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Contents Introduction Staff of the EM Unit New Equipment Existing EquipmentExisting Equipment (Brochure) Number of Specimen Processed Users Revenue Generated.

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Presentation on theme: "Contents Introduction Staff of the EM Unit New Equipment Existing EquipmentExisting Equipment (Brochure) Number of Specimen Processed Users Revenue Generated."— Presentation transcript:


2 Contents Introduction Staff of the EM Unit New Equipment Existing EquipmentExisting Equipment (Brochure) Number of Specimen Processed Users Revenue Generated Activities Publications/conference papers/dissertations/theses generated Workshops 1st NUS-JEOL Electron Microscopy Seminar Training Demonstration by Philips Singapore and JEOL Asia Visitors Ongoing Activities Future "WISH LIST" For The EM UNIT

3 INTRODUCTION During the period of April 1998 to March 1999, the Electron Microscopy (EM) Unit in the Faculty of Medicine initiated some new activities. These are briefly summarised below with details in the subsequent pages of this report. Arising from the Memorandum of UnderstandingMemorandum of Understanding signed with Philips Electron Optics in November 1997 (Campus News, No.129 Mar-April 1998 page 12), four specialised training courses were implemented. Application specialists from Philips Electron Optics, Eindhoven, Holland conducted these courses assisted by the technical staff from the EM Unit. The participants were from tertiary / research institutions and industries encompassing both life and physical sciences. Due to the positive feedback from all the participants, these courses will now be a regular feature of the Unit's annual activity.

4 Another major event organised was in conjunction with JEOL Asia Pte Ltd. This was the 1st NUS-JEOL Electron Microscopy Seminar. The two- day seminar was followed by three days of workshops in the EM unit. The workshops were conducted jointly by JEOL Asia Pte Ltd and Oxford Instruments Pte Ltd. The Unit also saw the delivery of the last major instrument from our upgrading exercise that started three years ago. This new addition is the ESEM XL30. An evolutionary microscope which claims to allow viewing of specimens at it native state in ambient conditions. Other encouraging signs for this period were: (1)new departments from our Faculty have started to use the facility (2)usage by some established users have also increased (3) more requests from users in hospitals and industries to use our microscopes when not in use by our users.

5 The increase in demand for our facility is a good indication that our Unit is able to provide the appropriate instrumentation and expertise for a diversified group of users. You would have noticed that the Unit has decided on a paperless format for this report. This production has been done entirely by the staff of this Unit with Miss Patricia Netto as our leading computer expert. As it is a new "adventure" for us, the Unit would appreciate your comments for our future improvement. Please let us know if you "hate it" or "love it" in this format.

6 I would like to take this opportunity to thank our collaborators and colleagues, including our commercial partners who have worked with us throughout this period to realise some of our fantasies. I am also grateful for the co-operation given by all our users who allow the smooth running of the Unit. Most of all my deep appreciation to Misses Tan Suat Hoon, Catherine Tang Ee Koon, Patricia Netto, Micky Leong Lo Ngah and Mr. Ng Chee Peng, the technologists who kept the Unit ticking continuously! Mary Ng Mah Lee Head, Electron Microscopy Unit Faculty of Medicine


8 The Unit now has five technologists, with the recruitment of Miss Micky Leong. They are responsible for the daily upkeep of all the equipment in the Unit. They also provide in-house training to new users from departments that do not already have trained personnel in microscopy. STAFF OF THE EM UNIT Catherine Mary Miss Tan Pat Micky Chee Peng

9 The technologists are also encouraged to work on developing / optimising new techniques relevant to bio-medical research. Such ventures have generated data for some publications in international journals as well as presentations at microscopy conferences. Further to this, they also familiarise themselves thoroughly on all the instruments in the Unit. In this way, they can be the first line trouble shooters for the users if a problem does arise. In order not to over stress a particular technologist, the responsibilities for the major instruments have been 'decentralised".

10 They are as follows: Miss Tan Suat Hoon-CM 120 BioTwinTEM/STEM/Cryo/EDX JEM 1220 TEM/EDX/IA Cryo-techniques Miss Catherine Tang-Freeze Fracture/etching ESEM SEM specimen preparation Miss Patricia Netto-FEG-SEM/EDX Image analyser and processor Digital imaging Mr Ng Chee Peng-208S TEM 1200EX TEM Cryo-techniques Miss Micky Leong-JSM 5600 LV SEM T400 TEM Freeze Fracture/etching

11 Amongst all their routine duties, when time permits these technologists also take on small contract projects from the hospitals, other faculties and institutions. These contracts are revenue generating for the Unit. The Unit has used a portion of the revenue to provide continual education / training for these staff. Since microscopy has become an important tool in molecular biology research, there are many swift developments in technology. Continuous training and education is thus, crucial for them to keep abreast. Such a move started in August 1996 when Miss Tan Suat Hoon attended the X International Congress of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (August 18 to 23) in Kyoto, Japan. In June 1998, Miss Patricia Netto attended a course on "Electron Microscope Maintenance" at Canberra Institute of Technology, Canberra, Australia. As the revenue total becomes more respectable, the technologists will be given more frequent opportunities to attend relevant courses / workshops / conferences to improve their skill and confidence in handling microscopy related techniques.

12 NEW EQUIPMENT Environmental SEM (ESEM) has the ability to allow the viewing of wet specimens by controlling the temperature of the stage, via a thermoelectric stage controller, and a combination of variable pressure and moisture level in the chamber. It is possible to cause the change to be so drastic as to view the changes in the specimen as it undergoes changes in state. Some new accessories have also been added to our existingmicroscopes. (1)Operation keyboard for the JSM 5600LV that is able to drive the full operation functions of the microscope. We found the mouse operation not responsive enough for some of our users.

13 (2)1440dpi photo quality, high resolution printer linked to the JSM 5600LV, to allow users to get good quality hard copies of their images immediately without using the usual roll of film. (3)Scaler and calibration software for JSM 5600LV users to measure structures directly on the image on screen. (4) Image expansion memory for high resolution imaging on the JSM 5600LV. (5)Scan rotation software for JSM 5600LV, to rotate the image on screen electronically, so that the user can easily locate important structures. (6)Permanent storage specimen cartridge base for JEM 1220, that can be interchanged, so that important grids can be locked in position. If this grid needs to be viewed again, a particular point of the grid can be easily located.

14 (7)Full keyboard for text linked to the JEM 1220 microscope for typing text on the negatives. (8)Beryllium analytical retainer for JEM 1220 is used for elemental analyses (EDX) as it gives low background compared to the standard holder. Low background is needed to obtain a good elemental profile of the specimen. (9)An EDX kit that is actually the software for imaging with the EDX system on the JEOL 1220 TEM. (10)SEMI-STEM attachment to expand the function of the present EDX system on the JEM It provides an elemental map of the specimen. This is a much cheaper option to a full STEM attachment. At the time of installation it was the first Unit to be installed in Singapore.


16 NUMBER OF SPECIMENS PROCESSED I. Users from the National University of Singapore PurposeNo. of Specimens 98/99*97/98*96/97 Transmission Electron Microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy Cryo-techniques (Substitution and Sectioning) TEM Freeze Fracture Replica Elemental Analysis (EDX)42513 Imaging / Image analysis and processing Slides / Transparencies / Presentation Media * Numbers indicative of users from NUS and other Institutes / Industries / Hospitals.

17 II. Users from the Industries / Other Institutes / Hospitals (98/99) PurposeNo. of Specimen Transmission Electron Microscopy240 Scanning Electron Microscopy108 Cryo-techniques (Substitution and Sectioning) TEM20 Freeze Fracture Replica- Elemental Analysis (EDX)74 Imaging / Image analysis and Processing- Slides / Transparencies / Presentation Media240


19 I. National University of Singapore, Faculty of Medicine Anatomy Department Staff :Bay Boon Huat Charanjit Kaur Gopalakrishnakone P Leong Seng Kee Ling Eng Ang Ng Yee Kong Ong Wei Yi Samuel Tay Sit Kwok Hung Technical Staff :Yick Tuck YongNg Leh See Chan Yee Gek Research Assistant : Liu HaipingZ Emmanuel Selvanayagam Qiang Mei

20 Student :Anita Selvakumari Jayasurya Aye Mya Mya Cao Qiong Gao Rong Jin RongXian K N Srinivasan Keiko Obaro Li JingSong Lu Xin Rong Myint Swe Ng Chee Hon Qi Long R Ashok Balaji S Dinesh Kumar T Shoba Xie Jian Ping You Yimei Wang Dong Wang Xinsheng Wang Xu Wu Ya Jun Zeng XiaoXia Zhang Li

21 Microbiology Department Staff :Chan Soh HaNg Mah Lee Ho BowVincent Chow Lee Yuan KunYap Eu Hian Mulkit Singh Technical Staff :Ho Lip ChuenLoy Boon Pheng Josephine HowePhoon Meng Chee Student :A M A NasirudeenTay Wee Lee, Jonathan JoogalSe Thoe Su Yun Lim Chai YenSudhir Kumar Chandromohan Lim Hui YingWu Jack Han, Victor Loke Shee MeiYap Ann Teck Biochemistry Department Staff :Chang Chan FongKandiah Jeyaseelan John Candlish Technical Staff :Lalana Youngpritisporn Student :Khoo Keng MengTerence Yap

22 Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department Staff :Ratnam S S Technical Staff : Jean Ho Orthopaedic Surgery Department Staff :John ChiaPho W H P ThiagarajanV Prem Kumar Technical Staff : Hersharan Kaur d/o Balder SYong S C Research Assistant :Kenjiko HasegawaZhu Hong Jiang Hua Otolaryngology Department Staff :Ruan Runsheng Opthalmology Department Staff :The Late Chew Sek JinLim S M, Arthur Research Staff : Hu Yang

23 Paediatrics Department Staff :Lee Bee Wah Wai Cheung Pathology Department Staff :Aileen WeeShanmugaratnam K Lee Hin PengSinniah R Lee Yock SunTeh Ming Technical Staff : John Chia Lam San Pharmacology Department Staff :Benny TanSim Meng Hwoon Peter Wong Technical Staff : Tang Fengru Research Assistant : Durairaj Ponraj Student :Loo Li Shen

24 Department of Surgery Staff :James TanTan Tiang Lee, Walter Kewawan Esuwaranathan Timothy Lee Lim Thiam Chye Research Assistant : K M Ameer AliZhang Li Student : Achuth H NCarmel Lawrencia Physiology Department Staff :Koh D RShazib Pervaiz Technical Staff : Ho Chiu Han Research Assistant : S Mohammed Ali

25 Chemical Engineering Department Staff :Ting Yen Peng Research Assistant : Atul Kumar MittalSun Gang II. National University of Singapore, Non-Faculty of Medicine Preventive Dentistry Department Staff :Hsu Chin-Ying Stephen Research Assistant : Shi Hong Restorative Dentistry Department Staff :Thean Pik Yen, Hilary Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Engineering

26 Biological Sciences Department Staff :Hugh Tan Tiang Wah Student : Goh Wee KeePauline Tan Wei Leng Physics Department Staff :Frank Watt Faculty of Science

27 III. Other Institutes / Industries and Hospitals Defence Medical Research Institute Staff :S M Moochnala Institute of Molecular Agrobiology Staff :Megan GriffithTerje Dokland Myong Ok KwonYin Zhan Sundaresan, Venkatesan Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology Staff :Heinz Horstmann Xu Jing National Cancer Centre Staff :Hui Kam Man Wu XiaFang

28 Singapore Eye Research Institute Staff :Hu Yang Wilson Wong National University Medical Institutes Confocal Microscopy Lab & Flow Cytometry Lab Research Scientist : Hanry Yu Research Officer : Xu Xi Lab Technologists : Er Poh Nee, ConnieNg Bee Ling Student : Chia Ser Mien Tan Tock Seng Hospital Staff :Fong Sean Yean Low Chee Kuang Jeffery Chew Singapore Polytechnic Staff :Anna Yeo

29 Users from Industries who are customers of Philips Singapore Pte Ltd 3M Adaptec Manufacturing (Singapore) Pte Ltd Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd Hewlett-Packard Singapore Quantum VTM Users from Industries who are customers of JEOL Asia Pte Ltd Glaxo Wellcome

30 REVENUE GENERATED Consumables (diverted back to FY vote): S$ 12, EM Unit Fund (Contract work / Training Courses): S$ 22, EM Unit Equipment Replacement Fund : S$ 82, A sum of S$2,500 was used to sponsor Miss Patricia Netto to attend the course on "Electron Microscope Maintenance" in Canberra, Australia. The revenue generated under the "Upgrading of equipment" vote was also utilised during this period. A sum of S$ 33,475 was used to acquire the extra accessories for both the JEM 1220 TEM and JSM 5600LV SEM to improve their performance and capabilities. Late in 1998, the Unit also purchased a SEMI-STEM device from Oxford Instruments. This device was installed (first in Singapore) onto the JEM 1220 TEM to expand the functions of the EDX attachment. Without it the users would only get an elemental profile and not a map over the image. This cost the Unit over S$20,000. Thus, In total the Unit had spent more than S$ 55,000 from the revenue it had generated over the period of this report.

31 Even though the Unit conducted four major workshops with Philips Electron Optics, the profit generated from them was not substantial (less than S$ 6,000). The reasons are: a) The course fee is low (40% of the normal course fee charged in the Application Laboratory in PHILIPS Electron Optics, Eindhoven, Holland) compared to the commercial rate. As novices, we need to establish our credibility and gain good reputation initially to compete for participants. Thus, at this stage profit is not a big concern for us. b) All expenditure e.g. stationery, photocopying, catering for teas/lunches for the courses were derive from the course fees. c) It is a profit sharing venture with Philips Electron Optics and an agreed percentage was reimbursed back to them.

32 In actual fact, the EM Unit is rather economical to maintain considering that it has more than 4 million dollars worth of equipment at today's prices. The Unit's allocation of operation budget for each fiscal year has decreased from about S$ 200,000 to less than S$ 150,000 over a three-year period despite increase in the number of users. This would indicate that the Unit is inching (may be slowly) it's way to become more self- supporting. The yearly budget is to cover cost of consumables, service contracts for all the major instruments and spare parts, office requirements e.g. telephone and fax charges, photocopying, stationary etc.

33 a) Publications/conference papers/dissertations/theses generated from the use of the EM Unit's facility I..International Reference Journals 1. A light and electron microscopic study of cytoplasmic phopholipase A 2 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus after kainate lesions. Sandhya T L, Ong W Y, Horrocks L A and Farooqui A A. Brain Research (The Netherlands) 788 : (1998). 2. Allergenic spores and pollen of Singapore. Lim S H, M D Siti Dahlia, Chew F T, Goh D Y T, Tan H T W, Tan T K and Lee B W. Singapore Biochemist 11(1) : 42 – 48 (1997). 3. Allergy and asthma research. Chew F T and Lee B W. Medviews 12 : 1 – 5 (1998).

34 4. Development of Blastocystis hominis cysts into vacuolar forms in vitro. Moe K T, Singh M, Howe J, Ho L C, Tan S W, Chen X Q, Yap E H. Parasitology Research 85 : 103 – 108 (1999). 5. Electron microscopic observations and X-ray microanalysis of a multinucleated giant cell. Bay B H, Chan Y G, Yick T Y and Leong S K. Journal of Electron Microscopy 47(4) : 359 – Origin, nature and some functional considerations of intraventricalar macrophages, with special reference to the epiplexus cells. Ling E A, Kaur Charanjit and Lu Jia. Microscopy Research and Technique 41 : 43 – 56 (1998). 7. Scanning electron microscopy of Blastocystis hominis cysts. Zaman V, Howe J, Ng M L. Parasitology Research 84 : 476 –477 (1998).

35 8. Transsynaptic changes of neurons and associated microglial reaction in the spinal cord of rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Wu Yun Ping and Ling E A. Neuroscience Letters 256 : (1998). 9. Ultrastructure of the nucleus of the Iodamoeba Butschlii cyst. Zaman V, Howe J, Ng M L. Parasitology Research 84(5) : 421 – 422 (1998). 10. Up-regulation of cytokines in glomerulonephritis associated with murine malaria infection. Li R M, Kara A U and Sinniah R. Journal of Pathology (UK) 185 : 212 – 218 (1998).

36 1. A different mode of entry by dengue-2 neutralisation escape mutant virus. Lim H Y and Ng M L. Archives of Virology (Austria). 2. A light and electron microscopic study of GAT-1 positive cells in the cerebral cortex of man and monkey. Ong W Y, Yeo T T, Balcar V J and Garey L J. Journal of Neurocytology (UK). 3. A light and electron microscopic study of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluRla in the normal and kainate lesioned rat hippocampus. Ong W Y, Lim T M and Garey L J. Molecular and Chemical Neropathology (USA). 4. A light and electron microscopic study of NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteglycan-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the normal and kainate lesioned rat hippocampus. Ong W Y and Levine J M. Journal of Neurocytology (USA). II. Publications in press – International Reference Journals.

37 5. Apolipoprotein D gene expression in the rat brain and light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of apolipoprotein D expression in the cerebellum of neonatal, immature and adult rats. Ong W Y, Lau C P, Leong S K, Kumar U, Suresh S and Patel S C. Neroscience (USA). 6. Atlas of airborne pollen and spores of Singapore. Lim S H, M D Siti Dahlia, Chew F T, Goh D Y T, Tan H T W, Tan T K and Lee B W. Book in preparation. 7. Distribution of cytoplasmic phospholipase A 2 in the normal rat brain. Ong W Y, Sandhya T L, Horrocks L A and Farooqui A A. Journal of Brain Research (Germany). 8. Distribution of perlecan in mouse hippocampus following intracerebroventricular kainate injections. Shee W L, Ong W Y and Lim T M. Brain Research (The Netherlands).

38 9. Immunocytochemical localization of cPLA 2 in rat and monkey spinal cord. Ong W Y, Horrocks L A and Faroqui A A. Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology (USA). 10. In vitro encystation and excystation of Blastocystis ratti. Chen X Q, Singh M, Howe J, Ho L C, Tan S W, Ng G C and Yap E H. Parasitology Research. 11. Molecular Cloning of Abnormal Floral Organs : A Gene Required for Flower Development in Arabidopsis. Kumaran M K, Ye D, Yang W C, Griffith M E and Sundaresan V. Sexual Plant Reproduction (1999). 12. Post-cystic development of Blastocystic homis. Zaman V, Howe J and Ng M L. Parasitology research.

39 13. Ultrastructural changes of Blastocystis ratti during in vitro encystation. Chen X Q, Singh M, Howe H, Ho L C, Tan S W and Ng G C, Yap E H. Parasitology research. 14. Ultrastructural observations of Blastocystis ratti. Chen X Q, Singh M, Howe H, Ho L C, Tan S W, Ng G C andYap E H. In preparation.

40 1. An ultrastructural study of the effects of bilateral vagotomy on the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes of the heart of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Aye M M, Tay S S W and Singh G. 7 th Scientific Conference of the Electron Microscopy Society of Malaysia. Pp (1998). 2. An ultrastructural study on the atrioventricular valves of the rat. Kumar S D and Tay S S W. Society for EM, 7 th Scientific Conference (Ipoh, Malaysia, 1998). 3. Apoptosis-like death in Blastocystis hominis after exposure to a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody. Tan S W, Singh M, Ho L C, Chen X Q and Yah E H. 9 th International Congress of Parasitology (Makuhari Chiba, Japan, 1998). III. Conference Papers

41 4. Blomia tropicalis as an important source of unique dust mite allergens in Singapore. Lee B W, Chew F T, Chua K Y, Fernendez-Caldas E, Arruda L K and Chapman M D. European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Annual Meeting (EAACI) (Birminham, UK, 1998). 5. Bond strength of glass-ionomers to dentin of primary and permanent teeth. Mok B Y Y, Thean H P Y and Chew C L. International Association for Dental Research, 76 th General Session (Nice, France, 1998). 6. Close Association of Flavivirus Envelope Protein with Nucleocapsids During Transportation to Cell Surface (Abstract). Tan S H and M M L Ng. 14 th International Congress on Electron Microscopy (Cancun, Mexico, 1998).

42 7. Diabetes mellitus induces changes in atrioventricular valves in the rat : A confocal microscopy study. Kumar S D and Tay S S W. Anatomical Record (USA, 1998). Incommunication 8. Effects of CO 2 laser and organic matrix on enamel demineralization. Hsu C S and Wefel J S. Journal of Dental Research (USA, 1998) Awarded the 1998 IADR / Colgate Research Award in Prevention. 9. Entry and Replication of Dengue Virus in Baby Hamster Kidney Cells. Lim H Y and M M L Ng. 3 rd Asia Pacific Organisation of Cell Biology Congress. (Osaka, Japan, 1998). Won travel award to attend conference for the student. 10. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Tentinan Using Animal Model (Abstract) Yap A T and M M L Ng. Federation of Asia-Pacific Microbiology Societies "Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in the Asia Pacific : The 21 st Century (Singapore).

43 . 11. Excystation of Blastocystis ratti invitro. Chen X Q, Ho L C, Tan S W, Moe K T, Ng G C, Yap E H and Singh M. 9 th International Congress of Parasitology. (Makuhari Chiba, Japan, 1998). 12. Fluorescent Patterns of Dengue-2 Neutralisation Resistant Viruses Obtained from Confocal Microscopy (Abstract). Lok S M and Ng M M L. 14 th International Congress on Electron Microscopy (Cancun, Mexico, 1998). 13. Hydrogenosome-like organelles in colony forms of Blastocystis hominis. Tan S W, Singh M, Ho L C, Howe J, Moe K T, Chen X Q and Yap E H. 34 th Annual Scientific Seminar of the Malaysian Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (Selangor, Malaysia, 1998). 14. Interpretation of renal biopsies (Abstract). Sinniah R and Furness P. 6 th International Congress of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation, MESOT (Karachi, Pakistan, 1998).

44 . 15. Interferon Induction : A Mechanism to Explain Antitumor Activity and Defective AKT Retrovirus Production By Lentinus edodes Extract (Abstract). Kumar S and Ng M M L. 14 th International Congress on Electron Microbiology. (Cancun, Mexico, 1998). 16. In vitro encystation and excystation of Blastocystis ratti. Chen X Q, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan S W and Yap E H. 9 th International Congress of Parasitology (Chiba, Japan, 1998). 17. Long-term effects of streptozotocin induced diabetes on the atrioventricular valves. Tay S S W and Kumar S D. Society of Neuroscience, 28 th Annual Meeting (LA, California, USA, 1998). 18. Mechanisms of renal injury in protein uria (Abstract). Sinniah R. 6 th International Congress of Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation / 3 rd International Symposium on Urology, Nephrology and Transplantation pp. 1 (Karachi, Pakistan, 1998).

45 19. Metallothionein expression and nuclear size in benign borderline and malignant serous ovarian tumors (Abstact). Tan Y I, Sinniah R, Bay B H and Singh G. Compiled by Chan T K and Loh F H. 2 nd NUH Faculty of Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting (Singapore, 1998). 20. Morphology and innervation of sinu-atrial and atrioventricular nodes of the heart of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) – A light and electron microscopic study. Aye M M, Tay S S W and Singh G. Colloquium in Neuroscience (Singapore) pp.32 (1998). 21. Mushroom : Role of its Mycovirus in the Prevention of Murine Lymphoma (Abstract). Kumar S and Ng M M L. Federation of Asia- Pacific Microbiology Societies – "Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in the Asia-Pacific : The 21 st Century (Singapore). Best Poster in Microbiology

46 . 22. Neutralising Mechanism of Dengue Virus by Dengue-Specific Poly- Antibodies. Se-Thoe S Y, Ling A E and Ng M M L. 9 th Annual Scientific Meeting of Singapore General Hospital and Inaugural Biomedical Engineering Symposium of National Technological University and Singapore General Hospital Pte Ltd (Singapore). 23. Observation on Entry and Transport Machinery on Adenovirus Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (Abstract). Chia S M and Ng M M L. Federation of Asia-Pacific Microbiology Societies "Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in the Asia Pacific : The 21 st Century (Singapore). 24. Study of the Modes of Entry of Dengue-2 Virus Using Conventional and Cryo-Immuno Electron Microscopy (Abstract). Lim H Y and Ng M M L. Federation of Asia-Pacific Microbiology Societies "Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in the Asia Pacific : The 21 st Century (Singapore).

47 25. The pathology and molecular mechanisms of renal injury in nephrotic syndrome (Abstract). Sinniah R. Compiled by Chan T K and Loh F H. 2 nd NUH Faculty of Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting (Singapore, 1998). 26. The pathology of IgA nephropathy (Abstract). Sinniah R. 3 rd International Symposium on Urology, Nephrology and Transplantation (SIUT) (Karachi, Pakistan, 1998). 27. Ultrastructural changes of pinealocytes in postnatal rats following an exposure to hypoxia. Kaur C and Ling E A. 7 th Scientific Conference of the Electron Microscopy Society (Malaysia, 1998). 28. Ultrastructural observations on Blastocystis ratti. Chen X Q, Howe J, Ho L C, Tan S W, Moe K T, Ng G C, Yap E H and Singh M. 34 th Annual Scientific Seminar of the Malaysia Society of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (Malaysia, 1998).

48 IV.Theses Submitted a. PhD Theses 1. Characterization and cytotoxicity of monoclonal antibodies to the human protozoan parasite Blastocystis hominis. Tan S W. 2. Experimental Blastocystis homini infections. Moe K T. 3. Expression of FOS and microglial Reaction following Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery in Rats – Wu Y P. 4. Mechanisms of Kidney Damage Caused by Murine Malaria Infection. Li R M. 5. Studies on Rat Blastocystis. Chen X Q.

49 b. MSc Theses 1. Identification of fungal airspora in Singapore and characterisation of fungal allergens. Lim S H. 2. Antitumor and antiviral effects of Shittake mushrooms. Chandromohan S K. c. Honours Dissertation 1. A randomized clinical trail to evaluate the medicinal effects of Shitake Mushroom and its products. Wang-Woo Y H. 2. Investigation on the mode of entry and transport machinery of Adenovirus-5. Chia S M. 3. Neutralisation of Dengue-2 virus : Mechanisms and Kinetics. Lim H Y.

50 d. University Undergraduate Research Programme Use of the Electron Microscope to study the morphology of virus and virus-induced structures. Hock A P E.

51 b) Workshops with Philips Electron Optics Cryo-electron microscopy (6 to 10 July 1998) This was our first course in the series for The course content was for life sciences and included specimen preparation, viewing and interpretation of the images obtained. The participants brought their own specimens for the course. Dr Wim Busing from Philips Electron Optics, Holland was the trainer and Miss Tan Suat Hoon (EM Unit) assisted in the practical aspects. It so happened that participants for this course came from various research institutes. They were : Miss Myoung Ok Kwon (Institute of Molecular Agrobiology) Miss Delphine Low (Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology) Dr Wilson Wong Dr Wilson Wong (Singapore Eye Research Institute) Ms Weiping Cao (National University Medical Institute) Mr Ng Chee Peng Mr Ng Chee Peng (EM Unit) A group photo with the teacher!

52 A try at the cryo-cut..and practicals Lectures...

53 Basic Scanning Electron Microscopy (XL microscopes) 21 st to 25 th Sept 1998 Mr Eric Bathelt from Philips Electron Optics B.V. was the trainer with Miss Catherine Tang (EM Unit) assisting for the hands-on sessions. This was a rather popular course and we did get participants from the Asia- Pacific region. They were: Mr Dave Phelan Mr Dave Phelan (Electron Microscopy and X-ray Unit, University of Newcastle, Australia) Mr Winai Chiyanamdome Mr Winai Chiyanamdome (Thai Polycarbonate Co Ltd, Thailand) Ms Milintra Pokaew Ms Milintra Pokaew (Thai Polycarbonate Co Ltd, Thailand) Ms Krisana Siraleartmukul Ms Krisana Siraleartmukul (Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand) Mr Chua Kok Keng Ms Teo Kim Hong Ms Teo Kim Hong Chartered Semiconductor Pte Ltd, Singapore Ms Annie Guo

54 Action at the microscope Students and teacher of the XL course

55 Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy 28 th Sept to 2 nd Oct 1998 Mr Eric Bathelt continued on as the trainer for this workshop with Miss Patricia Netto (EM Unit) as the assistant. Three of the participants for Chartered Semiconductor Pte Lte (see above) continued onto this course as well. There were two additional participants from Thailand. They were Ms Kanlaya MuangnoicharoenMs Chutina Surachethapan Ms Kanlaya Muangnoicharoen and Ms Chutina Surachethapan both from Seagate Technology (T) Ltd, Thailand.

56 Basic Transmission Electron Microscopy (208S) 28 th Sept to 2 nd Oct 1998 Actually the Unit did not publicise this course widely as there was a concern of stretching the resources when the timing overlap with that of the FEG-SEM course. However, we conducted the course as there was a request from Hong Kong. Dr Dong Tang was the trainer from Philips China with Mr Ng Chee Peng (EM Unit) assisting in the practical. The participant was Ms Lee Wai Yun from Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong. Miss Micky Leong (EM Unit) was included for this workshop as she has just joined the Unit.

57 c) 1st NUS-JEOL Electron Microscopy Seminar (16 to 17 December 1998) and workshops (18 to 20 December 1998) Associate Professor Tan Chorh Chuan, Dean, Faculty of Medicine was the Guest-of Honour for this occasion. The Dean also gave out the prizes to the winners of the micrograph competitions.

58 This is an inaugural seminar and it attracted about 100 participants from industries, tertiary and research institutions. The lectures were all very stimulating including the presentations from the users.

59 From Left to Right: Mr. Akira Kabaya, Dr. Oikawa, Mr. S Yoshida, A/Prof. Mary Ng Mah Lee, A/Prof. Tan Chorh Chuan, Dr. Kazuo Furuya

60 TEM Physical Science (Gold) Yan Qing, Oh Joo Tien, Guo Jun NTU TEM Life Science (Gold) Tan Suat Hoon NUS TEM Life Science (Silver) Loy Gek Luan NUS SEM LIfe Science (Silver) Micky Leong NUS TEM Best Effort Aye Mya Mya NUS TEM Life Science (Silver) Josephine Howe NUS SEM Physical Science (Gold) Tim White NTU SEM Physical Science (Silver) Lydia Aung SONY SEM Best Effort K S Goh SPT

61 The seminar ended on a high note with an unusual lucky draw. The "complex" format to get a prize was formulated by Mr S Yoshida, Director of JEOL Asia with assistance from Dr Julie Sherffield-Parker (Oxford Instruments). Mrs Yoshida (although not a microscopist) contributed many hours of her time to make 100 cloth flowers with the lucky numbers attached. Besides JEOL Asia and Oxford Instruments, Gatan Inc. also contributed to some of the prizes for the draw. Everyone had a lot of fun from this draw that it did not matter if one won a prize or not. The response for the workshops following the seminar was overwhelming. It was originally planned to be for two days but was extended to three days to accommodate all the interested participants. The workshops were conducted on the JEM 1220 TEM and JSM 5600LV SEM together with the ISIS and INCA elemental analysis systems which were attached on the microscopes. It was a joint effort from JEOL Asia and Oxford Instruments.

62 There was a request from Philips China to train two of their customers on the 208S TEM outside the scheduled courses. d) Training on 208S TEM In May (13 to 16) 1998, Assoc Prof Mary Ng and Mr Ng Chee Peng trained Professor Sun Yilin and his assistant, Ms Qu Baoqing. They were from Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing, P R China.

63 e) Demonstration by Philips Singapore and JEOL Asia During the period of this report, our microscopes were also used on some occasions by the above vendors for demonstrations to their potential customers. The demonstrations were conducted mostly by their own specialists although on a couple of occasions our technologists had to conduct the demonstrations. A charge is levied for the use of the instruments.

64 f) Visitors The Unit received the following visitors from overseas: Mr Takashi Takeuchi- Chairman, JEOL Ltd Mr Keji Ota - Assistant General Manager, Asia Deprtment, Overseas Operation Division, JEOL Ltd Mr Motoi Ebina- Managing Director, Oversea Service Division, JEOL Datum Mr Akira Kabaya- Deputy General Manager, Sales Promotion Department, Electron Optics Sales Division, JEOL Ltd Dr Kazuo Furaya- Head of Refined Beam Research Unit, High Resolution Beam Research Station, National Reseach Institute for Metals, Science and Technology Agency Mr Alex Vogt- Managing Director, Bal Tec

65 ONGOING ACTIVITIES 7th Asia-Pacific Electron Microscopy (APEM) Conference, 26 to 30 June 2000 This conference is just about 15 months away. The Unit has been successful in attracting about 20 companies relevant for microscopy for the technical exhibitions which will be held in conjunction with the conference. In total 37 booth space have been booked. The scientific programme is being finalised currently.

66 The Unit has several plans and hopes for the coming year FUTURE "WISH LIST" FOR THE EM UNIT (1)The Unit is negotiating to conduct an "EMBO (European Molecular Biology Organnisation) type" course on "Cryo- techniques for microscopy". These courses are well reputed for their high standards and thoroughness in both the theories and the practical experience. It is an intensive course with close to 1 : 1 ratio of trainer/instrument : trainee and may take up to two weeks.

67 To emulate the same success as in Europe, we would need very strong vendor support. This is not a big concern for the Unit as groundwork has already been paved in this aspect. Philips Electron Optics has agreed in principle to incorporate the annual Cryo-electron microscopy" workshop with this course and still provide the specialist support. Drukker International, the supplier of diamond knives has agreed to provide these knives for the cryo-ultramicrotomy. We have yet to discuss with Leica Microsystems (SEA) Pte Ltd to bring a few more cryo- ultramicrotomes from their factory for the course. At the moment the Unit only has two cryo-ultramicrotomes.

68 Two leading persons who have been conducting the above course in Europe have agreed to come. However, funding would be required for their airfares and accommodation. The Unit at the moment does not have the resource yet. The plan is to launch this course in Aug/Sept 1999 and make it a biennial event if successful. It would be advertise at the Asia- pacific level.

69 (2)The Unit would like to organise some joint workshops with microscopists in physical sciences to broaden our expertise. A good example would be in the biomaterial area whereby our biomedical expertise would be a positive contribution together with the physical science researchers. (3)When the economy revives, it might be a better time for this "wish" – MANPOWER. The Unit is under-staff with only five technologists to look after eight electron microscopes, all the ancillary equipment, assisting in workshops/training courses and contract work. In most established EM Units overseas a comfortable ratio of one personnel to one microscope is a norm.

70 Since two to three years ago, the Unit has requested for a post- doctoral fellow but has met with no success. With so much education and research activities the Unit is providing, experience research personnel would complement well with the technical staff we have currently. They could spearhead new developments or take charge of contract work and be proactive in our educational programmes. An ideal number of staff for our Unit would be two research staff and six technologists.

71 (4)There is a shortage of well-trained personnel for microscopy work in Singapore for the industries, tertiary/research institutions and even the microscopy vendors. An ambitious project would be to work together with one of the polytechnics to launch a Diploma course dealing with different aspects of microscopy i.e. light, confocal, electron microscopy and their applications in microelectronics, semiconductors, wafer fab industries and biomedical/material fields. It would be an attractive course as it would be multidisciplinary in nature. Expertise from engineering, science, medicine, material and microelectronics would be required. Industrial attachments would be easy to find for these students in the industries, with microscope vendors, teaching and research institutions.

72 There are at least 200 electron microscopes in Singapore not including all the light and confocal microscopes. Well-trained personnel would be appreciated from all quarters. However, for this to become a reality it would require co- operation from many corners and could become a daunting task to accomplish. Perhaps it will remain a very long term "wish" Mary Ng Mah Lee Head, EM Unit Faculty of Medicine National University of Singapore

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