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Tertiary Resource1. 2Introduction Drug Information ResourcesObjectives: 1. Describe the attributes and the differences between tertiary, secondary and.

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Presentation on theme: "Tertiary Resource1. 2Introduction Drug Information ResourcesObjectives: 1. Describe the attributes and the differences between tertiary, secondary and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tertiary Resource1

2 2Introduction Drug Information ResourcesObjectives: 1. Describe the attributes and the differences between tertiary, secondary and primary resources 2. Identify the most appropriate resources for a given drug information inquiry and use them effectively. 3. Recognize that primary, secondary and tertiary resources may be available in hard copy, CD-ROM, ON-LINE and/or other Format. 4. Describe how to search computerized data bases.

3 Tertiary Resource3 IntroductionTertiarySecondary Primary Sources professional literatures

4 Tertiary Resource4 Introduction Primary Resources They are the research studies published in biomedical They are the research studies published in biomedical journals. journals. It is the most current information about drugs. It is the most current information about drugs. It is not easy job to use journals to answer a drug It is not easy job to use journals to answer a drug related question because of its huge growing number related question because of its huge growing number (>20000 biomedical journals available) (>20000 biomedical journals available)

5 Tertiary Resource5 Introduction Primary Resources Primary recourse provides the broad base for development of the rest of the professional literature. Primary recourse provides the broad base for development of the rest of the professional literature. It contains original reports of scientific studies on which the knowledge of drugs and therapeutics is built. It contains original reports of scientific studies on which the knowledge of drugs and therapeutics is built. Current of the information sources, and periodical journals are its most common format. Current of the information sources, and periodical journals are its most common format. Providing access to the original data from a study as well, having the most current information Providing access to the original data from a study as well, having the most current information

6 Tertiary Resource6 Introduction Secondary Resources They are indexes and abstracts for primary resources. They are indexes and abstracts for primary resources. They are valuable tools for quick and selective screening for primary resources. They are valuable tools for quick and selective screening for primary resources. They provide the user with concise tools for gaining access to the primary literatures. They provide the user with concise tools for gaining access to the primary literatures. Any single indexing or abstracting service can not cover all published articles beside the lag time are the limitations to use secondary resources. Any single indexing or abstracting service can not cover all published articles beside the lag time are the limitations to use secondary resources.

7 Tertiary Resource7 Tertiary Resources Literatures

8 Tertiary Resource8 Definition Tertiary literature is core knowledge established via primary literature or accepted as standard of practice within the medical community. Tertiary literature is core knowledge established via primary literature or accepted as standard of practice within the medical community.

9 Tertiary Resource9 Introduction tertiary resources include textbooks, monographs, compendia, handbooks, and published symposia. tertiary resources include textbooks, monographs, compendia, handbooks, and published symposia. They represent the condensation of basic facts originally published in the primary literature. They represent the condensation of basic facts originally published in the primary literature.

10 Tertiary Resource10 Types Textbooks Full-text databases Compendia Review articles On various drug or disease topics A vast array of information about many Drugs such as the physician's desk reference Including the internetMICROMEDEX and LEXI Including the internet, MICROMEDEX and LEXI Summarize a particular topic Contain more current information

11 Tertiary Resource11 Advantages Tertiary resources are the most commonly used sources of information because they are easy to use, concise and compact. Often they provide a review of the literature by an expert in the field. Tertiary references (textbooks, CD-ROMs) are convenient and in general, fairly accessible. Drug information references may be divided into specific subjects to make them easier to use.. Usually the information contained in tertiary literature is well accepted in medical practice.

12 Tertiary Resource12 Disadvantages lag time ……. outdated even in "new" editions lag time ……. outdated even in "new" editions Space limitations within a text may prevent extensive discussion of a drug or topic Space limitations within a text may prevent extensive discussion of a drug or topic Authors may emphasize limited information about a topic or drug Authors may emphasize limited information about a topic or drug Authors may present information that is based on a less thorough review of the primary literature Authors may present information that is based on a less thorough review of the primary literature

13 Tertiary Resource13 Disadvantages (cont.) It may not be referenced appropriately thus preventing a proper check of the primary literature It may not be referenced appropriately thus preventing a proper check of the primary literature If the information presented in the tertiary literature is based on flawed primary literature (i.e. Poorly done studies are referenced) then the tertiary information may be suspicious. If the information presented in the tertiary literature is based on flawed primary literature (i.e. Poorly done studies are referenced) then the tertiary information may be suspicious.

14 Tertiary Resource14 Disadvantages (cont.) Any updated or new information cannot be inserted into the printed (hard copy) tertiary literature in a timely fashion. Any updated or new information cannot be inserted into the printed (hard copy) tertiary literature in a timely fashion. Human bias, error transcription, incorrect interpretation of data and lack of expertise by the author. Human bias, error transcription, incorrect interpretation of data and lack of expertise by the author.

15 Tertiary Resource15 Evaluation of tertiary resources resources Several points should be considered in evaluating tertiary resources as follows: 1. Does the author has sufficient experience and expertise to write on the topic? 2. What credentials do the authors/contributors have? 3. Assess the text for timeliness (i.e. when was the last edition published?) 4. Is this the most recent edition of the tertiary reference? 5. Are statements of fact appropriately supported by references? 6. How many references does each section have and how up-to-date are they?

16 Tertiary Resource16 Evaluation of tertiary resources (cont.) 6. To assess consistency, compare information presented in one text to the same information presented in another text. 7. Is the reference likely to contain information relevant to the subject being researched? 8. Is the reference clear, concise and easy to use?

17 Tertiary Resource17 Availability of Tertiary Resources Tertiary resources are available in many formats, including hard copy, microfiche, and computerized versions. Computerized resources may be available on floppy disks, or CD-ROMs for use in a single personal computer or computer network, a main frame system or via internet.

18 Tertiary Resource18 Classification of Tertiary Resources

19 Tertiary Resource19 Tertiary drug information resources General references Specialized references

20 Tertiary Resource20 A.General References

21 Tertiary Resource21 General features 1- They are referral books. 2- Their formats are either monographs or monographs plus chapters. 3- Used through their indexes NOT through their contents lists.

22 Tertiary Resource22 Textbooks. Different from the general references in: 1- Their formats are chapters. 2- One can read them from cover to cover. 3- One can use their contents list Not necessary to go to index.

23 Tertiary Resource23 The most helpful of them to answer a drug related questions are:

24 Martindales The complete drug reference Tertiary Resource24

25 Tertiary Resource25 European and investigational drugs European and investigational drugs Published by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain every 4 years Published by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain every 4 years Has a manufacturer directory and index by clinical use (typical European style of indexing) Has a manufacturer directory and index by clinical use (typical European style of indexing) Lists other pharmacopeias the drug is found in. Lists other pharmacopeias the drug is found in. Martindales The complete drug reference

26 Drug Facts and Comparisons (F&C) Tertiary Resource26

27 Tertiary Resource27 Drug Facts and Comparisons (F&C) Updated monthly (loose-leaf version) Updated monthly (loose-leaf version) Lag time 3 months Lag time 3 months Arranged by therapeutic class Arranged by therapeutic class Prescription and OTC listings Prescription and OTC listings Helpful summary/comparison tables Helpful summary/comparison tables Contains information about investigational, orphan, and discontinued products and off label uses Contains information about investigational, orphan, and discontinued products and off label uses Not referenced, cumbersome Not referenced, cumbersome

28 Mosbys Drug Consult Tertiary Resource28

29 Tertiary Resource29 Mosbys Drug Consult Frequently used brand and generic drugs Frequently used brand and generic drugs Available at Available at Annual update Annual update Additional information: Additional information: Drug identification, look-alike/sound-alike Drug identification, look-alike/sound-alike Manufacturer information, discontinued Products Manufacturer information, discontinued Products

30 American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information Tertiary Resource30

31 Tertiary Resource31 American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information Arranged by AHFS classification number Arranged by AHFS classification number Monographs listed alphabetically Monographs listed alphabetically Information in monograph: Information in monograph: Chemistry, pharmacology, mechanism Chemistry, pharmacology, mechanism Dose, administration, pharmacokinetics Dose, administration, pharmacokinetics Drug interactions, preparations, toxicity Drug interactions, preparations, toxicity

32 Tertiary Resource32 (AHFS) Drug Information FDA-approved and off-label uses FDA-approved and off-label uses Published annually with quarterly updates Published annually with quarterly updates More clinically oriented More clinically oriented References are not available in the hard copy but may be available online or with software CD-ROMS References are not available in the hard copy but may be available online or with software CD-ROMS Not comprehensive, significant lag time Not comprehensive, significant lag time

33 USP Dispensing Information (USP DI) Tertiary Resource33

34 Tertiary Resource34 USP Dispensing Information (USP DI) Three volumes Three volumes I.DRUG Information for the Healthcare Professional II.Drug Information for the Patient (in lay language) III.Legal Requirements Monographs in alphabetical order in Volume I Monographs in alphabetical order in Volume I Published annually Published annually Also contains some Canadian drug names Also contains some Canadian drug names Most thorough information on: Most thorough information on: MonitoringMonitoring Adverse drug eventsAdverse drug events

35 Tertiary Resource35 USP Dispensing Information (USP DI) Useful Appendices: (typical American style of indexing) Useful Appendices: (typical American style of indexing) Selected List of Drug-Induced EffectsSelected List of Drug-Induced Effects Therapeutic GuidelinesTherapeutic Guidelines Poison Control Center ListingPoison Control Center Listing Veterinary Medication ClassificationVeterinary Medication Classification Excluded Monograph ListingExcluded Monograph Listing

36 Tertiary Resource36 USP Dispensing Information (USP DI) Off-label uses indexed by drug and by indication Off-label uses indexed by drug and by indication Not referenced, lag time, only FDA-approved uses, inconvenient to compare agents in the same therapeutic class Not referenced, lag time, only FDA-approved uses, inconvenient to compare agents in the same therapeutic class

37 Drug Information Handbook (Lexi-Comp ) Tertiary Resource37

38 Tertiary Resource38 Drug Information Handbook (Lexi-Comp) Pocket-sized; PDA & online versions are also available Pocket-sized; PDA & online versions are also available Published annually Published annually Drugs listed alphabetically by generic name Drugs listed alphabetically by generic name Useful charts and tables. Useful charts and tables. Specialty versions are available: Specialty versions are available: Pediatric, psychiatric, geriatric Pediatric, psychiatric, geriatric Not referenced Not referenced Lists all reported adverse events but does not always provide the incidence Lists all reported adverse events but does not always provide the incidence

39 Tertiary Resource39 MICROMEDEX ® CD-ROM CD-ROM Access information by brand or generic name of drug Access information by brand or generic name of drug Referenced, quick and easy to use Referenced, quick and easy to use Expensive, uses other tertiary references Expensive, uses other tertiary references Databases available: Databases available: DRUGDEX ® - main drug information databaseDRUGDEX ® - main drug information database DISEASEDEX ® - disease statesDISEASEDEX ® - disease states IDENTIDEX ® - drug identification by imprint codeIDENTIDEX ® - drug identification by imprint code POISINDEX ® - poisoning and toxicologyPOISINDEX ® - poisoning and toxicology Martindales – foreign drugsMartindales – foreign drugs

40 Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) Tertiary Resource40

41 Tertiary Resource41 Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) Updated annually Updated annually Color pictures and markings for drug identification Color pictures and markings for drug identification Has FDA-approved product information only Has FDA-approved product information only Manufacturers pay to have product information Included Manufacturers pay to have product information Included Contains section on diagnostics Contains section on diagnostics May not contain the complete package insert May not contain the complete package insert Not referenced Not referenced

42 Drug Topics Red Book Tertiary Resource42

43 Tertiary Resource43 Drug Topics Red Book Cost data: average wholesale prices (AWP) and NDC numbers. (The National Drug Code) Cost data: average wholesale prices (AWP) and NDC numbers. (The National Drug Code)The National Drug CodeThe National Drug Code Alphabetical listing of manufacturers with contact information Alphabetical listing of manufacturers with contact information Prescription and OTC products Prescription and OTC products List of drugs that should not be crushed or chewed List of drugs that should not be crushed or chewed Published annually with monthly updates Published annually with monthly updates

44 Tertiary Resource44 B.Specialized References

45 Tertiary Resource45 Pharmacotherapy

46 Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach (Dipiro) Tertiary Resource46

47 Tertiary Resource47 Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach (Dipiro) Well-written and referenced with helpful tables. Well-written and referenced with helpful tables. Pocket version is available. Pocket version is available. Focuses on drug therapy, good background information. Focuses on drug therapy, good background information. Also covers non-drug treatment options. Also covers non-drug treatment options. Updated edition about every 4 years. Updated edition about every 4 years.

48 Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs (Koda-Kimble) Tertiary Resource48

49 Tertiary Resource49 Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs (Koda-Kimble) Well-written with focus on drug therapy. Well-written with focus on drug therapy. Updated every 4 years. Updated every 4 years. Useful summary tables. Useful summary tables. Case presentation format, may be more difficult to use as a quick reference. Case presentation format, may be more difficult to use as a quick reference.

50 Tertiary Resource50 The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics Quick reference with many charts and tables. Quick reference with many charts and tables. Updated about every 2 to 3 years. Updated about every 2 to 3 years.

51 Tertiary Resource51 Internal Medicine

52 Tertiary Resource52 Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine Gold standard for internal medicine Gold standard for internal medicine Published every 5 years, referenced Published every 5 years, referenced Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment guidelines Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment guidelines Little drug information & dosing recommendations Little drug information & dosing recommendations

53 Tertiary Resource53 The Merck Manual Used by many healthcare professionals Used by many healthcare professionals Also includes pediatrics, gynecology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, dental disorders Also includes pediatrics, gynecology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, dental disorders

54 Clinical Medicine (Kumar &Clark ) Tertiary Resource54

55 Tertiary Resource55 comprehensive and authoritative single-volume textbook of internal medicine. comprehensive and authoritative single-volume textbook of internal medicine. Explains the management of disease, based on an understanding of scientific principles and including the latest developments in treatment. Explains the management of disease, based on an understanding of scientific principles and including the latest developments in treatment. Colour-coded chapters are attractive and make the book easy to navigate. Colour-coded chapters are attractive and make the book easy to navigate. Comprehensive index, clearly displayed, pinpoints information rapidly. Comprehensive index, clearly displayed, pinpoints information rapidly. Clinical Medicine (Kumar &Clark )

56 Tertiary Resource56 Boxes and tables pull out and display important information. Boxes and tables pull out and display important information. Drawings and photographs. Drawings and photographs. Carefully structured headings provide a useful outline for study and quick reference. Carefully structured headings provide a useful outline for study and quick reference. Gastrointestinal, Rheumatology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Respiratory,Intensive care medicine, Drug Therapy and poisoning…… Gastrointestinal, Rheumatology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Respiratory,Intensive care medicine, Drug Therapy and poisoning…… Clinical Medicine (Kumar &Clark )

57 Tertiary Resource57 Cardiology

58 Tertiary Resource58 Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine Published every 5 years. Published every 5 years. Good illustrations. Good illustrations. Addresses modern-day issues such as medical economics and assessing quality of care. Addresses modern-day issues such as medical economics and assessing quality of care. Well-referenced. Well-referenced.

59 Tertiary Resource59 Hursts The Heart Organized by condition Organized by condition Comprehensive information on drug therapies and regimens Comprehensive information on drug therapies and regimens Rapid Interpretation of EKGs ( Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) ) Rapid Interpretation of EKGs ( Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) ) Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) Best guide to learning EKGs Best guide to learning EKGs User-friendly format. User-friendly format.

60 Tertiary Resource60 Pediatrics

61 Harriet Lane Handbook Tertiary Resource61

62 Tertiary Resource62 Harriet Lane Handbook Useful pocket guide published every 3 years Useful pocket guide published every 3 years Has dosing information Has dosing information Electronic version updated annually Electronic version updated annually Four sections: emergency management, diagnostic, formulary, and therapeutic data Four sections: emergency management, diagnostic, formulary, and therapeutic data Some information on pregnancy and lactation Some information on pregnancy and lactation Not referenced, not frequently updated, confusing organization, not complete Not referenced, not frequently updated, confusing organization, not complete

63 Tertiary Resource63 Pediatric Injectable Drugs (Teddybear Book) Alphabetical order by generic name Alphabetical order by generic name Formerly known as Guidelines for Administration of Intravenous Medications to Pediatric Patients Formerly known as Guidelines for Administration of Intravenous Medications to Pediatric Patients Dose, concentration, rate, cautions Dose, concentration, rate, cautions

64 Tertiary Resource64 Pediatric Dosage Handbook (Lexi-Comp) Pediatric version of the Drug Information Handbook Pediatric version of the Drug Information Handbook Dose, administration, how supplied, contraindications, adverse effects, drug interactions, antidotes Dose, administration, how supplied, contraindications, adverse effects, drug interactions, antidotes Also contains adult doses Also contains adult doses May sometimes have information on extemporaneous formulations May sometimes have information on extemporaneous formulations

65 Tertiary Resource65 Pregnancy

66 Tertiary Resource66 Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation (Briggs) Excellent reference, gold standard Excellent reference, gold standard Updated every 4 years Updated every 4 years Alphabetical by generic name Alphabetical by generic name Generic name, class, & pregnancy risk factor Generic name, class, & pregnancy risk factor Summaries of risk to fetus and risk during breastfeeding Summaries of risk to fetus and risk during breastfeeding Editors assign categories for drugs not classified by the manufacturer Editors assign categories for drugs not classified by the manufacturer Referenced Referenced

67 Tertiary Resource67 Infectious Diseases

68 Tertiary Resource68 Mandells Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease Gold standard reference Gold standard reference Infection, diagnosis, treatment and useful background information Infection, diagnosis, treatment and useful background information

69 Tertiary Resource69 Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy Published annually Published annually Pocket-sized and easy to use Pocket-sized and easy to use Includes: dosing in renal impairment, brand & generic names, empiric therapy guidelines, antimicrobial spectra of the agents Includes: dosing in renal impairment, brand & generic names, empiric therapy guidelines, antimicrobial spectra of the agents Not well-referenced Not well-referenced

70 Tertiary Resource70 Oncology

71 Tertiary Resource71 Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology (devita) Gold standard, published every 3 to 4 years Gold standard, published every 3 to 4 years Pathology, treatment options, & adverse effects Pathology, treatment options, & adverse effects Referenced Referenced

72 Tertiary Resource72 Cancer Chemotherapy Handbook Useful index, introduction on malignancies Useful index, introduction on malignancies Pharmacology and use of chemotherapeutic agents Pharmacology and use of chemotherapeutic agents Lists investigational drugs and combinations Lists investigational drugs and combinations Well-referenced Well-referenced

73 Tertiary Resource73 Pharmacology

74 Tertiary Resource74 Goodman & Gilmans Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics Gold standard pharmacology text Gold standard pharmacology text Grouped by therapeutic class Grouped by therapeutic class Mechanism, absorption, distribution, and metabolism Mechanism, absorption, distribution, and metabolism Contains review of pharmacokinetics, therapeutics, and toxicology Contains review of pharmacokinetics, therapeutics, and toxicology Well-referenced, very thorough Well-referenced, very thorough Updated every 5 years (infrequent) Updated every 5 years (infrequent)

75 Tertiary Resource75 Drug Interactions

76 Tertiary Resource76 Hansten and Horn's Drug Interactions Analysis and Management Loose-leaf format, updated Loose-leaf format, updated Introductory chapter discusses mechanisms of interactions Introductory chapter discusses mechanisms of interactions Rates significance of interaction and recommends management Rates significance of interaction and recommends management Referenced Referenced Not complete, subjective rating system Not complete, subjective rating system

77 Tertiary Resource77 Drug Interaction Facts Published by F&C Published by F&C Alphabetical by drug name Alphabetical by drug name Referenced Referenced Provides information regarding: Provides information regarding: Significance and severitySignificance and severity Onset of interactionOnset of interaction DocumentationDocumentation Not complete, subjective rating scale Not complete, subjective rating scale

78 Tertiary Resource78 A typical monograph contains a summary, clinical evidence for the interactions under discussion, the probable mechanism, clinical importance and management A typical monograph contains a summary, clinical evidence for the interactions under discussion, the probable mechanism, clinical importance and management Covers interactions between therapeutic drugs, proprietary medicines, herbal medicines, foods, drinks, pesticides and some drugs of abuse Covers interactions between therapeutic drugs, proprietary medicines, herbal medicines, foods, drinks, pesticides and some drugs of abuse Stockley's Drug Interactions

79 Tertiary Resource79 Based on published sources and fully referencedBased on published sources and fully referenced Covers over 14,000 drug interactionsCovers over 14,000 drug interactions Contains over 2,800 monographsContains over 2,800 monographs Includes 17,600 referencesIncludes 17,600 references Book & CD-ROMBook & CD-ROM Stockley's Drug Interactions

80 Tertiary Resource80 Adverse Drug Reactions

81 Meylers Side Effects of Drugs Tertiary Resource81

82 Tertiary Resource82 Meylers Side Effects of Drugs Indexed by drug and by adverse event Indexed by drug and by adverse event Most comprehensive Most comprehensive Published every 4 years with annual updates Published every 4 years with annual updates Contains tables and lists Contains tables and lists References for some side effects not included References for some side effects not included Information provided: Information provided: Effects on organs and systems, lab/diagnostic interference, withdrawal and overdose Effects on organs and systems, lab/diagnostic interference, withdrawal and overdose May not be complete, references for widely known effects are not included May not be complete, references for widely known effects are not included

83 Tertiary Resource83 Compatibility and Stability

84 Handbook on Injectable Drugs (Trissels) Tertiary Resource84

85 Tertiary Resource85 Handbook on Injectable Drugs (Trissels) Gold standard reference Gold standard reference Updated every 2 years with annual supplements Updated every 2 years with annual supplements Drugs organized alphabetically by generic name Drugs organized alphabetically by generic name Information on compatibility and stability with diluents and drugs Information on compatibility and stability with diluents and drugs Solution, Y-site, syringe, and additive compatibility Solution, Y-site, syringe, and additive compatibility Table format, very useful Table format, very useful Not complete, lag time Not complete, lag time

86 Tertiary Resource86 King Guide to Parenteral Admixtures Chart format, loose-leaf Chart format, loose-leaf Alphabetical listing by generic name Alphabetical listing by generic name May have information not available in Trissels May have information not available in Trissels Pages are not numbered Pages are not numbered

87 Tertiary Resource87 IV INDEX ® Component of MICROMEDEX ® Component of MICROMEDEX ® Easy to use Easy to use Information taken mostly from Trissels Information taken mostly from Trissels

88 Tertiary Resource88 Compounding and Pharmaceutics

89 Tertiary Resource89 Remingtons The Science and Practice of Pharmacy Helpful for extemporaneous compounding Helpful for extemporaneous compounding Pharmaceutical calculations, chemistry, radioisotopes Pharmaceutical calculations, chemistry, radioisotopes New edition every 5 years New edition every 5 years

90 Tertiary Resource90 Merck Index Chemical name, formula, & structure Chemical name, formula, & structure Physical data, therapeutic category Physical data, therapeutic category Published every 6 to 10 years Published every 6 to 10 years

91 Tertiary Resource91 United States Pharmacopeia – National Formulary (USP-NF) Official monographs for preparation and assay of pharmaceutical products Official monographs for preparation and assay of pharmaceutical products Published every 5 years with periodic supplements Published every 5 years with periodic supplements Information on storage, packaging, labeling, reference standards, & assays Information on storage, packaging, labeling, reference standards, & assays USP: drug substances & dosage forms USP: drug substances & dosage forms NF: pharmaceutical ingredients NF: pharmaceutical ingredients Not a very useful reference since most pharmaceuticals are mass-produced Not a very useful reference since most pharmaceuticals are mass-produced

92 Tertiary Resource92 Pharmacokinetics

93 Tertiary Resource93 Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics (Winters) Case-study format Case-study format Includes principles of monitoring therapy, basic pharmacokinetics, & clinical applications Includes principles of monitoring therapy, basic pharmacokinetics, & clinical applications Appendix of commonly used equations Appendix of commonly used equations Mostly theory, little patient integration Mostly theory, little patient integration

94 Tertiary Resource94 Applied Pharmacokinetics: Principles of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Published by Applied Therapeutics Published by Applied Therapeutics Most advanced reference Most advanced reference More specific drug information than Winters More specific drug information than Winters Includes analytical methods and clinical applications Includes analytical methods and clinical applications

95 Tertiary Resource95 Toxicology

96 Tertiary Resource96 Toxicologic Emergencies (Goldfranks) Poison management guidelines Poison management guidelines Useful tables and case studies Useful tables and case studies Practice multiple-choice questions Practice multiple-choice questions

97 Tertiary Resource97 Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons gold standard in toxicology field gold standard in toxicology field basic concepts and fundamental principles needed to grasp current issues in modern toxicology basic concepts and fundamental principles needed to grasp current issues in modern toxicology The text is organized and presented in a logical progression of general principles to specific topics such as organ system toxicology, specific agent toxicology, and environmental toxicology. The text is organized and presented in a logical progression of general principles to specific topics such as organ system toxicology, specific agent toxicology, and environmental toxicology.

98 Tertiary Resource98 POISINDEX ® Toxicology component of MICROMEDEX ® Toxicology component of MICROMEDEX ® Search by brand or generic name Search by brand or generic name Describes what substance looks like, any imprint codes, management of toxicity Describes what substance looks like, any imprint codes, management of toxicity

99 Tertiary Resource99 Toxic Emergencies: Clinics in Emergency Medicine (Clinics in emergency medicine) by William Hanson Toxic Emergencies: Clinics in Emergency Medicine (Clinics in emergency medicine) by William Hanson Current Approaches in Toxicology by Bryan Ballantyne Current Approaches in Toxicology by Bryan Ballantyne Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Hardcover) by Lars Friberg Lars Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Hardcover) by Lars Friberg Lars Other Toxicology Books

100 Tertiary Resource100 Toxicology of the Eye: by W.Morton Grant. Joel S. Schuman Toxicology of the Eye: by W.Morton Grant. Joel S. Schuman Effects on the Eyes and Visual System from Chemicals, Drugs, Metals and Minerals, Plants, Toxins, and Venoms; Also, Systemic Side Effects from Eye med (Hardcover) Effects on the Eyes and Visual System from Chemicals, Drugs, Metals and Minerals, Plants, Toxins, and Venoms; Also, Systemic Side Effects from Eye med (Hardcover) Other Toxicology Books

101 Tertiary Resource101 Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products (Hardcover) by Robert E. Gosselin, Roger P. Smith, Harold C Hodge, Jeannet Braddock Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products (Hardcover) by Robert E. Gosselin, Roger P. Smith, Harold C Hodge, Jeannet Braddock Other Toxicology Books

102 Tertiary Resource102 Drug Identification

103 Tertiary Resource103 1.American Drug Index Cross-referenced by brand, generic, and chemical names Cross-referenced by brand, generic, and chemical names 2.The Pill Book 3.IDENTIDEX ® Component of MICROMEDEX® Component of MICROMEDEX® Identify drug by imprint code Identify drug by imprint code

104 Tertiary Resource104 4.British National Formulary BMJ Publishing, London, United Kingdom. BMJ Publishing, London, United Kingdom. The standard reference for prescribing and dispensing drugs in Britain. The standard reference for prescribing and dispensing drugs in Britain. Included are notes on the different drug groups to help in the choice of appropriate treatment. Included are notes on the different drug groups to help in the choice of appropriate treatment. The BNF is updated in March and September of each year The BNF is updated in March and September of each year available on disk and CD-ROM as the Electronic British National Formulary and An electronic web-based format is also available. available on disk and CD-ROM as the Electronic British National Formulary and An electronic web-based format is also available.

105 Tertiary Resource105 5.Saudi National Formulary It is a joint publication of the Saudi pharmaceutical society & Ministry of Health, Riyadh, KSA It is a joint publication of the Saudi pharmaceutical society & Ministry of Health, Riyadh, KSA The standard reference for prescribing and dispensing drugs in Saudi Arabia. The standard reference for prescribing and dispensing drugs in Saudi Arabia. Included are notes on the different drug groups to help in the choice of appropriate treatment. Included are notes on the different drug groups to help in the choice of appropriate treatment. The SNF is only one edition published in 1424 H (previous two editions were directory formats). The SNF is only one edition published in 1424 H (previous two editions were directory formats). Available as hardcopy only. Available as hardcopy only.

106 Tertiary Resource106 5.Saudi National Formulary (cont.) Having guidelines appendix. Having guidelines appendix. Drug interactions appendix. Drug interactions appendix. Drug information links appendix. Drug information links appendix. List of community pharmacies all over the kingdom List of community pharmacies all over the kingdom Containing different indexes like: Containing different indexes like: - Vendors index. - Manufacturers index. - Alphabetical drug index - Therapeutic index

107 Tertiary Resource107 Edited by the Swiss Pharmaceutical Society Edited by the Swiss Pharmaceutical Society Alphabetical by generic and brand name Alphabetical by generic and brand name Drug name, structure, therapeutic class, synonyms, and manufacturer Drug name, structure, therapeutic class, synonyms, and manufacturer Cross-referenced by all trade names and substances Cross-referenced by all trade names and substances Not much information is provided Not much information is provided 5.Index Nominum: International Drug Directory

108 Tertiary Resource108 Drugs Available Abroad Drugs Available Abroad Alphabetical by generic name Alphabetical by generic name Drug manufacturer, when it became available, dosage forms, where it is approved Drug manufacturer, when it became available, dosage forms, where it is approved Indexed by disease, country of use, drug category Indexed by disease, country of use, drug category Appendices with information on manufacturers and drug regulatory authorities in other countries Appendices with information on manufacturers and drug regulatory authorities in other countries 5.Index Nominum: International Drug Directory

109 Tertiary Resource109 Non-Prescription Products

110 Tertiary Resource110 PDR for Nonprescription Drugs and Dietary Supplements Format similar to PDR, updated every year Format similar to PDR, updated every year Indexed by product name, category, manufacturer, & active ingredient Indexed by product name, category, manufacturer, & active ingredient Includes color pictures of products Includes color pictures of products Information: indications, cautions, dose, administration, patient instructions, precautions, how supplied Information: indications, cautions, dose, administration, patient instructions, precautions, how supplied

111 Tertiary Resource111 Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs Useful tables and comparisons Useful tables and comparisons Includes: Includes: Patient assessment and counseling guidelines Patient assessment and counseling guidelines Pathophysiology and treatment options Pathophysiology and treatment options Dosing, adverse events, & interactions Dosing, adverse events, & interactions

112 Tertiary Resource112 Natural Products

113 Tertiary Resource113 Lawrence Review of Natural Products Comprehensive and up-to-date information Comprehensive and up-to-date information Published by F&C Published by F&C Monthly updates Monthly updates Provides uses, toxicity, & patient info Provides uses, toxicity, & patient info Scientific approach to herbal products Scientific approach to herbal products

114 Tertiary Resource114 Electronic Tertiary Resources

115 Tertiary Resource115 A.Multipurpose Resources (disease and drug information)

116 Tertiary Resource116 Access Medicine (http://www.accessmedicine.com/) Collection of textbooks, clinical practice guidelines, news Collection of textbooks, clinical practice guidelines, news Includes: Goodman & Gilman, Harrisons, Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment, and the Lange series. Includes: Goodman & Gilman, Harrisons, Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment, and the Lange series. Drug monographs (include images, chemical structures, patient education materials) provided by Gold Standard Drug monographs (include images, chemical structures, patient education materials) provided by Gold Standard Patient education handouts on common medical problems provided by Postgraduate medicine Patient education handouts on common medical problems provided by Postgraduate medicine

117 Tertiary Resource117 (http://clinicalresource.ovid.com/autologin.html) Collection of books, clinical practice guidelines, patient education materials and links to databases Collection of books, clinical practice guidelines, patient education materials and links to databases Includes: Clin-eguide, Facts and Comparisons and 5- Minute Consult series Includes: Clin-eguide, Facts and Comparisons and 5- Minute Consult series

118 Tertiary Resource118 MD Consult Collection of textbooks, journals, drug information, guidelines, patient education handouts, news and updates Collection of textbooks, journals, drug information, guidelines, patient education handouts, news and updates Drug information and updates from Mosbys drug Consult, package insert information, FDA information Drug information and updates from Mosbys drug Consult, package insert information, FDA information Customizable patient handouts – diseases and drugs Customizable patient handouts – diseases and drugs

119 Tertiary Resource119 MedlinePlus (http://medlineplus.gov) NLMs database aimed at consumers for health and wellness information NLMs database aimed at consumers for health and wellness information English and Spanish versions as well as large print and audio English and Spanish versions as well as large print and audio Includes health topics, drug information, dictionaries, interactive tutorials, directories and links to other resources Includes health topics, drug information, dictionaries, interactive tutorials, directories and links to other resources

120 Tertiary Resource120 MedlinePlus Especially good for quick overview, including statistics, of topics and illustrations Especially good for quick overview, including statistics, of topics and illustrations Drug information includes MedMaster from ASHP, USP DI Advice for Patients, Natural Standard Online (for natural products) and links to FDA and ClinicalTrials.gov Drug information includes MedMaster from ASHP, USP DI Advice for Patients, Natural Standard Online (for natural products) and links to FDA and ClinicalTrials.gov

121 Tertiary Resource121 Micromedex Healthcare series (http://www.thomsonhc.com/hcs/librarian/) Collection of databases that can be searched individually or all together contents of collection depends on your subscription Collection of databases that can be searched individually or all together contents of collection depends on your subscription Includes DrugDex and Drug Consults, IV Compatibility, PoisIndex, AltMedDex, Martindale, Reproprisk, TOMES and CareNotes Includes DrugDex and Drug Consults, IV Compatibility, PoisIndex, AltMedDex, Martindale, Reproprisk, TOMES and CareNotes

122 Tertiary Resource122 Micromedex Healthcare series Use for detailed information about medications (US and foreign) and natural products as well as exposures to chemicals, toxins and poisonous animals and plants Use for detailed information about medications (US and foreign) and natural products as well as exposures to chemicals, toxins and poisonous animals and plants Lengthy bibliographies Lengthy bibliographies Instructions for citing under Warranties a& Disclaimers link Instructions for citing under Warranties a& Disclaimers link

123 Tertiary Resource123 UpToDate (http://www.uptodateonline.com/) Evidence-based electronic textbook of medicine Evidence-based electronic textbook of medicine Lexi-Interact Drug Interactions program from Lexi- Comp for drug interactions Lexi-Interact Drug Interactions program from Lexi- Comp for drug interactions Links from drug names to Lexi-Comp drug information within monographs Links from drug names to Lexi-Comp drug information within monographs Provides recommendations for good practice Provides recommendations for good practice Graphs and tables that may be exported to personal documents Graphs and tables that may be exported to personal documents

124 Tertiary Resource124 B.Drug and Natural Products Information Resources

125 Tertiary Resource125 Facts & Comparisons (http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/) Collection of resources that can be searched individually or all together – drugs and natural products Collection of resources that can be searched individually or all together – drugs and natural products Includes Drug Facts & Comparisons, Nonprescription Drug therapy, Drug Interaction Facts, Review of Natural Products, MedFacts Patient information Includes Drug Facts & Comparisons, Nonprescription Drug therapy, Drug Interaction Facts, Review of Natural Products, MedFacts Patient information

126 Tertiary Resource126 Facts & Comparisons Print version has been gold standard for drug information for years Print version has been gold standard for drug information for years Includes comparison tables for drugs by class or pharmacological action Includes comparison tables for drugs by class or pharmacological action In general, references are included in the Drug Interactions section and in drug class monographs but not in individual drug monographs In general, references are included in the Drug Interactions section and in drug class monographs but not in individual drug monographs

127 Tertiary Resource127 Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database ( Comprehensive, evidence-based information about herbal and dietary supplements used in the US and Canada Comprehensive, evidence-based information about herbal and dietary supplements used in the US and Canada Produced by publishers of Prescribers' Letter and Physicians' Letter Produced by publishers of Prescribers' Letter and Physicians' Letter Many products have patient handouts Many products have patient handouts

128 Tertiary Resource128 Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Updated daily Updated daily Several entry points, e.g. product or common name, scientific name, people use Several entry points, e.g. product or common name, scientific name, people use this for, interactions with foods, herbs, dietary supplements, lab tests, diseases or conditions this for, interactions with foods, herbs, dietary supplements, lab tests, diseases or conditions


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