Presentation on theme: "BIO-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES"— Presentation transcript:
1BIO-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES Tadeusz MajewskiDepartment of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering
2Every year end-of life vehicles in the Community generate between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste, which must be managed correctly.DERICITIVE 2000/53/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCILon end-of life vehiclesThis Directive should cover vehicles and end-of live vehicles, including their components and materials, as well as spare and replacement parts, without prejudice to safe standards, air emission and noise control.12. The recycling of all plastics from end-of life vehicles should be continuously improved. The Commission is currently examining the environmental impacts of PVC. The Commission will, on the basis of this work, make proposals as appropriate as to the use of PVC including considerations for vehicles.
3The legislation provides for the creation of collection schemes where consumers return their used e-waste free of charge.The objective of these schemes is to increase the recycling and/or re-use of such products.It also requires heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium and flame retardants such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) to be substituted by safer alternatives.
4Article L0053-ENReuse and recovery2(a) no later than 1 January 2006, for all end-of life vehicles, the reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85 % by an average weight per vehicle and year. Within the same time limit the reuse and recycling shall be increased to a minimum of 80 % by an average weight per vehicle and year;for vehicles produced before 1 January 1980, Member States may lay down lower targets, but not lower than 75 % for reuse and recovery and not lower than 70 % for reuse and recycling.2(b) no later than 1 January 2015, for all end-of life vehicles, the reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 95 % by an average weight per vehicle and year. Within the same time limit, the re-use and recycling shall be increased to a minimum of 85 % by an average weight per vehicle and year.
5Publications Wood and Natural Fibre Composites Universität KasselInstitut für Werkstofftechnik Kunststoff- und RecyclingtechnikProf. Dr.-Ing. Andrzej K. BledzkiPublications Wood and Natural Fibre Composites(1996 – 2010 altogether > 60 publications)*650 citations till 2010 (only in 2009: 121 citations, IF 16,818) Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibers Progress in Polymer Science 24 (1999) 2, , A.K. Bledzki, J. Gassan *263 citations till 2010 (IF 1,187) Properties and modification methods for vegetable fibers for natural fiber composites Journal of Applied Polymer Science 59 (1996) A.K. Bledzki, S. Reihmane, J. Gassan *143 citations till 2010 (IF 1,951) The influence of fiber surface treatment on the mechanical propertiesof jute-polypropylene-composites Composites 28 A (1997) J. Gassan, A.K. Bledzki
6Raw materials as cellulose fibers (abaca, jute, hemp, sisal, kenaf, cotton), soft or hard wood fibers are widely used in an industry.They have very interesting field of applications because of their promising properties.These materials need further investigation to improve their properties and increase their applications. Some of their drawbacks can be improved in further research.The parts from the composite materials are produced by injection moulding or extrusion.Automotive industry is interested in new materials, because according to new regulations cars should be partially decomposable or recyclable.
8Automotive applications Mercedes-Benz Class S with environmental certificateComponents made from different bio fibre reinforced composites
9Under floor protection trim of Mercedes A class made from banana fibre reinforced composites (Source: DaimlerChrysler Awarded for Banana Fibre Use in Mercedes A ClassAutomotive interior components made from wood fibre reinforced composites (Source: Bledzki et al., Cars from Bio-Fibres, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2006, 291, )
10Front sideBack side with air bag sheetAutomotive instrumental panel with integrated airbag flap made from bio-fibre reinforced composites (Source: Bledzki et al., Cars from Bio-Fibres, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2006, 291, )
11PROPERTIES OF PARTS MADE OF WPC: Small weight, Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) is widely used in automotive and domestic industry. With addition of natural fibers the composite materials obtain better properties, they are cheaper and friendly for the environment.Cellulose fibers - abaca, jute, hemp, sisal, kenaf, cotton, soft or hard wood fibersThe parts from the composite materials are produced by injection moulding or extrusion.Natural fibers, thanks to their lightweight, the strength and the low cost may replace artificial/mineral (glass or coal) fillers in many parts.NomenclatureWPC- Woof Fiber CompositePP575 – PolypropylenPAN – PolyacrylnitrilPET - PolyethylenterephthalatW - SoftwoodCordenka – Man made cellulose fiber%wt –percentage weight of fiberPROPERTIES OF PARTS MADE OF WPC:Small weight,Small use of energy during production,Good mechanical properties,Good acoustic isolation,Renewable materials.Abaca [aabaca]-konopie, Manila (hemp)– konopie manilskie (cáñamo), shell of rice –cáscara, jute [dzilt]-juta, hemp [hemp]-cáñamo, sisal [sisal]-sizal, kenaf [kenaf]-
12Compression molding in a tempered mold, Mat compression moulding:: Fibrowood (Johnson Controls)Wood fibre mat with resinSubstrate ready forcovering processCompression molding in a tempered mold,demolding
13Bast Fibres with Thermosetting Binder Mat compression moulding:NF-EPNatural fibrematSliding of theEP resinMat with resinSubstrateCompression moldingDryingDeflectorMixing pipeCuttingProcess stepsIn-Line covering of NF-mat with Epoxy ResinNF-mat is pressed in the final shape in a Hot pressing toolPart is cut in its final shape
14Bast Fibres with Thermosetting Binder Carrier vacuum covered with Foam-FoilCarrierComplete Door Panel
18Mechanical properties Laboratory scale testing device for measuring E
19Elastic modulus for WPC and its changing with temperature WPC- Woof Fiber CompositePP575 – PolypropylenPAN – PolyacrylnitrilPET - PolyethylenterephthalatW - SoftwoodCordenka – Man made cellulose fiber%wt –percentage weight of fiberElastic modulus for different specimens
20Comparison E from different methods WPC- Woof Fiber CompositePAN – PolyacrylnitrilThe difference between the results obtained from my laboratory scale testing device for the same type of material were no greater than 5 %Comparison E from different methodsFirst bar – tension,second bar – bending,third bar – DMA (Dynamic Measurement Analyzer )fourth bar –testing device
21Shear modulus - G Testing device My testing device: 1234My testing device:The relative error of the storage modulus about 5%
22Laboratory stands for measuring the shear modulus G
27The directive of European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 20007 organized EUROPEAN COMMISSIONTraducir esta páginaHas publicado que a ti también te gusta esto. DeshacerFormato de archivo: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Vista rápida adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 18 September 2000, also ... The reuse, recovery and recycling of end-of-life vehicles is encouraged ... are allowed to transpose some of its soft-law provisions by means of agreements ...