23 1-Mar-10Parables of the Kingdom13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%)8, 9, 14 15-Mar-10Spring Break 22-Mar-10Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom12, 16 29-Mar-10The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon20-25 12-Apr-10The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion26-27 19-Apr-10The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%)28 26-Apr-10Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10FINAL EXAM (20%)

95 Lesson 4 Objectives 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Law of Moses and Christ (Mt. 5:17; Gal. 3) Antithesis Perfect Gehenna 2.What Old Testament imagery does the Sermon on the Mount evoke? 3.Describe seven ways of dealing with the Sermon on the Mount. 4.What Old Testament theme do the beatitudes reflect? 5.What are the six antitheses in the Sermon on the Mount. 6.Describe two contrasting viewpoints on Jesus teaching about marriage and divorce. 7.What is the center of the Sermon? 8.How do almsgiving, prayer, and fasting relate to the Greatest Commandment? - Bill Brewer 95 1 Feb 2010


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