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Comprehensive Internationalization: A U.S. Perspective

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1 Comprehensive Internationalization: A U.S. Perspective
Penelope Pynes, Ph.D. University of North Carolina Greensboro November 22, 2013 Pleno CICUE y Encuentro de Expertos de Bolonia Caceres, Spain Thanks for the invitation to come and share a US perspective. I am honored to be here. I will probably echo many of the sentiments expressed by Elspeth (Jones) in the previous presentation. My presentation will emphasize how a country like the US that doesn’t have an overarching internationalization strategy policy proceeds to internationalize its various institutions.

2 Similarities/Differences
Talking points Similarities/Differences ACE/NAFSA concepts of comprehensive internationalization UNCG’s strategic example Questions and answers I’d like to highlight a few differences and similarities between Europe, EU and the US; talk briefly about two different organizations’ perspectives on comprehensive internationalization; (that is, ACE and NAFSA) and give some examples from my region and institution of how we have attempted to proceed strategically with our internationalization efforts. I’d then like to open the floor for questions and comments. I apologize in advance for repeating things you well know as experts in the field.

3 Student mobility One distinct similarity is that in looking at internationalization, we can all say that twenty years ago our main activity was student mobility—plain and simple.

4 Internationalization at home Global learning outcomes
More recently have the expectations been to go beyond student mobility to incorporate such things as global learning outcomes or establish programs and objectives for things like internationalization at home. The imperative to internationalize in a more strategic manner is a more recent phenomenon that we all recognize.

5 U.S. Liberal Arts Tradition
One thing about our US educational system that is different from most European institutions: As many of you know, in the US we have a strong tradition of liberal arts education at the undergraduate level. That means that our students spend almost two years adding to their general knowledge of the world and adding to their understanding of different fields of study before delving into their specific major. That leaves a little more room for electives and also allows for a flexibility in scheduling classes. We have very few lock step programs in the US. I mention this because when we look at some of the knowledge, skills and attitudes we want students to have in terms of preparing them for the 21st Century, many of those skills do not fall into the realm of academic knowledge (hard skills). More often they are intercultural and interpersonal skills (we often refer to the former as hard skills and the latter as soft skills). Many of our faculty prefer that these soft skills be the under the purview of the liberal arts or general education rather than in their own major areas. Therefore, we have to spend more time discussing how to incorporate these types of skills into the major.

6 American Council on Education
Let’s look first at how one organization advocates for internationalization.; that organization is the American Council on Education. NB: much of the information I will be using in the next few slides can be found at the website listed at the end of this presentation. ACE is the nation’s most visible and influential higher education association. The organization represents the presidents of U.S. accredited, degree-granting institutions, which include two- and four-year colleges, private and public universities, and nonprofit and for-profit entities. Their strength lies in their loyal and diverse base of more than 1,800 member institutions, 75 percent of which have been with ACE for over 10 years. ACE convenes representatives from all sectors to collectively tackle the toughest higher education challenges, with a focus on improving access and preparing every student to succeed. (We have different presidential associations for specific university types—e.g., AASCU, APLU for more specific university types, but ACE is the most broad based.) NB: ACE works primarily with presidents and chief academic officers (CAO) so they understand what occupies their time and energy . Access to education and completion of education particularly in times of limited resources are very critical issues to presidents in the US. One area of ACE is its Center for Internationalization and Global Engagement (CIGE).

7 Regional Accreditation
much more advocacy-based approach to internationalization. Our professional organizations play an important role in advocating for educational policies and guidelines that further internationalization. Without an overarching strategy that is mandated by such a governmental organization, individual institutions must grapple with their own concept of comprehensive internationalization, and determine how best to proceed in their institutional context. Nonetheless, we recognize that all institutions need to internationalize, so we often work together in order not to “reinvent the wheel” every time we undertake new projects. Regional Accreditation In the US we don’t have one accrediting body. In fact, accreditation generally takes place at the more regional level. In general, our US department of Education doesn’t wield a lot of power when it comes to instituting overarching policies for tertiary education nor for curriculum. That is seen as a function of the state (and local government). It wields more power in terms of money allocated to programs such as Fulbright and Financial Aid. (As our institutions are dependent on tuition and fees, making sure students are able to finance their education is very important.) As a result, we as a nation need a much more advocacy-based approach to internationalization. Our professional organizations play an important role in advocating for educational policies and guidelines that further internationalization. Without an overarching strategy that is mandated by such a governmental organization, individual institutions must grapple with their own concept of comprehensive internationalization, and determine how best to proceed in their institutional context. Nonetheless, we recognize that all institutions need to internationalize, so we often work together in order not to “reinvent the wheel” every time we undertake new projects.

8 ACE’s CIGE ACE's Center for Internationalization and Global Engagement (CIGE) provides in-depth analysis of critical international education issues and administers programs and services to support higher education institutions' internationalization and global engagement strategies Comprehensive internationalization, as defined by CIGE, is a strategic, coordinated process that seeks to align and integrate policies, programs, and initiatives to position colleges and universities as more globally oriented and internationally connected institutions. Quick discussion of CIGE. Note ACE’s definition of comprehensive internationalization.

9 ACE Model of Comprehensive Internationalization
CIGE has 6 pillars of concentration in its articulation of internationalization. I will speak briefly about each. Articulated Institutional Commitment Administrative Structure and Staffing Curriculum, Co-curriculum, and Learning Outcomes  Faculty Policies and Practices Student Mobility Collaboration and Partnerships The information in the following slides (9-15) can be found on their website:

10 Articulated Institutional Commitment
Strategic planning Internationalization committee Campus stakeholders Assessment ​ Institutions must ask themselves where they stand on each of the pillars and what are their action plans. Strategic planning involving key stakeholders articulates an institution’s commitment to internationalization and provides a roadmap for implementation. Strategic planning. Internationalization is prioritized in mission statements and institution-wide strategic plans and through explicit internationalization plans. Internationalization committee. A steering committee comprised of representatives from across the campus is designated to oversee implementation of internationalization initiatives. Campus stakeholders. Focus groups, surveys and open discussions convey priorities, address concerns and gain buy-in by students, faculty, staff and other stakeholders. Assessment. Following from articulated goals, progress and outcomes of internationalization are formally measured and assessed.

11 A Administrative Structure and Staffing
Senior leadership International office The involvement of top leaders, and appropriate administrative and reporting structures form an essential framework for implementing internationalization. Senior leadership. The president and CAO are committed to internationalization and are engaged in the process from the start. International office. An office or offices are designated to coordinate campus-wide internationalization activities. The faculty or staff member primarily responsible for internationalization reports to the CAO or president.

12 Curriculum, Co-Curriculum, and Learning Outcomes
General education requirements Internationalized courses in the disciplines Co-curriculum  Student learning outcomes  Technology ​As a core purpose of higher education, student learning is a critical element of internationalization. An internationalized curriculum and co-curriculum ensure that all students are exposed to international perspectives and build global competence.  Globally-focused student learning outcomes articulate specific knowledge and skills to be addressed in courses and programs.  General education requirements. Courses that focus on foreign language, regional studies and global issues are included in undergraduate general education requirements. Internationalized courses in the disciplines. Courses within each major incorporate international perspectives and highlight global issues in the field. Co-curriculum.  Programs and activities address global issues, reinforce international elements of the curriculum, facilitate discussion and interaction among students of different backgrounds and support the integration and success of international students on campus. Student learning outcomes.  Internationally-focused competencies are included in campus-wide student learning outcome goals and assessments. Technology. Technology is used in innovative ways to enhance global learning, e.g. through joint coursework and interactions with students and faculty abroad.

13 Faculty Policies and Practices
Tenure and promotion policies Hiring guidelines Faculty mobility On-campus professional development As the primary drivers of teaching and research, faculty play a pivotal role in campus internationalization. Institutional policies and support mechanisms ensure that faculty have opportunities to develop international competence and are able to maximize the impact of these experiences on student learning. Tenure and promotion policies.  Tenure codes state explicitly that international work and experience should be considered in tenure and promotion decisions. Hiring guidelines. International background, experience and interests are among the criteria upon which faculty candidates are evaluated. Faculty mobility. Faculty have opportunities to teach, conduct research and attend conferences abroad. Administrative and funding mechanisms support faculty participation in outside programs (e.g. Fulbright). On-campus professional development.  Workshops, seminars and other programs help faculty build international competence and incorporate international perspectives into their teaching.

14 Credit transfer policies Financial aid and funding
Student Mobility Credit transfer policies Financial aid and funding Orientation and re-entry programs Ongoing support and programs for international students Student mobility, which refers both to the outward flow of domestic students to other countries to engage in an education abroad experience and the inward flow of international students to study at U.S. campuses, is often a focus of internationalization efforts. Orientations, re-entry programs and other support structures and activities help facilitate student adjustment and maximize learning. Credit transfer policies. Students can easily earn credit for study abroad through approved programs. Financial aid and funding. Student financial aid is applied to approved study abroad programs, and resources are available to help students locate additional funding. Scholarships and other funding are available for international students. Orientation and re-entry programs. Orientation and re-entry programs help students maximize learning during study abroad, and integrate knowledge gained into their overall program of study. Academic and cultural orientation sessions are provided to all incoming international students. Ongoing support and programs for international students. Academic and social support structures and programs facilitate international students’ full integration into campus life.

15 Collaboration and Partnerships
Strategic planning Partner selection Formal agreements Assessment Partnership tracking ​U.S. institutions are increasingly pursuing opportunities to expand their global reach through collaboration and partnerships, including student and faculty exchanges, joint and dual degrees, branch campuses and other off-shore programs. Careful planning, ongoing support and regular assessment are important to the success of such ventures. Strategic planning. Collaborations are aligned with institutional mission, goals and available resources. Adequate time is allotted for development. Partner selection. Potential partners are carefully reviewed and selected based on shared goals, mission fit and ability to support and sustain the collaboration. The scope of each relationship (e.g. friendship agreement, program-level collaboration or institution-wide partnership) is clearly defined. Formal agreements. Memoranda of Understanding detail partnership goals, each party’s responsibilities and financial obligations as well as evaluation procedures. Also included, a release/termination clause. Assessment. Partnerships are regularly reviewed for both operational and programmatic effectiveness. Changes are discussed and implemented as needed. Partnership tracking. Institutions track their partnerships and agreements, and they make information easily accessible to faculty, staff and students.

16 ACE Internationalization Laboratory and Collaboratory
Two initiatives of the CIGE are the ACE internationalization laboratory and its international collaboratory. Each year approximately 8 institutions (of differing sizes and missions) are selected to work together as they do a self-study to determine their level of internationalization and work campus-wide to develop global learning outcomes. They then share their work with each other and have the opportunity to share once a year at the Collaboratory meeting—now often held in conjunction with the AIEA in February. As the ACE works with presidents this is a very effective way to help internationalize campuses because to do such a study really needs support from the top administration. The ACE helps throughout the process and works to make the connection between top leadership and international offices (where they exist) stronger. I’ll speak in a moment about our participation in the 2010 Internationalization laboratory, but before that let me turn to another organization.

17 NAFS A Call for International Policy
An international education policy should: Promote international, foreign-language, and area studies. Create a comprehensive strategy to restore America’s status as a magnet for international students and scholars. Create a comprehensive strategy to establish study abroad as an integral component of undergraduate education. Strengthen citizen- and community-based exchange programs. Source: website in resources NAFSA (sister organization to EAIE) advances policies that connect students, scholars, and citizens across borders. We believe international education leads to a more peaceful world. You can see here its advocacy for an overarching international policy. More information can be found on the NAFSA website listed at the end of the presentation.

18 Comprehensive Internationalization
Commitment to action Strategic Level Operational level Multiple paths/ common aspirations mainstream, integrate, expand and interconnect Rationales Take advantage of key events at institution Hudzik/McCarthy (2012) NAFSA has published several white papers about comprehensive internationalization and I would like to summarize briefly critical points made by Hudzik and McCarthy in a recent publication (listed in the resources). CIZN is a commitment to action both at the strategic and operational level and these must be done simultaneously There are many paths to CIZN but they must be couched as common aspirations: Mainstream—impact all Integrate into core missions of teaching research and service Expand stakeholder, and responsibilities across campus Interconnect activities Understanding the rationales/drivers for each institution is critical. There may be different rationales for different stakeholders but it must be clearly understood that CIZN is a means not an end in itself. It helps to take advantage of key events at an institution (for example, a new president). Accreditation timelines can be helpful as well. Accreditation: in our region (SACS) each institution as a part of our accreditation reaffirmation has to have a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP). That is, we choose an area that we believe needs improvement and select learning outcomes to be measured in relation to this QEP topic. Some institutions have used this mechanism to incorporate Global Learning Outcomes into curriculum.

19 Talk about this slide: With the arrival of a new president at UNCG in 2008, we started designing our five year strategic plan. Thourgh that process we incorporated internationalization into our university mission and vision statement and into our strategic plan as one of five key areas. We participated in the ACE Internationalization Laboratory in Through that process we met with more than 2/3 of academic departments soliciting input. We submitted our report in December 2011, had an external visit and review of our proposal and then presented the results to the Deans Council and Faculty Senate (fall 2012). As a result we have selected Global Engagement as our QEP topic and are currently writing our proposal. NB: for the first time in our Capital Campaign we will have Internationalization as one of our overarching goals to raise money.

20 UNCG’s QEP: Global engagement Student Competencies
Knowledge of contemporary issues within a global framework (Knowledge) Knowledge of the diverse ethical and value dimensions of issues within a global framework (Knowledge) Openness to seeking and experiencing new ways of thinking and engaging diverse cultural situations (Attitudes) Ability to engage in a culturally appropriate manner in international, cross-cultural, and/or multicultural contexts. (Skills) You can see here the four global engagement competencies we are working to incorporate into our first year experiences, our co-curricular programs and into the majors. Knowledge of contemporary issues within a global framework (Knowledge) UNCG graduates ought to know the timely issues of the day at all levels of human activity (global, regional, national, and local) and be able to address them intellectually and practically as issues that are part of an interconnected and interdependent world. “Knowing” contemporary issues in this sense requires understanding the history that underpins those issues (or events), and ultimately the relevance of them in the students’ lives as members of multiple communities. Their understanding of these issues must also take into account multiple lenses, including political, economic, social, artistic, cultural, environmental, scientific, and technological perspectives. Knowledge of the diverse ethical and value dimensions of issues within a global framework (Knowledge) This competency emphasizes a knowledge not only of basic human rights—particularly as those rights have been expressed by the global community in documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—but also of the impact of the world’s diverse cultures upon them. Beyond understanding the canon of human rights, this competency speaks to the students’ appreciation of ethical perspectives on critical global issues that are different from their own and that must be understood if common ground is to be found to solve problems in contemporary society. It also requires the student to grapple internally with the tension of competing ethical and value principles that must be balanced in personal decision-making. Openness to seeking and experiencing new ways of thinking and engaging diverse cultural situations (Attitudes) The development of an attitude of openness in these two ways implies that a UNCG graduate will be resistant to cultural stereotyping and aware that one’s view of the world is not necessarily universally shared. It also implies awareness and appreciation that others who operate from a different cultural perspective derive from their perspective the same life orienting sense of meaning, value and purpose that one derives from one’s own cultural perspective. To be successful in the global community the graduate must be flexible, empathetic, and tolerant toward ambiguity arising from unfamiliarity with other cultures. Ability to engage in a culturally appropriate manner in international, cross-cultural, and/or multicultural contexts. (Skills) In order to solve problems in a global environment, students must be able to use diverse cultural frames of reference. This skill arises in part from an attitude that is open to alternative cultures and does not automatically privilege one’s own culture over others. Thus, learning competency #4 is closely associated with LC3, and speaks to an approach to the world that engages not only the intellect but also one’s full being. LC4 also reflects national expectations found in the literature on internationalization that suggests students are best prepared for success in 21st century professional and civic life when they have had sufficient experience working with diverse populations. This competency is an enduring priority of the intercultural sensitivity promoted at UNCG through a variety of academic programs and co-curricular agencies. It is the firm intention that these skills, whether the product of experiences gained through study abroad or through everyday interactions in and outside the classroom and in the highly diverse communities in and around UNCG’s campus, will equip our students to interact with peoples of other cultures in an appropriate and, whenever possible, positive manner.

21 Thanks and Questions

22 Resources American Council on Education CIGE Model for Campus Internationalization. Internationalization.aspx Hudzik, John K Comprehensive Internationalization: From Concept to Action. NAFSA. Hudzik, John K. and McCarthy, JoAnn S Leading Comprehensive Internationalization: Strategy and Tactics for Action. NAFSA. ications_Library/Leading%20CIZN.pdf NAFSA: International Education Policy For U.S. Leadership, Competitiveness, and Security. ed_States_International_Education_Policy/An_International_Education_Policy_For_U_S_ _Leadership,_Competitiveness,_and_Security/

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