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Language Department, Office of General Education, Faculty of Hospitality Industry For Excellence in Hospitality Education Arj. Zeph Norrish Principles.

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Presentation on theme: "Language Department, Office of General Education, Faculty of Hospitality Industry For Excellence in Hospitality Education Arj. Zeph Norrish Principles."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Language Department, Office of General Education, Faculty of Hospitality Industry For Excellence in Hospitality Education Arj. Zeph Norrish Principles of Communication Chapter 3: The Communication Process

3 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 2 OBJECTIVES Following Chapter 3, you will be able to: Identify key components in communication processes Describe common models for communication systems Relate common models to real communication systems Understand the impact of noise on communication Chapter 3 Case Study Instructor Review Student Q&A

4 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 3 What is a signal? Definition A signal is a physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent variable by which information can be conveyed. Examples

5 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 4 What is a signal? Listen to and look at this signal…

6 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 5 What is a system? Data Information a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end. Definition Firstly, consider a process…… Input Output Help! MORSE CODE

7 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 6 ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange An Example b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 ASCII C b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 ASCII b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 ASCII a t _ _ C a t

8 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 7 What is a system? a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular. Definition Secondly, consider a system…… Input Output process A system can comprise of one or many processes. An adaptive system uses feedback to monitor and control the output. closed-loop

9 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 8 Communication Systems Simpl ex Half Duplex Full Duplex A signal can only be sent (one way communication) e.g., a PA system, a megaphone, keyboard, mouse, etc. Signals can be sent and received BUT NOT at the same time e.g., a walkie-talkie, an intercom, telegraph, fax, etc. Signals can be sent and received AT the same time e.g., telephone, video-conference, etc.

10 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 9 Bell's drawing of the workings of a telephone, from his original sketches (source: Bell Family Papers; Library of Congress; Mr. Watson. Come Here. I need you.

11 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 10 History of Communications Systems The Digital Age

12 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No Models of the Communication Process Models of communication are used to represent concepts involved in the communication process. This chapter presents the classic communication models… Shannon's model (the active model) A cybernetic model (the interactive model) An intermediary model (the gatekeeper model) The trans-active model (modern communications)

13 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No Shannons Model of the Communication Process Information Source Information Destination MESSAGE Transmitter TX Receiver RX MESSAGE SIGNALRECEIVED SIGNAL Channel NOISE Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field.

14 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 13 Shannon's model breaks down into eight components: 1. Source: An information source... the person sending the information. 2. Message: The message… the information being sent. 3. Transmitter: A transmitter… the tools used to send the information such as the mouth (sound) and body (gesture) create and change a message, and air (sound) and light (gesture) enable the transmission of the message. 4. Signal: The signal… additional meaning associated with the message such as the language of words being used, or cultural importance of specific gestures and body language. 3.4 Shannons Model of the Communication Process

15 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No Channel: A carrier or channel… the method for delivering the information such as words, letters, s, radio waves, etc. 6. Noise: Noise… secondary signals that obscure or confuse the information. Noise can be one persons words, or even another persons own thoughts. 7. Receiver: A receiver… the tools used for receiving the information. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture). 8. Destination: A destination… a person who receives the message. 3.4 Shannons Model of the Communication Process and understands it?

16 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 15 Exercise – Components in the Shannon Model Information Source Information Destination Transmitter TX Receiver RX Channel Speakers Mouth Paper Cup Converts/Encodes sound to physical vibration Paper Cup Converts/Encodes physical vibration to sound Listeners Ear String Using the sheets provided, identify the communication system and name the components of the system described.

17 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No The Interactive Model of the Communication Process Information Source Information Destination MESSAGE Transmitter TX Receiver RX MESSAGE SIGNALRECEIVED SIGNAL Channel NOISE People adapt their messages based on the feedback they receive, including a closed loop provides feedback. Return Channel (Closed Loop)

18 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No Derivative Models of the Communication Process A gatekeeper is an intermediary with the ability to decide what messages others see, the context in which they are seen, and when they see them. Sometimes the gatekeeper prevents the message from reaching an audience (destination). In extreme variations we refer to such gatekeepers as censors.

19 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No The Gatekeeper Model of the Communication Process Information Source MESSAGE Transmitter TX SIGNAL Channel This type of control is common in the mass media such as news reporting where editorsshape the information to meet the perceived needs of the consumers. Gatekeeper / Intermediary

20 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 19 But where Shannons interactive model shows feedback from one source, the trans-active model allows for feedback from both communicators. 3.5 Derivative Models of the Communication Process Communicator A Communicator B Encode with language Signal in Channel Receive & Interpret Encode with language Signal in Channel Receive & Interpret

21 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 20 Noise in the Communication Process Noise can be considered as anything which reduces the quality of the signal received, which may lead to mis- understanding of the original intended meaning. Noise is often considered as sound energy, but can also originate from other physical sources. Electrical / Magnetic Noise Light Noise (refraction/reflection) Radio Noise (including solar) White Noise Thermal Noise

22 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 21 Noise in the Communication Process Noise can also be considered to include anything which may distort our interpretation/understanding of a message. External Noise Internal Noise Semantic Noise Sights Sounds Smells Environment Thoughts / Feelings Tiredness Daydream Illness Keywords (Red Flags) Discriminatory remarks Controversial Symbols (provoke feelings)

23 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 22 Noise in the Communication Process Attempt to identify the noise types for the following situations………. External Noise Internal Noise Semantic Noise

24 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No The Role of Communication The two basic rules of the communication process are… 1.Communication is a process that happens among communicators, and acts to connect them across a space and time. 2.Communication involves the creation, transmission, and reception of messages. Noise can affect the effectiveness of every communication. !

25 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 24 Summary Today you have learned how to: Identify key components in communication processes Describe common models for communication systems Relate common models to real communication systems Understand the impact of noise on communication

26 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 25 HOMEWORK! Go to the copy shop next to the canteen and get a copy of Unit 4: Perception and Self. Read Unit 4 and complete sections 4.1 Key Vocabulary and Chapter 4 Review: Case Study.

27 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 26 Case Study Review Take 15-minutes to compare your case study summaries with a partner and create a revised idea to present.

28 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 27 BREAK! Now, take a 30-minute break and then return to the class to work on your term paper focus. Enjoy! Take a break!

29 Principles of CommunicationSecond Semester 2013 Slide No. 28 Handout Review You will now be given a handout with comprehension questions. Use the book and the notes youve taken to answer the questions as best as possible. You have 45-minutes to complete the handouts and return them to the instructor at the end of class.


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