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Oklahoma Christian University San Antonio College Life of Christ: Matthew 22 Mar 2010 Bill Brewer.

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1 Oklahoma Christian University San Antonio College Life of Christ: Matthew 22 Mar 2010 Bill Brewer

2 Gospel Emphases Matthew Mark Luke John Jesus as embodiment of Torah Jesus as a mystery (apocalyptic) Jesus as prophet Jesus as man from heaven (Logos, wisdom) - Bill Brewer 2 22 Mar 2010

3 Possible Context for the Gospel of Matthew Pauline faction Petrine faction The synagogue down the street Middle way between Pauline and Petrine factions - Bill Brewer 3 22 Mar 2010

4 Schedule - Bill Brewer 4 22 Mar 2010 DateTopicAssignments Due 11-Jan-10Introduction 18-Jan-10Lineage, Birth of Jesussyllabus 25-Jan-10Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%)3, 4, 11, 14: Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living5; 6; 19: Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living7; paper 22-Feb-10Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom10, 23 1-Mar-10Parables of the Kingdom13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%)8, 9, Mar-10Spring Break 22-Mar-10Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom12, Mar-10The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon Apr-10The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion Apr-10The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%)28 26-Apr-10Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10FINAL EXAM (20%)

5 Lesson 10 Objectives 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Herodians Miracle 2.Describe the incidents leading up to Jesus comment about the unpardonable sin. 3.What incident preceded Jesus redefinition of His family relationships. 4.What is the turning point for Jesus in chapter 16 and what precedes it? - Bill Brewer 5 22 Mar 2010

6 Question 1.Identify three themes in Matthew and an example of how each is highlighted with a miracle story. A.Fulfillment of prophecy Virgin conception in Mt 1 B.Faith Healing of the centurions servant in Mt 8 C.Forgiveness of sins Healing of the paralytic in Mt 9 - Bill Brewer 6 8 Mar 2010

7 Question 2.Which of the following statements IS TRUE about Matthews use of miracles? A.Matthew avoids having Jesus perform miracles at a distance B.Matthew is keen on Jesus use of special phrases and gestures in performing miracles C.Matthew has Jesus asking the Gadarene demon for his name before casting out the demon D.Matthew use of miracles accepts the ancient notion that physical objects can possess miraculous power - Bill Brewer 7 8 Mar 2010

8 Question 3.Which of the following statements IS FALSE about the Herodians? A.Matthew is careful to distinguish the Sadducees from the Herodians B.The Pharisees were hostile to both the Herodians and the Sadducees C.The Herodians and the Sadducess were theologically indistinguishable D.Both the Herodians and the Sadducess had their power in the Temple and the royal court - Bill Brewer 8 8 Mar 2010

9 Question 4.Describe the incidents leading up to Jesus comment about the unpardonable sin. A.Sabbath controversy over plucking grain B.Sabbath controversy over man with the withered hand C.Controversy over healing blind, dumb, demon-possessed man - Bill Brewer 9 8 Mar 2010

10 Question 5.What incident preceded Jesus redefinition of His family relationships? Accusation of being demon-possessed. 6.What is the turning point for Jesus in chapter 16 and what precedes it? Mt 16:21 From that time Jesus began... preceded by Peters confession of Christ - Bill Brewer 10 8 Mar 2010

11 Review on Miracles Accounts of nature and healing miracles follow similar patterns Miracles often reflect ancient notion of power residing in persons or objects May be accompanied by special words and gestures Miraculous power can sometimes be accessed through naming Miracles often represent a contest between divine and demonic powers First question is the fact of a miracle Agents of miracles may be rejected... As demonic (Mt 9:34), false (Mt 24:24), crazy, or magical (Acts 8:11; 13:6, 8) - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Freedman, D. N. (1996). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. NY: Doubleday

12 Review on Miracles The "fact" of a miraculous event invites controversy over its "meaning Often include explicit pronouncements Account likely recalled to address later- day concerns Key point is implication of power (Mt 9:6) The ultimate purpose of miracles was to effect conversion (Mt 10:7-8; 11:20-21; Rom 15:18) Miracle stories are deployed differently in each gospel In Matthew, they serve themes of faith, fulfillment, and forgiveness - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Freedman, D. N. (1996). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. NY: Doubleday

13 The Herodians Mar 2010 Israelite Cult Babylonian Captivity Jewish Religion Essenes SadduceesKaraitesZadikim The Righteous Chasidim The Pious Pharisees Haberim (associates) Roman-Jewish War (66-70 Samaritans Rabbinic Judaism (Ezra) 538 BC – 1 st Return, Zerubbabel 458 BC – 2 nd Return, Ezra 432 BC – 3 rd Return, Nehemiah 586 BC - Fall of Jerusalem Others - Bill Brewer Herodians? ? ? ?

14 Who are the Herodians? After Jesus healed the man with a withered hand... Mk 3:6 the Pharisees went out and immediately began taking counsel with the Herodians against Him, as to how they might destroy Him Mt 12:14 But the Pharisees went out, and counseled together against Him, as to how they might destroy Him. On the question of paying taxes to Caesar... Mk 12:13... they [chief priests, scribes, and elders] *sent some of the Pharisees and Herodians to Him, in order to trap Him in a statement. Mt 22:16... they [Pharisees] *sent their disciples to Him, along with the Herodians.... On the question of Jesus giving a sign from heaven... Mk 8:15 And He was giving orders to them, saying, Watch out! Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod [some mss have Herodians] Mt 16:6 And Jesus said to them, Watch out and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

15 Who are the Herodians? Not mentioned in Luke or John Jewish faction figuring in three NT stories Healing of man with withered hand (Mt 12:14; Mk 3:6 ) Lawfulness of paying taxes to Caesar (Mt 22:16; Mk 12:13) Leaven of Herod (Mt 16:6; Mk 8:15) Exact identity is unclear May be the same as Sadducees Or Sadducees may have been Jewish adherents over against Herod's partisans (Herodians aka Boethusians) In any case, they were indistinguishable theologically If separate, distinctions could have broken down with Herod's marriage into Jewish Hasmonean dynasty If so, both would have had their power in the Temple and royal court Both would have been hostile to the Pharisees Key point is hostility of Pharisees to Jesus led to alliances between Sadducess and Herodians - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

16 The Maccabees (Hasmoneans) - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Hashmon Mattathias (166 BC) Mattathias SIMON (134 BC) JUDAS (160 BC) Eleazar (163 BC) JudasJOHN HYRCANUS (104 BC) ARISTOBULUS I (103 BC) Salome Alexandra (67 BC) ALEXANDER JANNEUS (76 BC) Antigonus (103 BC) HYRCANUS Il (30 BC) Alexandra Aristobulus III (36 BC) Mariamme (29 BC) Herod Philip I Lysanias I king of Ituraea (34 BC) ARISTOBULUS II (48 BC) daughter = Antipater, son of Herod ANTIGONUS II (37 BC) Alexander (48 BC) Ptolemy Mennaeus, king of Chalcis Alexandra JONATHAN (143 BC) John (160 BC) Two sons From Paul Maier, Josephus: the Essential Writings, Kregel, 1988 All caps indicates a ruler Aristobulus Herodias Salome Herod Herod Philip II Herod Antipas marriage Intermarriage among the Hasmoneans and the Herodians 40-37; ruled with help of the Parthians Appointed high priest by his mother 76-67; preferred the Pharisees over Sadducees ; first to take title as king; imprisoned brothers; starved mother in prison ; honored as high priest and ethnarch; killed along with sons Judas and Mattathias by son-in-law; ; rededicated the Temple ; Pharisees and Sadducees arise; alienates former by supporting the latter

17 The HERODS Antipater Phasaelus (Phasael): Gov. of Judea BC Antipater (Antipas) Doris Mariamne I MalthaceCleopatra of Jerusalem Mariamne II AntipaterAlexanderAristobulus H. Philip II: Tetrarch of Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, 4 BC – AD 33/34 H. Agrippa I: ruled Palestine AD Bernice H. of Chalcis Herodias H. Agrippa II: ruled parts of Palestine after AD 50 Salome marriage Politician supported by Mark Antony, Julius Caesar, Augustus; great builder Mt 2 Mt 2:22 Samaritan Banished to Gaul Mk 8:15; Lk 3:19ff; 13:31ff; Lk 23:7ff; Acts 4:27 Accused by Agrippa I of treason before Caligula; banished to Spain Lk 3:1 Mk 6:14ff; Lk 3:19ff Acts 12:1ff Drusilla Sided with the Romans in the Jewish War; had suspicious relationship with Bernice Acts Wife of Felix Had a relationship with the Emperor Titus Salome Joseph Pheroras AntipaterBerenice I Mariamne Hasmonean Mariamne Aristobulus Idumaeans who claimed noble ancestry in the Return against accusations of lineage to Philistine slaves; commander under Alexander Jannaeus Cypros Nabatean Murdered by Herod Hyrcanus II mother relative brother Son husband 22 Mar Bill Brewer 17

18 Matthew 12:1-2 12:1 At that time Jesus went on the Sabbath through the grainfields, and His disciples became hungry and began to pick the heads of grain and eat. 2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, Behold, Your disciples do what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

19 Matthew 12:3-5 3 But He said to them,Have you not read what David did, when he became hungry, he and his companions; 4 how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those with him, but for the priests alone? 5 Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath, and are innocent? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

20 Matthew 12:6-8 6 But I say to you, that something greater than the temple is here. 7 But if you had known what this means, I desire compassion, and not a sacrifice, you would not have condemned the innocent. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Gustave Dore

21 Matthew 12: And departing from there, He went into their synagogue. 10 And behold, there was a man with a withered hand. And they questioned Him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?in order that they might accuse Him. 11 And He said to them, What man shall there be among you, who shall have one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it, and lift it out? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

22 Matthew 12: Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! So then, it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath. 13 Then He *said to the man, Stretch out your hand! And he stretched it out, and it was restored to normal, like the other. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

23 Matthew 12: But the Pharisees went out, and counseled together against Him, as to how they might destroy Him. 15 But Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed Him, and He healed them all, 16 and warned them not to make Him known, - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

24 Matthew 12: in order that what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, might be fulfilled, saying, 18 Behold, My Servant whom I have chosen; My Beloved in whom My soul is well -pleased; I will put My Spirit upon Him, And He shall proclaim justice to the Gentiles. 19 He will not quarrel, nor cry out; Nor will anyone hear His voice in the streets. 20 A battered reed He will not break off, And a smoldering wick He will not put out, Until He leads justice to victory. 21 And in His name the Gentiles will hope. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 (Jean-Louis-) Ernest Meissonier ( ) Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures as depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo.

25 Matthew 12: Then there was brought to Him a demon-possessed man who was blind and dumb, and He healed him, so that the dumb man spoke and saw. 23 And all the multitudes were amazed, and began to say, This man cannot be the Son of David, can he? 24 But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This man casts out demons only by Beelzebul the ruler of the demons. 25 And knowing their thoughts He said to them, Any kingdom divided against itself is laid waste; and any city or house divided against itself shall not stand. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

26 Matthew 12: And if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself; how then shall his kingdom stand? 27 And if I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out? Consequently they shall be your judges. 28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. 29 Or how can anyone enter the strong mans house and carry off his property, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house. 30 He who is not with Me is against Me; and he who does not gather with Me scatters. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Public Domain

27 Matthew 12: Therefore I say to you, any sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven men, but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven. 32 And whoever shall speak a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, either in this age, or in the age to come. 33 Either make the tree good, and its fruit good; or make the tree bad, and its fruit bad; for the tree is known by its fruit. 34 You brood of vipers, how can you, being evil, speak what is good? For the mouth speaks out of that which fills the heart. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

28 Matthew 12: The good man out of his good treasure brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of his evil treasure brings forth what is evil. 36 And I say to you, that every careless word that men shall speak, they shall render account for it in the day of judgment. 37 For by your words you shall be justified, and by your words you shall be condemned. 38 Then some of the scribes and Pharisees answered Him, saying, Teacher, we want to see a sign from You. - Bill Brewer 28 Repentance is implicit in being forgiven (e.g, men of Nineveh) Son of Man is most likely titular; i.e., Jesus Blasphemy of the Spirit appears to be the attribution of Jesus miraculous power to the workings of Satan Blasphemy against the Son of Man was forgivable probably because Jesus identity was not entirely plain Blasphemy against the Spirit was not forgivable because the miracles manifested Gods work unambiguously 22 Mar 2010

29 Matthew 12: But He answered and said to them, An evil and adulterous generation craves for a sign; and yet no sign shall be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet; 40 for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 41 The men of Nineveh shall stand up with this generation at the judgment, and shall condemn it because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, something greater than Jonah is here. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

30 Matthew 12:42 42 The Queen of the South shall rise up with this generation at the judgment and shall condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, something greater than Solomon is here. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

31 Matthew 12: Now when the unclean spirit goes out of a man, it passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find it. 44 Then it says, I will return to my house from which I came; and when it comes, it finds it unoccupied, swept, and put in order. 45 Then it goes, and takes along with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. That is the way it will also be with this evil generation. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

32 Matthew 12: While He was still speaking to the multitudes, behold, His mother and brothers were standing outside, seeking to speak to Him. 47 And someone said to Him, Behold, Your mother and Your brothers are standing outside seeking to speak to You. 48 But He answered the one who was telling Him and said, Who is My mother and who are My brothers? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

33 Matthew 12: And stretching out His hand toward His disciples, He said, Behold, My mother and My brothers! 50 For whoever does the will of My Father who is in heaven, he is My brother and sister and mother. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

34 Matthew 16:1-4 16:1 And the Pharisees and Sadducees came up, and testing Him asked Him to show them a sign from heaven. 2 But He answered and said to them, When it is evening, you say, It will be fair weather, for the sky is red. 3 And in the morning, There will be a storm today, for the sky is red and threatening. Do you know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but cannot discern the signs of the times? 4 An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign; and a sign will not be given it, except the sign of Jonah. And He left them, and went away. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

35 Matthew 16:5-8 5 And the disciples came to the other side and had forgotten to take bread. 6 And Jesus said to them, Watch out and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 7 And they began to discuss among themselves, saying, It is because we took no bread. 8 But Jesus, aware of this, said, You men of little faith, why do you discuss among yourselves that you have no bread? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

36 Matthew 16: Do you not yet understand or remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? 10 Or the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many large baskets you took up? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

37 Matthew 16: How is it that you do not understand that I did not speak to you concerning bread? But beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 12 Then they understood that He did not say to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

38 Matthew 16: Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He began asking His disciples, saying, Who do people say that the Son of Man is? 14 And they said, Some say John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 15 He *said to them, But who do you say that I am? 16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 17 And Jesus answered and said to him, Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

39 Mt 16: And I also say to you that you are Peter [petros], and upon this rock [petra] I will build My church; and the gates of Hades shall not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 20 Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ. 21 From that time Jesus Christ began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. - Bill Brewer 39 Some points on Peter as rock: Wordplay has little other purpose Gender change explained by Peter (masculine) to rock (feminine) No word difference at all in Aramaic Abraham, David described likewise Apostles describes as foundation V19 explains Peter as rock Matthews interest in Peter; e.g.,... the first Simon – Mt 10:2 Peter walking on water – Mt 14:28ff Two-drachma tax – Mt 17:24ff Limits of forgiveness – Mt 18:21ff... Vv18-19, in historical context, explain, not what Peter would do, but what he had already done in the life of Matthews community 22 Mar 2010

40 Mt 16:18: Upon this Rock 1.Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary 2.Baker New Testament Commentary (C) 3.Barnes New Testament Notes 4.Believer's Church Bible Commentary (BC) 5.Evangelical Commentary on the Bible 6.Expositors Bible Commentary 7.Good News Commentary 8.Handbook on Matthew 9.Harper's Bible Commentary 10.Holman New Testament Commentary 11.Horae Homileticae 12.Interpretation, a BC for Teaching and Preaching 13.Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary 14.Life of Lives – Farrar 15.Matthew – Long 16.New American Commentary 17.Sacra Pagina 18.The College Press NIV Commentary 19.The IVP New Testament Commentary 20.The New Bible Commentary 21.The New BC – 21 st Century Edition 22.The New Century Bible Commentary 23.The New International Greek Testament C 24.The Pulpit Commentary 25.Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary 26.Word Bible Commentary 27.Zondervan Handbook to the Bible 1.Matthew – Gundry 2.Crossway Classic Commentary 3.Hodder Bible Handbook 4.Living Word Commentary 5.The Bible Exposition Commentary 6.The Bible Knowledge Commentary 7.The Bible Reader's Companion 8.The Institutes of the Christian Religion 9.The Life of Christ – Mills 10.The MacArthur New Testament Commentary 11.The New Testament of our Lord and Savior – Adam Clarke and Daniel Curry 12.The People's New Testament 13.The Pillar New Testament Commentary 14.The Teacher's Bible Commentary 15.Wesleys Notes on the Bible 16.Wilmington's Bible Handbook - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Rock refers to Peter Rock does not refer to Peter

41 Matthew 16: And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You. 23 But He turned and said to Peter,Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not setting your mind on Gods interests, but mans. 24 Then Jesus said to His disciples, If anyone wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. 25 For whoever wishes to save his life shall lose it; but whoever loses his life for My sake shall find it. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 James Tissot

42 Matthew 16: For what will a man be profited, if he gains the whole world, and forfeits his soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul? 27 For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and will then recompense every man according to his deeds. 28 Truly I say to you, there are some of those who are standing here who shall not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom. - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 Gustave Dore

43 Lesson 10 Objectives 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Herodians Miracle 2.Describe the incidents leading up to Jesus comment about the unpardonable sin. 3.What incident preceded Jesus redefinition of His family relationships. 4.What is the turning point for Jesus in chapter 16 and what precedes it? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010

44 Schedule - Bill Brewer Mar 2010 DateTopicAssignments Due 11-Jan-10Introduction 18-Jan-10Lineage, Birth of Jesussyllabus 25-Jan-10Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%)3, 4, 11, 14: Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living5; 6; 19: Feb-10Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living7; paper 22-Feb-10Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom10, 23 1-Mar-10Parables of the Kingdom13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%)8, 9, Mar-10Spring Break 22-Mar-10Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom12, Mar-10The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon Apr-10The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion Apr-10The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%)28 26-Apr-10Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10FINAL EXAM (20%)

45 Lesson 11 Objectives 1.Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Ecclesia 2.What does the account of the transfiguration do in Matthews story of Jesus? 3.Who are the little ones in chapter 18? 4.What is the central idea in chapter 18 and how does it tie all the topics of chapter 18 together? - Bill Brewer Mar 2010


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