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UNITS V & VI: Public Policy and Civil Rights & Liberties.

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1 UNITS V & VI: Public Policy and Civil Rights & Liberties

2 Directions: Score each activity below using the guidelines provided. Write your score on the line provided. If you do not have an activity for a day you had an excused absence, write the letter A on the line provided, otherwise write a 0. Then add up your scores. Total Points (TP) _____ Actual Total (AT) _____ (49 pts.*) Notes: Total Points (TP) is the sum of your warm up scores. To determine your TP, add up the scores for all of your warm ups/written activities. Actual Total (AT) is the sum of a perfect score for each warm-up activity. To determine your AT, add up the scores for all of warm ups you were present for (*the true actual total – perfect attendance). TOTAL SCORE _____/10

3 Janet Yellin

4 a.Explain why the Federal Reserve System was created and for what purpose. [1 pt] b.Describe how each Fed tool to regulate monetary policy works. discount rate [1] reserve requirement [1] open market operations [1] c.Explain the reasons why the Fed is often called the bankers bank. [1] 1) 4/21 Score: _____/5

5 FIGURE 16.4: Effective Federal Funds Rate, 1998–2012 16.3 Why did the Federal reserve Board reduce interest rates so drastically in 2007?

6 a.What is the purpose of a central bank? b.How did an extraordinary event challenge the infrastructure of the financial system? c.What role does the central bank play in responding to a crisis situation? d.Be sure to describe the following in your response. Liquidity Payments System Fed Wire

7 Fiscal policy and monetary policy are two tools used by the federal government to influence the United States economy. The executive and legislative branches share the responsibility of setting fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve Board has the primary role of setting monetary policy. [2008 - #3] a) Define fiscal policy [1 pt] b) Describe one significant way the executive branch influences fiscal policy. [1] c) Describe one significant way the legislative branch influences fiscal policy. [1] d) Define monetary policy.[1] e) Explain two reasons why the Federal Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy. [2] 2) 4/22 Score: _____/6

8 6 points Part (a): 1 point One point is earned for a correct definition of fiscal policy. Acceptable definitions include: Taxing and/or spending The budget Part (b): 1 point One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the executive branch influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include: The president proposes/prepares the federal budget. The president signs/vetoes legislation (related to taxing, spending, and borrowing, not generic). The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) recommends the budget. Part (c): 1 point One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the legislative branch influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include: Congress passes the federal budget. Congress acts on tax and spending legislation. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) advises Congress on economic policies. Part (d): 1 point One point is earned for a correct definition of monetary policy. Acceptable definitions include: Regulating the money supply. Adjusting bank reserve requirements. Controlling inflation/deflation. The cost of money. Adjusting interest rates to regulate the economy. Part (e): 2 points One point is earned for each of two explanations of why the Federal Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy. Acceptable explanations include: It removes politics from monetary policy decision making. Congress/the president can abdicate responsibility for difficult decisions by delegating decision-making power. The Federal Reserve Board relies on expertise when making decisions. The Federal Reserve Board makes economic policies efficiently.

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10 MISSION STATEMENT A mission statement is a brief explanation of what a group or organization hopes to achieve. Schools have mission statements. So do companies and nonprofit groups. Below are modified versions of two real mission statements: The mission of the Chicago Zoological Society is to inspire people to be leaders in the field of conservation leadership. The Society does that by connecting people with wildlife and nature. The mission of Locks of Love is to help children who have lost their hair feel confident and normal. Locks of Love uses donated ponytails to provide high quality hairpieces and wigs to children who cannot afford to buy a good wig.

11 THE TASK Recently, the FCPS BoE determined that students at each district school should help write the mission statement for their school. With a partner(s), write a mission statement for Tuscarora H.S. Use the outline below to help prepare your statement: A.Overall goal: What is the most important purpose of your school? B.Three ways to achieve this goal: How will your school fulfill its purpose? 1. 2. 3.

12 FOLLOW-UP When you are finished, exchange mission statements with another group. a.How similar are the statements? b.What are the most important differences? c.Will you make an revisions to your statement? Why or why not?

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14 THE PREAMBLE We the People of the United States, in Order to (1) form a more perfect union, (2) establish justice, (3) insure domestic Tranquility, (4) provide for the common defense, (5) promote the general Welfare, and (6) secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish the Constitution of the United States of America. The Preamble has been called the mission statement of the U.S. It describes why the Framers were creating a new government. Besides the Framers desire to form a more perfect union, the Preamble established five purposed for the Constitution.

15 PurposeGoal Form a More Perfect Union Improve upon the Articles Establish Justice Create courts & fair justice system Insure Domestic Tranquility Prevent violent uprisings; Shays Rebellion Provide for the Common Defense Strong defense needed to defend from attacks Promote the General Welfare Build strong economy; pursue property (happiness) Secure the Blessing of Liberty Protect unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

16 DBQ ACTIVITY/TASK A.First, examine the spending in each of cluster of the federal budget: (1) The Big Five; (2) The Middle Five; and (3) The Little Guys. B.Then, using the five goals of the Preamble as your guide, identify the most important spending changes that should be made in each cluster. [1 ea.] C.These are the rules: 1.No budget category in the Big Five may be cut my more than 10%. 2.Any budget increases must be paid for by equal cuts elsewhere. 3.You may add & subtract across clusters (i.e., an increase in FBI (Little Guy) spending, could be taken out of Medicare (Big Five). 4.Any changes you make must be justified by explaining how they meet the goals of the Preamble. 3) 4/23 Score: _____ (3 pts)

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22 In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a substantial portion of the United States federal budget. Social Security is the largest entitlement program in the United States. From the information in the chart above and your knowledge of United States government and politics, perform the following tasks. [2006 - #2] a)Define entitlement program. b)What is the primary source of revenue for the Social Security program? c)Identify one threat to the future of the Social Security program should the trends depicted in the chart above continue. d)Describe one demographic trend that threatens the future of the Social Security program AND explain how it is responsible for the threat that you identified in (c). e)Explain how any one of the trends in the chart above would change if the age of eligibility for Social Security were raised. Gov. sponsored prog. providing mandated/guaranteed/required benefits to those who meet eligibility reqs/qualifications Payroll tax/Based on income (related to work/job) Run out of $ Outputs exceed inputs Declining reserve Baby boomers; Aging pop./ life expect/ birth rate

23 In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a substantial portion of the United States federal budget. Social Security is the largest entitlement program in the United States. From the information in the chart above and your knowledge of United States government and politics, perform the following tasks. [2006 - #2] a)Define entitlement program. [1 pt[ b)What is the primary source of revenue for the Social Security program? [1] c)Identify one threat to the future of the Social Security program should the trends depicted in the chart above continue. [1] d)Describe one demographic trend that threatens the future of the Social Security program AND explain how it is responsible for the threat that you identified in (c). [2] e)Explain how any one of the trends in the chart above would change if the age of eligibility for Social Security were raised. [1] 4) 4/24 Score: _____/6

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25 A number of factors enable presidents to exert influence over Congress in the area of domestic policy. However, presidents are also limited in their influence over domestic policymaking in Congress. [2008 -#2] a)The Constitution grants the president certain enumerated powers. Describe two of these formal powers that enable the president to exert influence over domestic policy. [2 pts] b)Choose two of the following. Define each term and explain how each limits the presidents ability to influence domestic policymaking in Congress. [4] mandatory spending party polarization lame-duck period SRQ 5) 4/25 Score: _____/6

26 A number of factors enable presidents to exert influence over Congress in the area of domestic policy. However, presidents are also limited in their influence over domestic policymaking in Congress. [2008 -#2] a)The Constitution grants the president certain enumerated powers. Describe two of these formal powers that enable the president to exert influence over domestic policy. b)Choose two of the following. Define each term and explain how each limits the presidents ability to influence domestic policymaking in Congress. mandatory spending party polarization lame-duck period SRQ

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28 a) What, according to Monroe, are the differences between the interests of Europe and those of the Western Hemisphere? Is this still the case? b) What was Mark Twain trying to convey about war? c) In this era of globalization, what are the lines between domestic and international policy? d) Is the traditional nation-state becoming a historic relic?

29 Using the information in the figure … and your knowledge of U.S. politics, complete the following tasks. [2002 - #2] a)Describe what the figure above demonstrates about the distribution of government benefits over time. b)Identify two politically relevant factors that have affected the changing distribution of government benefits between children and the elderly. c)Explain how each of the two factors identified in (b) has affected the changing distribution of government benefits.

30 5 points

31 Making it Relevant 13

32 The 10 Amendments (Song) 1)For the First Amendment my Founders gave to me freedom of speech, press, religion and assembly 2)For the Second Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to carry an uzi 3)For the Third Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to keep my home free 4)For the Fourth Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to privacy 5)For the Fifth Amendment my Founders gave to me DUE PROCESS RIGHTS 6)For the Sixth Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to a speedy trial with an attorney 7)For the Seventh Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to a trial by jury 8)For the Eighth Amendment my Founders gave to me the right to a fair penalty 9)For the Ninth Amendment my Founders gave to me reserved individual liberties 10)For the Tenth Amendment my Founders gave to me power to the states respectively

33 Express an Opinion Protect Your Privacy Maintain Social Order 1.… assembly (1 st Amend.) 2. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.

34 The First Amendment includes two clauses relating to the freedom of religion. [2007 - #2] a) Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the United States Supreme Court based its decision. [1 pt] Engel v. Vitale (school prayer) Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private religious schools) b) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (a). [1] c) Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision. [1] Reynolds v. United States (polygamy) Oregon v. Smith (drug use in religious ceremonies) d) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (c). [1] e) Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the United States. Describe two ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of Supreme Court decisions. [2] 6) 4/30 Score: _____/6

35 The First Amendment includes two clauses relating to the freedom of religion. [2007 - #2] a) Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the United States Supreme Court based its decision. Engel v. Vitale (school prayer) Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private religious schools) b) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (a). c) Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision. Reynolds v. United States (polygamy) Oregon v. Smith (drug use in religious ceremonies) d) Describe the Supreme Courts decision in the case that you selected in (c). e) Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the United States. Describe two ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of Supreme Court decisions. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

36 Facts: A New York State law required public schools to open each day with the Pledge of Allegiance and a nondenominational prayer in which the students recognized their dependence upon God. The law allowed students to absent themselves from this activity if they found it objectionable. A parent sued on behalf of his child, arguing that the law violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, as made applicable to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Issue: Does the voluntary use of a government-composed, non- denominational, voluntary prayer in the public schools violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment of the Constitution?

37 Decision: Official prayer in public schools is a violation of the Constitution which states "Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion..." State laws requiring or permitting use of the Regents' prayer must be struck down as a violation of the Establishment Clause. … it is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers for any group of the American people to recite as a part of a religious program carried on by government. The New York laws officially prescribing the Regent's prayer are inconsistent both with the purposes of the Establishment Clause and with the Establishment Clause itself

38 Facts Pennsylvania and Rhode Island statutes provided state aid to church-related elementary and secondary schools. A group of individual taxpayers and religious liberty organizations filed suit, challenging the constitutionality of the program. They claimed that, since the program primarily aided parochial schools, it violated the Establishment Clause. Issue: The Court looked to three (3) factors in determining the constitutionality of the contested programs, factors that would become known as the Lemon test. Lemon v. Katzman (1971)

39 The Lemon Test & SC Decision In a unanimous decision, the Court held that both programs violate the Establishment Clause because they create excessive entanglement between a religious entity and the state. 1. Did the legislature pass the statute based on a secular legislative purpose? The Court could find no evidence that the goal of the Pennsylvania or Rhode Island legislatures was to advance religion 2. Does the program(s) have the primary effect of advancing or inhibiting religion? The Court bypassed this prong by examining the third prong and finding a violation there, thus removing the need for analysis of this point 3. Does IT avoid excessive government entanglement with religion? The Court held that this kind of aid program would entangle the state and the religious entity in unconstitutional ways. Lemon v. Katzman (1971)

40 Facts: George Reynolds, a resident of the Utah territory married Amelia Jane Schofield while he was still married to his wife, Mary Ann Federal law stated, Every person having a husband or wife living, who marries another, whether married or single, in a Territory, or other place over which the U.S. have exclusive jurisdiction, is guilty of bigamy, and shall be punished … Reynolds had clearly broken the lawa fact he did not dispute Reynolds, however, was a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints & argued that his religion required him to marry multiple women Reynoldss argued that the law violated his First Amendment right to Free Exercise of religion; the penalty for refusing to practice polygamy was eternal damnation He was convicted & eventually his case came before the US S.C.

41 Decision: The Court upheld his conviction and Congresss power to prohibit polygamy. Congress could not outlaw a belief in the correctness of polygamy but it could outlaw the practice of it Because marriage was a most important feature of social life: Upon [marriage] society may be said to be built. Marriage, while from its very nature a sacred obligation, is nevertheless, in most civilized nations, a civil contract, and usually regulated by law. Finally, the Court concluded that people cannot excuse themselves from the law because of their religion Can a man excuse his [illegal] practices … because of his religious belief? To permit this would be to make the professed doctrines of religious belief superior to the law of the land, and in effect to permit every citizen to become a law unto himself. Government could exist only in name under such circumstances….

42 Facts: Two Native Americans who worked as counselors for a private drug rehabilitation organization, ingested peyote – a powerful hallucinogen – as part of their religious ceremonies As a result of this conduct, the rehabilitation organization fired the counselors. The counselors filed a claim for unemployment compensation. The government denied them benefits because the reason for their dismissal was considered work-related "misconduct." The counselors lost their battle in state court. But the U.S. Supreme Court returned the case to the Oregon courts to determine whether or not sacramental use of illegal drugs violated Oregon's state drug laws On remand, the Oregon Supreme Court concluded that while Oregon drug law prohibited the consumption of illegal drugs for sacramental religious uses, this prohibition violated the free exercise clause. The case returned to the U.S. Supreme Court in this new posture. … a "neutral law of general applicability …"

43 6 POINTS

44 Read Supreme Court Case Study 32 and respond to the questions below in your Learning Log notebook. 1. According to the Courts decision, why may illegally seized evidence not be used in a trial? [1 pt] 2. Why, according to Justice Clark, is it better for a criminal to go free than to convict the criminal with illegal evidence? [1] 3. What was the illegally seized evidence in the Mapp case? [1] 4. What was the double standard referred to in the Courts decision & the preceding case it was based on? [2] 5. Do you agree with the Courts decision in the Mapp case? Give reasons for your answer. [2] 7) 5/1 Score: _____/7

45 a) Define affirmative action? [1 pt] b) What was the original purpose of affirmative action? [1] c) Who was required to have affirmative action programs? [1] d) What would a quota require? [1] e) Describe the effect affirmative action had on Allen Bakkes admission to the University of California. [1] 8) 5/2 Score: _____/5

46 A public or private program designed to equalize hiring and admission opportunities for historically disadvantaged groups by taking into consideration the very characteristics (i.e., race, gender, etc.) which have been used to deny them equal treatment.

47 FORAGAINST

48 FOR 1. Shackled Runner Theory 2. Collective Responsibility 3. DeFacto Discrimination 4. Justice & Group Rights 5. Supreme Court has favored A.A. programs form often than not 6. Social/educational benefits of diversity 7. AGAINST 1. Reverse Discrimination Discrimination is Wrong 2 Wrongs dont make a right 2. Harms Innocent People 3. Results in Unqualified Appointments 4. Not ALL Problems are due to Past Discrimination 5. Supreme Court ruled Quotas (& other programs) Unconstitutional 6.

49 RACE CASE Supreme Court Upholds Michigan's Affirmative Action Ban In a decision that could further reduce numbers of minorities at state universities, the Supreme Court voted 6-2 that Michigan's affirmative action ban in public college admissions does not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The justices ruled it was not up to them to overturn a 2006 decision by voters to bar consideration of race in admissions as long as the action didn't involve intentional discrimination. But dissenting Justice Sonia Sotomayor criticized the decision, calling it an attempt to "wish away" racial inequality. Sources: Washington Post, CSM, WSJ (sub), NYT

50 Define selective incorporation Why do you think it took time for all aspects of the Bill of Rights to be apply to the states? Which amendment most likely accelerated incorporation and why? What has the process of selective incorporation meant for democracy in America? The Bill of Rights was originally intended as a protection against the actions of the federal government. A process called incorporation extended the Bill of Rights to all levels of government. The degree and rate at which the Bill of Rights has been extended to the states has been determ­ined by the Supreme Court through various decisions.

51 a) Identify the issue (constitutional question) involved in the case. [1] b) Determine if school officials had the right to send Ryan Trimble home and/or suspend him for wearing the shirt. Explain. [2] c) Determine if Ryan Trimble have a right to wear the shirt. Explain. [2] Virginia Student... Wear[s] Anti-Bush Shirt Updated: Wednesday, Apr. 9, 2003 - 4:00 PM EST. (Burke) – A Fairfax County teenager [Ryan Trimble]... says he was sent home for wearing a T-shirt that... depicts President Bush alongside the words International Terrorist. Trimble, a junior at Lake Braddock Secondary School, said he was sent home March 26, and told he would be suspended if he wore the shirt again. School officials later disputed that, saying only that he had been warned the shirt could cause a disruption and jeopardize his own safety. Read the passage below. 9) 5/5 Score: _____/5

52 Define prior restraint What was the original purpose of the doctrine no prior restraint, and what does it mean today? Why is the doctrine of prior restraint important for democracy? The Court has interpreted freedom of the press to mean that government may place no prior restraint on speech or publication before it is said or published. Originally this doctrine was designed to prevent the government from closing down or seizing newspapers. Today the doctrine prevents the government from censoring any news items.

53 Section Focus Transparency 13-5 (1 of 2)

54 Many scholars and observers have argued that the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution has become the single most important act in all of United States politics. [2001 - #3] a)Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States politics. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) Baker v. Carr (1962) Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) b)Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States politics. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

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56 Initially, the United States Constitution did little to protect citizens from actions of the states. In the twentieth century, the Supreme Court interpreted the constitution to protect the rights of citizens from state governments in a process referred to as incorporation. [2005 - #3] a)Define selective incorporation. b)For two of the following, explain how each has been incorporated. Each of your explanations must be based on a specific and relevant Supreme Court decision. Rights of criminal defendants First Amendment Privacy rights

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