Presentation on theme: "Detail of Swedish immigrants passing through Boston on their way west. Newspaper engraving (1852). NEXT A New Spirit of Change, 1820–1860 Immigrants settle."— Presentation transcript:
Detail of Swedish immigrants passing through Boston on their way west. Newspaper engraving (1852). NEXT A New Spirit of Change, 1820–1860 Immigrants settle in the United States, American literature and art develop, and reform movements have a major impact on the nation.
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 The Hopes of Immigrants American Literature and Art Reforming American Society Abolition and Womens Rights A New Spirit of Change, 1820–1860
NEXT Section 1 The Hopes of Immigrants In the mid-1800s, millions of Europeans come to the United States hoping to build a better life.
Why People Migrated NEXT The Hopes of Immigrants Emigrantspeople who leave a country 1 SECTION Most immigrants make voyage to America in steerage Immigrantspeople who settle in a new country Steeragecheapest deck on ship, cramped conditions, filthy During mid-1800s, most immigrants come from Europe Chart Continued...
NEXT 1 SECTION People immigrate because of push-pull factors Push factorsconditions that push people out of their native lands Continued Why People Migrated Pull factorsconditions that pull people toward a new place Continued...
NEXT 1 SECTION Continued Why People Migrated Pull factors include freedom, economic opportunity, abundant land Push factors include: -agricultural changes, landlords force tenants off land -crop failures, farmers unable to pay debts, families go hungry -Industrial Revolution puts many artisans out of work -religious, political turmoil causes religious persecution
Scandinavians Seek Land NEXT 1 SECTION Cheap land lures thousands of Scandinavians to U.S. In U.S., Scandinavians settle in Midwest, become farmers Swedish government restricts emigration, later cancels restrictions
Germans Pursue Economic Opportunity NEXT 1 SECTION Many Germans immigrate to Wisconsin; good climate for growing oats Some German Jews work as traveling salespeople Work as bakers, butchers, shoemakers, carpenters in cities Also settle in Texas, found town of Fredericksburg Germans largest immigrant group of 1800s, influence U.S. culture Map
The Irish Flee Hunger NEXT 1 SECTION Most Irish immigrants are Catholic Causes faminea severe food shortage, forces many to emigrate In 1845, disease attacks Irelands potato crop Immigrate in early 1800s to escape poverty, British mistreatment In U.S., Irish become city-dwellers, few skills, take low-paying jobs Compete with free blacks for backbreaking work that no one else wants Map
U.S. Cities Face Overcrowding NEXT 1 SECTION Immigrants, native-born Americans flock to cities Immigrant groups set up aid societies to help newcomers Many people live in cramped, filthy apartment buildings Rapid urban growth causes housing shortage Politicians set up organizations to help arrivals find housing, jobs
Some Americans Oppose Immigration NEXT 1 SECTION Some native-born Americans fear immigrants will not learn American ways Prejudicenegative opinion not based on facts As a result, immigrants face anger, prejudice Others fear that immigrants will outnumber natives Continued...
NEXT 1 SECTION Nativistsnative-born Americans who want to stop foreign influence Refuse to hire immigrants, vote for Catholics, immigrants running for office Continued Some Americans Oppose Immigration Start political party, Know-Nothing Party, in 1850s Want to ban Catholics, foreign-born from holding office Want to cut immigration, have 21-year wait period for U.S. citizenship Elects 6 governors, then party quickly dies out
NEXT Section 2 American Literature and Art Inspired by nature and democratic ideals, writers and artists produce some of Americas greatest works.
Writing About America NEXT 2 SECTION American writers are influenced by romanticism Romanticisminspiration from nature, stresses individual, feelings American Literature and Art American writers celebrate American wilderness James Fenimore Cooper writes adventure novels set in the wilderness Noah Webster publishes dictionary based on American-style English (1828) Henry Wadsworth Longfellows poetry celebrates the American past Image
Creating American Art NEXT 2 SECTION American artists are influenced by romanticism John James Audubon sketches American birds, animals Albert Bierstadt paints majestic landscapes of the American West Hudson River school artists paint lush natural landscapes Enslaved African American David Drake signs the pottery he makes Enslaved African Americans make baskets, quilts, pottery Image
Following Ones Conscience NEXT 2 SECTION Writer Ralph Waldo Emerson stresses self- examination, nature Emerson, Thoreau believe in transcendentalism: -spiritual world more important than physical world -find truth through feeling, intuition Henry David Thoreau writes about his life in the woods in Walden (1845) Image Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION Thoreau believes in following individual conscience Margaret Fuller argues for womens rights in book, magazine Uses non-violent protestcivil disobedience Peacefully refuses to obey unjust laws Continued Following Ones Conscience
Exploring the Human Heart NEXT 2 SECTION Walt Whitman writes unrhymed poems that praise common people Whitman, Dickinson shape modern poetry Emily Dickinson writes poems about God, nature, love, death Edgar Allan Poes terrifying tales influence modern horror stories Herman Melville writes novel, Moby Dick Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter about love, guilt, revenge
NEXT Section 3 Reforming American Society In the mid-1800s, several reform movements work to improve American education and society.
A Spirit of Revival NEXT 3 SECTION Second Great Awakeningrenewal of religious faith, 1790s, early 1800s Reforming American Society Preachers speak at revivalsmeetings to reawaken religious faith Revivalist preachers claim that anyone can choose salvation Claim sin is selfishness, religious faith leads people to help others Such teachings awaken a spirit of reform Americans believe they can make things better Chart
Temperance Societies NEXT 3 SECTION Temperance movementcampaign to stop alcohol consumption Temperance speakers get a million people to promise to give up alcohol Temperance workers hand out pamphlets, produce plays Heavy drinking is common in the early 1800s Business owners support temperance, want sober workers By 1855, 13 states pass laws to ban alcohol, most are repealed
Fighting for Workers Rights NEXT 3 SECTION Factory work is noisy, boring, unsafe Women go on strikestop work to get better working conditions (1836) Labor unionworkers who ban together, get better working conditions Women mill workers start labor union Many other strikes follow; depression hits (1837), jobs are scarce Labor movement falls apart, achieves a few goals
Improving Education NEXT 3 SECTION Horace Mann heads first state board of education in the U.S. (1837) Churches, other groups start many colleges; women cannot attend most A few Northern cities start public high schools Few colleges accept African Americans Illegal to teach enslaved person to read in the South
Caring for the Needy NEXT 3 SECTION Dorothea Dix pushes reforms for the care of mentally ill Thomas H. Gallaudet starts first American school for the deaf (1817) Reformers improve prisons: -separate children from main jails -call for rehabilitation of adult prisoners Samuel G. Howe starts Perkins School for the Blind (1830s) Image
Spreading Ideas Through Print NEXT 3 SECTION Cheaper newsprint, steam-driven press lowers price of newspapers Average Americans can afford to buy penny papers Hundreds of new magazines appear Contain serious news, gripping stories of fires and crimes Ladies Magazine advocates education for women Image
Creating Ideal Communities NEXT 3 SECTION Some people attempt to build an ideal societyutopia New Harmony, Brook Farm are two famous utopias Shakers set up a utopia, follow teachings of Ann Lee: -lead holy lives in communities -communities show Gods love -share, not fight Experience conflicts, financial difficulties last only a few years Depend on converts, adopting children to keep communities going Image
NEXT Section 4 Abolition and Womens Rights The spread of democracy leads to calls for freedom for slaves and more rights for women.
Abolitionists Call for Ending Slavery NEXT 4 SECTION Abolitionmovement to end slavery, begins in the late 1700s Abolitionists demand a law ending slavery in the South Abolition and Womens Rights Free African American David Walker urges slaves to revolt William Lloyd Garrison publishes an abolitionist newspaper Sisters Sarah, Angelina Grimké lecture against slavery John Quincy Adams introduces anti-slavery amendment
Eyewitnesses to Slavery NEXT 4 SECTION Frederick Douglass speaks about his own experience of slavery Sojourner Truth flees enslavement, lives with Quakers who free her Publishes autobiography (1845), does lecture tour, buys his freedom Wins court battle to recover her son, speaks for abolition Image
The Underground Railroad NEXT 4 SECTION Underground Railroadaboveground escape routes from South to North Runaways usually travel by night, hide by day in places called stations Henry Brown escapes slavery by being packed in a box, shipped North Runaway slaves travel on foot, also take wagons, boats, trains Image
Harriet Tubman NEXT 4 SECTION People who lead runaways to freedom are called conductors Enemies offer reward for her capture, is never caught Escapes slavery (1849), makes 19 journeys to free enslaved persons Harriet Tubman is a famous conductor
Women Reformers Face Barriers NEXT 4 SECTION Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton attend anti-slavery convention In 1800s, woman have few legal, political rights William Lloyd Garrison supports womens right to speak Are not allowed to speak in public because they are women Stanton, Mott decide to demand equality for women Image
The Seneca Falls Convention NEXT 4 SECTION Stanton, Mott hold Seneca Falls Convention for womens rights (1848) Womens rights movement is ridiculed Lists resolutions for womens rights including suffragethe right to vote Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions states men, women are equal
Continued Calls for Womens Rights NEXT 4 SECTION Sojourner Truth speaks for womens rights Susan B. Anthony builds womens movement into a national organization Becomes first woman elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences Scientist Maria Mitchell starts, Association for the Advancement of Women By 1865, 29 states have laws that give women property, wage rights Supports laws that give married women rights to own property, earn wages
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