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Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology

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1 Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology
Descriptive Grammar 1, Lecture 2 17 Oct 2006 Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology dr Iwona Kokorniak (with contribution from dr Jarosław Weckwerth) 14th December 2008 J Weckwerth,

2 The phoneme Sounds that are used to distinguish contrasts between words... Are called phonemes rat – bat cat – bat rat – cat These are minimal pairs This is the domain of phonology

3 The phoneme The phoneme is the smallest unit of sound contrast
It may bring about a change of meaning For ‘normal people’ phoneme = speech sound But really it’s an abstract grouping of sound variants

4 /t/ [th] [t] The allophone
Variants of one phoneme are called allophones (domain of phonetics) Allophones of one phoneme usually have many features in common /t/ [th] [t]

5 Allophones Consistent variants of the same phoneme occurring in different words or in different positions in a word or… Contextual variants of the same phoneme or… Different phonetic realizations of a phoneme

6 Why is it good to know? Consider Polish: sieć – keks
Consider French mes – mais Consider Eastern Polish: ława – lawa Consider English: let – tell Consider Spanish: donde – entrada Consider English: then – den

7 Why is it good to know? What’s a phoneme in one language
May be an allophone in another ‘Similar’ phonemes may have different allophones One of the sources of ‘foreign accent’

8 Contrastive distribution
Two sounds are in contrastive distribution when they are capable of distinguishing meaning; It means that they don’t belong to the same category i.e. phoneme. They are two different phonemes. To check it is to find a minimal pair, e.g.: pin – bin Or compare them in terms of voicing, place and manner of articulation

9 Complementary distribution
Only allophones of a phoneme can be in complementary distribution they complement each other, they never contrast, One has occurrences which the other one doesn’t, e.g. [pʰ] and [p] If you replace one by the other they do not distinguish the meaning It will only sound unnatural

10 Transcription

11 Voiceless plosives – Aspiration 1
Voiceless plosives are aspirated if before vowel in a stressed syllable (not after /s/): pat [phæt] tap [thæp] cap [khæp] but not stack [stæk] span [spæn] today [tə'deɪ]

12 Voiceless plosives – Aspiration 2
[phæt] aspiration

13 Voiceless plosives – Aspiration 3
[rɪ'theɪn] aspiration

14 Voiceless plosives – Aspiration 4
[tə'deɪ] no aspiration

15 Voiceless plosives – Aspiration 5
[skeɪt] no aspiration

16 Voiced plosives English has voiced plosives /b d g/
At beginnings of words (like Polish) But also (unlike Polish) at ends of words, e.g. bad next to voiceless sounds, e.g. bedtime

17 Voiced plosives – Devoicing
Voiced plosives are devoiced if next to silence or a voiceless sound Devoicing on the left: initial devoicing Devoicing on the right: final devoicing

18 Voiced plosives – devoicing

19 Voiced plosives: Devoicing

20 All plosives: Lack of release
When another plosive follows The first one is unreleased

21 All plosives: Lack of release

22 Plosives: Nasal release
Consider: brudny, setny If a homorganic nasal follows Release is by lowering the velum

23 Nasal release: Zoom

24 Homorganic sounds /t d n/ are all alveolar = they’re homorganic
Homorganic means Articulated at the same place /t d n/ are all alveolar = they’re homorganic

25 Plosives: Lateral release
Consider: wedle, butla If a homorganic lateral follows Release is achieved by lowering the side(s) of the tongue ̩ ̩

26 Lateral release: Zoom

27 Plosives Aspiration (voiceless) Partial devoicing (voiced)
Lack of release All of these different from Polish

28 Plosives Nasal release Lateral release The same as in Polish!

29 Voiceless plosives: Glottalization 1
At the end of syllable A ‘glottal stop’ may be inserted before the plosive Or it may replace it completely Most often applies to /t/

30 Voiceless plosives: Glottalization 2
glottal stop [phæʔt] or [phæʔ] glottal replacement glottal reinforcement

31 Voiceless plosives: Glottalization 3
Glottalization is optional More widespread in British Eng. But also used in American Eng. NEVER applies to sounds other than voiceless plosives

32 Voiceless plosives: Glottalization 4

33 T voicing /t/ may be voiced Before an unstressed vowel: Between vowels
Or before syllabic /l/ Or after /n l r/ in AmEng /t/ may be voiced

34 T voicing: Zoom

35 T voicing: Zoom

36 T voicing Almost obligatory in AmEng Optional in BrEng IPA symbol: [ɾ]

37 T voicing – Taps para ['paɾa] Between vowels [ɾ] is a tap
Tongue tip goes up towards the alveolar ridge... ... and back down very quickly Quite like a short /d/ or Polish /r/ in para ['paɾa]

38 T voicing – Flaps After /r/ in AmEng [ɾ] is a flap
Tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge very quickly... ... ‘in passing’, when going down from the alveolar ridge

39 English fricative allophones
Voiced fricatives can be partially devoiced, the same as plosives

40 English affricate allophones
Voiced affricates can be partially devoiced, the same as plosives and fricatives

41 Partial devoicing [muuuvvvfff]

42 English nasal allophones
Slightly devoiced after /s/

43 Syllabicity of nasals nasals, together with [r, l], can be syllabic when they occur at the ends of words when immediately after an obstruent the diacritic [ ׀ ] under a consonant indicates that it is syllabic e.g. leaden, chasm

44 Syllabicity of nasals: Zoom

45 English approximant allophones
They all undergo complete devoicing After a voiceless plosive At the beginning of a stressed syllable

46 Approximants – Complete devoicing

47 Approximants – Complete devoicing

48 Approximants – Partial devoicing
an approximant is partially devoiced when preceded by a voiceless fricative E.g. swim, free, fly, flee, etc. The diacritic is used below the approximant to indicate its partial devoicing It is used above [j], though.

49 Approximants - Devoicing
No devoicing at the beginnings and ends of words! Very different from Polish

50 Velarization of /l/ a lateral is velarized
the back of the tongue raised towards the velum, as in [u:]) after a vowel or before another consonant or in the final position the symbol is

51 Clear and dark /l/ (The difference is less noticeable in AmEng) Before vowels or /j/: normal, clear /l/ Like in Polish

52 Clear /l/

53 [ɫ] Clear and dark /l/ Elsewhere, dark velarised /l/
Like ‘gładkie ł’ in Polish [ɫ]

54 Clear and dark /l/ [l] [ɫ]

55 Dark /l/

56 Syllabicity of laterals
The lateral /l/ is syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after a consonant E.g. paddle, whistle, channel

57 Syllabicity of /r/ In AmE, /r/ becomes syllabic when it occurs at the end of a word and after a consonant E.g. razor, hammer, tailor

58 Coarticulation coarticulation takes place when sounds influence each other

59 Coarticulation Consider Polish: susy vs. siuśki Is the /u/ the same? sień vs. sen Is the /e/ the same?

60 Coarticulation In both cases, the palatal consonants pull the vowel Towards the front Upwards

61 Coarticulation all utterances involve coarticulation
i.e. the overlapping of adjacent (neighbouring) articulations English consonants vary their place of articulation so that they often become more like the next sound

62 Coarticulation English is an anticipatory language
the articulation of the sounds yet to come are anticipated to some extent Other languages, e.g. Italian or French, are perseverative the articulation of one sound tends to persevere, or continue, into the following sound

63 Palatalisation a consonant is palatalised when followed by /i:/ or /j/
the front of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate the diacritic is [J]

64 Palatalisation: Zoom

65 More coarticulation Consider: kura vs. kij Lip rounding during /k/

66 More coarticulation All consonants are lip-rounded before a rounded vowel

67 Labialisation a consonant is labialised when followed by /w/ or a rounded vowel /u:/ /o:/ lips are rounded during the articulation of the consonant the symbol is [W]

68 Labialisation: Zoom

69 Good news Some of it is the same in Polish and English
E.g. consonant lip-rounding Or influence of /j/ on /u/

70 Bad news Some of it is different E.g. retraction of /t, d/ before /r/

71 Retracted /t, d/ before /r/

72 More bad news Alveolar consonants become dental Before /θ δ/
As in weight, width, tenth

73 Dentalisation alveolar sounds [ t d n s z l ] become dental before a dental consonant More examples: wealth, health, at this, add them

74 Vowel allophones – pre-fortis clipping

75 Vowel allophones – pre-fortis clipping

76 Vowel allophones – pre-fortis clipping

77 Vowel allophones - nasalisation
the vowel nasalised Always if a nasal follows

78 Examples to consider:

79 Examples to consider:

80 Examples to consider:

81 Examples to consider:

82 Examples to consider:

83 Examples to consider:

84 Examples to consider:

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