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1 Grand Challenges in Achieving Dynamic Spectrum Access Preston Marshall Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Advanced.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Grand Challenges in Achieving Dynamic Spectrum Access Preston Marshall Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Advanced."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Grand Challenges in Achieving Dynamic Spectrum Access Preston Marshall Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Advanced Technology Office ConnectionlessNetworks Radio-Isotope Micro-power Sources One of DARPAs top 5 programs! Defense News, June 3, 2002 One of DARPAs top 5 programs! Defense News, June 3, 2002 Wolfpack Opinions expressed are those of the authors, and do not represent the position of DARPA, the Department of Defense, or the United States GovernmentPhotonic Avionics Rescue Radio Adapt, Morph, Proliferate 2006 Technology and Policy for Advanced Spectrum Exploiting

2 2 The Next Challenges Dynamic Spectrum is on Its Way to Accomplishment Key to Adoption is the Widest Possible Range of Benefit Better Spectrum Management is Important, …. –But May not be the Sole or Most Effective Argument for its Adoption Need to Research Network Capability Enabled by Dynamic Spectrum –How Can We Exploit Truly Dynamic Networks? –Understand Physical Layer Bandwidth Sharing –Create (and Tear Down) Topologies Every Second Why Just Put Dynamic Spectrum in Static Network Concepts?

3 3 Some Research Topics Enabled by Dynamic Spectrum (Partial) Adaptive Topology –Just in Time Connectivity –Dont Do Topology Discovery – Do Topology Creation Non-Linear Effects Mitigation –Look at Total Energy – Not Just One Frequency Adaptive Spectral Bandwidth, Modes, …. Optimization of Networks with No Fixed Bandwidth, But some Interactions due to Shared Spectrum Resource –…. Oh, and update them every second! How Can Dynamic Spectrum and MAC Layer Operation Be Fused –Cooperative and non-Cooperative Channel Sharing These Topics Have No Equivalent Wired IP Metaphor

4 4 Discussion Points Overarching Thrusts of the DARPA Adaptive Networking Programs Current Technical Progress in Adaptive Spectrum Future Issues with Growth of non-Linear Effects (Front End Linearity) Leveraging Adaptive Spectrum to: –Lower Device Cost –Address Dense RF Environments –Create Adaptive Network and Services

5 5 XYZ.COM Infrastructureless Networking: How Do I Network Without?CentralServers Cache Servers Known Topology Frequency & NetworkPlanning Enter Search IndexServices Fiber & Wires Cell Towers UnlimitedEnergy

6 6 Technology Implications Current(Possible) Future Extensive Pre-PlanningSelf Monitoring and Adaptation Fixed Network StructureSelf Forming Asymmetric, Hub-Spoke (ex. Cellular, VOIP) Peer to Peer Separate Network and User Equipment Security at the Perimeter Services and Info at Core User Equipment is the Network Distributed Security Info at Edge

7 7 How Can We Operate in a Wide Range of Environments, Missions, Densities, … Device Adaptation is Key to Needed Technology –Self Organize to Operate Without Infrastructure But Leverage Whatever Infrastructure is Available –Locate Unused Radio Spectrum While Ensuring no Interference to Other Users Continuously Measure Environment Avoid Need for Detailed Pre-planning, Deconfliction, … –Morph Physical and Media Access Layers Leverage Multi-path with MIMO Select Waveforms, bandwidths, Access Control Mechanisms –Apply Multiple Network Topologies Optimize Packets, Streams, Multicasts, … –Adapt Topology to Mission and Opportunities Opportunistic (instead of Fixed) Topology Continuously Adjust Topology to Meet Instantaneous Network Needs And Do All this at New Levels of Affordability –Essential to Achieving Required Density –Adaptation Can Mitigate Engineering Performance Compromises and Use Less Costly Devices

8 8 Some Wireless Networking Research Programs at DARPA neXt Generation Communications (XG) –Develop Technology to Sense and Situationally Adapt Spectrum Usage for a 10 Times Increase in Spectrum Access Disruption Tolerant Networking –Extending the Network Framework to Include Storage and Delivery for Episodic Networks (Leverage Whatever Connectivity is Available) MnM Mobile MIMO –Extending Multiple Input/Multiple Output Technology to Mobile Platforms for a 9 times increase in Throughput Wireless Network After Next –Develop the Technology for Dense, Low Node Cost (Under $500) Networks with High QOS Connectionless Networking –Dynamically Adapting Network Time Synchronization, Routing, Energy Strategy to Achieve High Performance at 100 th the Energy

9 9 Some Wireless Networking Research Programs at DARPA (Continued) Polarization Rotation Modulation –Encode Information in Polarization to Achieve a 9x More Space to Space and Space to Ground Bandwidth Radio-Isotope Micro Power Sources –Power Manufactured In for Life of Device Ultra-wideband Networking (NETX) –Close in LPD Communications in Harsh Environments – Very High Accuracy Positioning Spatial Optical (Air/Air and Air/Ground) –Wireless Does Not Always Mean RF! –Adapting for the Reliability of RF, and Speed of Fiber –Air to Air and Air to Ground Providing for Wireless Communications at Fiber Speeds (ORCLE) –Passive Optical Tags that provide 100s of Kilobits/Sec

10 10 All Spectrum May Be Assigned, But… …Most Spectrum Is Unused! XG is Developing the Technology and System Concepts for DoD to Dynamically Access All Available Spectrum DARPA XG Program Goal: Demonstrate Factor of 10 Increase in Spectrum Access

11 11 DARPA XG Program Investments XG Prototype & Demonstration Spectrum Awareness InterferenceEffectsAssessment Behavior Adaptive Network Operation Spectrum Measurements Sensor Technology Signal Processing Algorithms Distributed Sensing Algorithms IEEE 1900 Policy Description Spectrum Adaptive Networking Optimizing Strategies Policy Reasoning Capability and Affordability Dynamics Subnoise Detection Increased Awareness Performance Experiments Methodology Framework & Semantics Engineering Basis Non-Interfering Operation Tactics Policy Language Enforcement Implementation Assessments

12 12 Transceiver System Strategy Reasoner XG Operation Select Opportunities Policy Reasoner Develop Options Process Request Determine Opportunities Yes/No or Additional Constraints Accredited Policy RF Info Acquisition Sensing Loop Policy Engine Radio Platform Message Flow RF Resource Request RF Transmit Plan

13 13 What We Expect Simulation of Early Designs Using Recorded Spectrum Measurements Shows Significant Potential

14 14 XG Prototype Development and Demonstration Schedule Conduct Series of Field Demos – –Incrementally Add Performance Midterm Demonstration (Demo 3) – –6 Nodes with Core Capabilities – –Provide Confidence to Stakeholders Final Demonstration – –25 XG Nodes with Advanced Capabilities – –Show Capability for Transition XG 008 v6 Task Name Demonstrations CriteriaDevt 1. Two Node 2. Five Node 3. Technology 4. Initial System 5. Upgraded System 6. Final Configuration 7. Final Urban 8. Final Test Range #1 demonstrates: 2 nodes Demo Spectrum Policy Performance Detector Rendezvous Frequency Selection # 6, 7, & 8 Demonstrates All Technologies #2 adds: 6 nodes Group Behaviors #3 adds: 6 mobile nodes Network Functions Low Power Detector #4 adds: Policy Enforcer Ultimate Modem #5 adds: 25 mobile nodes Enhanced Detector Phase 3a Phase 3b Phase 3c XG 008 v6 Task Name Demonstrations CriteriaDevt 1. Two Node 2. Six Node 3. Technology 4. Initial System 5. Upgraded System 6. Final Configuration 7. Final Urban 8. Final Test Range #1 demonstrates: 2 nodes Demo Spectrum Policy Performance Detector Rendezvous Frequency Selection # 6, 7, & 8 Demonstrate All Technologies #2 adds: 6 nodes Group Behaviors #3 adds: 6 mobile nodes Network Functions Low Power Detector #4 adds: Policy Enforcer Ultimate Modem #5 adds: 25 mobile nodes Enhanced Detector Phase 3a Phase 3b Phase 3c

15 15 Demonstration Objectives to Show: No Harm –Detects Potential Victims Before Causing Harmful Interference –Disseminates Sensor Data For Spectrum Awareness –Incorporates Automated Spectrum Rule Enforcement Algorithms XG Works –Demonstrates Automated Rendezvous and Frequency Selection –Enables Node Transitions Between Networks –Conducts Operations With Multiple Cooperative and Non- Cooperative networks Adds Value –Increases Spectrum Access and Communications Capacity –Implements No Setup Networking –Implements Automated Spectrum Rule Updating Algorithms

16 16 XG Radios (mobile) NC DoD Radio (fixed) Equipment Installed in Vans NC DoD Radio and Test EquipmentXG Radio and Test Equipment Legacy Radio Link XG Link

17 17 XG Behaves!! With XG – Sense and Jump Without XG – Signals Collide With XG -- Moved Before Interfering

18 18 Speeded Up Transit of XG Past a Set of Non-Cooperative Radios Colors are Different Frequencies Dots are XG Radios Triangles are non- Cooperative Networks XGs Always try to be on Lowest Frequency Possible (Blue)

19 19 Simple Scenario, With and Without XG Military PSC-5 FM Radio Victim Victim Radio Bit Error Rate Without XG Scenario Time Bit Error Rate XG Caused Noise Node Separation (mtrs) Bit Error Rate With XG Bit Error Rate Typical impulsive Environmental Noise Scenario Time Node Separation (mtrs) XG Node Interferes within 600 meters Only Background Impulsive Noise

20 20 XG Strategy XG is not the universal solution to all problems –Some cases are likely to be too hard to deal with –One hard case does not does not invalidate XG usefulness Testing to be focused on identifying and validating –low hanging fruit –candidate spectra that are unsuitable for sharing Anticipate incremental adoption on a Not to Interfere basis –Military on military (10x greater packing of radios) –Military on shared (Technical framework for sharing) –Opportunistic (Widespread NIB operation) Not Essential to Establish New Regulatory Framework, either Nationally or Internationally Not Essential to Establish New Regulatory Framework, either Nationally or Internationally

21 21 Policy Compliant Behavior Rejected Notion that General Solution to Adaptive Radio Could be Just Code –Almost 200 Sovereignties –Thousands of Bands –Emerging Technologies Investing in Computer Science Structure for Policy Reasoning –Reasoning Technologies to Control Real-Time Process –Declarative Language Expression –Provable Policy Expression and Implementation Partitioned Policies into Two Categories –Policy Enforcement (Permitted Operation) –Optimizing (Network and Above)

22 22 Future Cognitive Components Will Not Come From Just One Source Spectrum Policy Country #1 Spectrum Policy Country #2 Device Mfr. Constraints NetworkService #1 #1 NetworkService #2 #2 Industry Standard A Industry Standard B Industry Standard C Enterprise 2 Policies Enterprise 1 Policies SecurityMode SecurityMode Interoperable Mode # 2 Interoperable Mode # 4 Interoperable Mode # 1 Interoperable Mode # 3 PersistencePolicy TopologyOptimizing NetworkOptimizing Multiple Dynamically Interacting Cognitive Processes Spectrum Leasing Policy

23 23 Anticipate Incremental Adoption on a Not to Interfere Basis (NIB) –Military on Military (10x Greater Packing of Radios) –Coordinated Sharing (Military with Coordinated Users) –Opportunistic (Widespread NIB Operation) Incremental Rollout Enables Near-Term Deployment as Appliqué Into Existing Systems –Add Protocols and Adaptation Software to Digital Networking Radios –Add Spectrum Sensing Algorithms XG Program – Transition Not Necessary to Establish New Regulatory Framework, Either Nationally or Internationally

24 24 DARPA Tuner Study Conclusion Looking at High Density RF Environments –Even With Ultra-High Quality Front Ends, Inter-Modulation Will Cause 20 dB (100 Times) Increase in Noise for Wideband Front Ends in Contemplated Density Narrow Analog Filters Essential to Survival in Typical Military Dense RF Environments –Can Not Throw Linearity at the Problem –Energy Costs of High Linearity Unacceptable in Battery Devices Responsive Strategy –Accelerate High Performance Tuneable Filter Technology 100s of Individual Filter Settings/Octave DARPA ASP Program –Do Not try to Survive on Any Given Frequency –Use Adaptive Spectrum to Resolve Remaining In-Filter Conflicts INPUT SIGNAL Post-RF Preprocessing Non-Linear Distortions Results Shown for 10w, 10dB Gain, IIP3 = 50dBm (Ultra High Quality) LNA w/ Prime Pwr > 12 Watts Noise Floor Increases 20 dB! Even Dynamic Spectrum Can Not Help the Radio with 20 db of Intermod!! Spectrum Appears to Offer Lots of Opportunities

25 25 Adaptation Is Key Without Tunable Ultra-High Q Front End Filters (Unavailable), Reliable Wideband Radio Operation in Dense Spectrum Can Not be Assured –Legacy Narrow and Fixed Band Radios Could Rely on Fixed Filters –Can De-conflict Intended Frequencies, but not Non- Linear Products –Co-Site Like Situations More Common –Large Energy Costs for Linearization Unacceptable for Many Applications Spectrum Adaptation (as in XG) Essential to Move Around Strong Signals Automatically But,… Even 20 dBm of IIP3 requires at least 5 watts of Prime Power (Ideally) IIP3 > 20dBm Required to Avoid 50% of Spectrum Having 5 dB Intermod Noise

26 26 DARPA Directors Vision of Communications Technology Evolution Dynamic Spectrum Future Networks Mobile Self-Forming MEMS/NEMS Packet Radios Topology Optimizer Cognitive Technology Mobile Networked MIMO Program – MNM Future Combat System – Comms Program - FCS-C Global Mobile Program - GLOMO Small Unit Operations-Situational Awareness System Program– SUO SAS Wireless Network after Next Program - WNAN Control-Based Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking Program - CBMANET Next Generation Comms Program - XG Information Protection Dynamic Quarantine of Computer Based Worm Attacks Program – DQW Defense Against Cyber Attack in MANETs Program – DCMANET Key to Infrastructureless Comm

27 27 What We Need to Do Next Develop the Technology to: –Adapt Network in order to Operate Radios with 20 db Lower SFDR and Linearity at the Same Performance Existing Programs Provide toolkit for the Physical Layer, but Have no Network to Exploit the Opportunities –Scale Understanding to Ultra-Large Mobile Networks –Extend Concept of Packet Networks to Directly Implement Tactical Broadcast /Streaming Service –Operate Multiple Network Technologies Simultaneously to Meet Each Mission QOS Need Achieve: –100 Time Reduction in Network Radio Cost ($500 per 4 Channel Radio) –10 Time Reduction in Network Area Coverage Cost –1,000 Times Increase in Demonstrated and Objective Network Scale (100s to 100,000s) –Higher Goodput/Throughput Ratio to support Broadcast/Netted Voice/Video

28 28 Adaptive Radio Uses All Network Layers to Resolve Issues MIMO BeamFormingNulling TopologyPlanning SpectrumPlanning Device Spurs, … Relocate Around Spur Spectrum Too Tight Re-plan Across Network Re-plan Topology Unavoidable Strong Signal Need More Range Each Technology Can Throw Tough Situations to other More Suitable Technologies without Impact on User QOS No Good MIMO Paths Network-Wide Radio Device Link Move to New Preselector Band StrongNeighborSignal DynamicSpectrum Dynamic Spectrum Key to Adaptive Networking

29 29 The DARPA WNAN Network & Radio Optimizing Layer –Looks Through Lower Layers to Make Globally Optimizing Decisions Topology Layer –Makes the Network Topology Achievable by the Radios. Plans Network Around Spectrum, Power, Channel, … Network Layer –Multiple, Unique Networks Optimized for Stream (Voice and Video), Broadcast (GBS-Like) and Packet Services MAC Layer –Adaptive Spectrum, MIMO, and Beamforming Modes PHY Layer –Commercial Component-Based –Mitigated H/W Weaknesses –Standard RF Slice Widely Replicated Global and Local Optimizing New WNAN Technology New WNAN Technology Dynamic Spectrum (XG) MIMO (MnM) COTS-Based Mil Radios Existing Program Technology New Program Technology CBMANET (As Applicable) CBMANET (As Applicable) MEMS Filters and Sensors (MTO)

30 30 Hardware Platform Single RF Processing Slice Replicated to form 1, 2 and 4 channel MIMO/XG/ Beamforming Capable Radios Reverse of Standard ATO Approach –Build Early H/W and Incrementally Add Network Capability –Have Early Demonstrator of DARPA Philosophy and Technology Approach: –Develop early Prototypes By Leveraging Available Commercial Chips (TV-Tuners and Others) Use Cost Pressure to Force Innovation for Lower Cost/Higher Performance Contribution from MTO New Analog Signal Processing (MEMs Filter Program) Essential Frequency900 MHz to 6 GHz Power36 dBw SFDR60 dB IP3What it is! Peak10 Mbps Control-Based MANET New Technology New Technology Dynamic Spectrum (XG) MIMO (MnM) COTS Chip Set GPS Access Interleaved by Connectionless Networking Digital Post Processing $ 500 per 4 Channel Node, Spectrally Adaptive, MIMO, Beamforming, Member of Four Simultaneous Subnetworks, Ultra Low Latency

31 31 Conclusion Dynamic Spectrum Technology is: –Maturing –Being Tested and Demonstrated Now! –Being Worked into the Regulatory Process Fundamental Physics-based Constraints Limits Effectiveness of Frequency Assignment (Co-channel) Management in Dense RF Environments –May Offer Opportunity for Nearer Term Affordability and Performance Benefits Need to Start Research into how to Best Exploit the Dynamics that Adaptive Spectrum Makes Possible –Not Clear that this is Evolutionary from Current Technology Dynamic Spectrum Access is the Key Technology Needed to Enable a New Generation of Low Cost, Adaptive Wireless Network Devices

32 32 Thank You! Preston Marshall Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Advanced Technology Office ConnectionlessNetworks Radio-Isotope Micro-power Sources One of DARPAs top 5 programs! Defense News, June 3, 2002 One of DARPAs top 5 programs! Defense News, June 3, 2002 Wolfpack Opinions expressed are those of the authors, and do not represent the position of DARPA, the Department of Defense, or the United States GovernmentPhotonic Avionics Rescue Radio Adapt, Morph, Proliferate


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