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Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells. Exciting News!!! Stem Cells Stem cells are curing and healing people today! But…

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Presentation on theme: "Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells. Exciting News!!! Stem Cells Stem cells are curing and healing people today! But…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells

2 Exciting News!!! Stem Cells Stem cells are curing and healing people today! But…

3 There are two kinds of stem cells. Stem Cells 1.Adult stem cells 2.Embryonic stem cells

4 Stem Cells What are stem cells? (adult type and embryonic type) Undifferentiated cells that can develop into more specialized cells. Also called master cells, they are cells from which all other cells STEM.

5 Adult stem cells come from many sources: 1)Bone marrow 2)Umbilical cord blood or umbilical cord matrix 3)Placentas 4)Fat 5)Mouth and nose 6)Baby teeth 7)Hair follicles 8)Muscle 9)Brain 10)Pancreas 11)Liver 12)ETC... Every organ in the body has some adult stem cells. Stem Cells

6 1)Neurons, brain 2)Cells that line the lung and airways 3)Heart 4)Bone 5)Skin 6)Digestive tract 7)Muscle 8)Blood 9)Liver 10)Pancreas 11)Cornea 12)ETC… Stem Cells Adult stem cells independent of their source, are pluripotent – they can form many types of cells.

7 Adult stem cells are used in many new treatments: (65 successful human therapies and growing…) 1)Stem cells from fat used to repair skull of 7 yr old girl in Germany. 2)Bedridden South Korean woman paralyzed 19 years ago can now use a walker. 3)Austrian doctors report women suffering from urinary stress incontinence are helped using their own muscle-derived stem cells. 4)Dennis Turner treated in 1999 using his own neural stem cells had an 80% reduction in Parkinsons Disease symptoms. 5)Nathan Salley treated in 1999 for Acute Myloid Leukemia with umbilical cord blood transplant when 14 – he is still in remission. 6)Dimitri Bonnville from Michigan shot in the heart with a nail gun, had a massive heart attack. His own blood stem cells helped repair his heart.

8 Too many adult stem cell therapies to list! See for the latest exciting information in stem cell research.

9 Embryonic stem cells? There has not been ONE successful human therapy developed with embryonic stem cells.

10 Stem cells taken from an embryo are referred to as embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells

11 Extracting embryonic stem cells always destroys the embryo. Stem Cells

12 Embryonic stem cells are then placed in culture dishes, where they continue to divide – and establish a stem cell line.

13 What is a human embryo? Terminology 1)A distinct, unified, self-integrating human organism. 2)A human life that exists – a human being ( being = exists ). 3)An embryo has the active (inherent) capacity to continue developing as a fetus, infant, child, and adult. 4)A human embryo is a human being in the embryonic stage just as an infant or adolescent is a human being in the infant or adolescent stage.

14 Source of confusion Terminology 1)Many people are confused because they believe the debate is about when human life begins. 2)But thats not the question. Scientifically we know when human life begins. 3)The real issue under debate is when does human life have inherent value? 4)If not at the beginning, then when? Can human life ever be considered as property?

15 Terminology The term PERSON can be used for political, social, or theological purposes. It has historically been used based on an individuals subjective opinion. It has historically been used by one individual or group to indicate the moral or social value of another individual or group. Personhood terminology has been used to take away individuals inherent rights.

16 Terminology The term HUMAN BEING is a biological term that indicates a member of the human species.

17 Terminology 1)A human life begins when a diploid complement of human DNA is initiated to begin human development. 2)A self-developing organism with 46 human chromosomes is a human life that exists. 3)Being means to exist. A human life that exists is a human being. 4)Every human being existed once as an embryo. 5)An embryo is a stage of human development, just like a child or an adult is a stage of human development.

18 Stem Cells ABORTION does not need to enter any stem cell discussion – Roe v. Wade was determined based on the womans right to her own body.

19 Stem Cells Stem cells that are not embryonic are considered adult stem cells which can be obtained without harm from the source. Adult stem cells are also called: 1.Post natal stem cells 2.Body stem cells 3.Somatic stem cells 4.Non-embryonic stem cells

20 It was initially expected that embryonic stem cells would be more plastic and more useful than adult stem cells. However, that research has been proven wrong. Stem Cells

21 Current research shows adult stem cells are easier to control than embryonic stem cells and have greater potential overall! Stem Cells

22 Given all of the above, why does embryonic stem cell research continue? Stem Cells 1.Because of promise, patents, and big biotech money. 2.Its the nature of a scientist to want to experiment with complete freedom.

23 Stem Cells In the private sector there arent any restrictions on stem cell research except in a few states… …and only a few private companies continue with research on embryonic cells... …because it is the pluripotent adult stem cells that have proven to be so successful.

24 Stem Cells The tragedy is – the focus on embryonic stem cells has taken attention away from adult stem cells that are actively curing people today! Every $ that goes towards embryonic stem cell research is a $ taken away from adult stem cell research!!

25 Stem Cells Even before any ethical issues come into play - There is little scientific, medical, or economic reason to continue with embryonic stem cell research.

26 Stem Cells Embryonic stem cell research obstacles: 1) tumor formation 2) difficulty in obtaining pure cultures 3) immune rejection

27 Cloning

28 What is the connection between embyronic stem cells and cloning?

29 Cloning The connection is embryonic stem cell problems Immune rejection When new embryonic stem cells are transplanted into a recipient, the body of the recipient will reject the new cells because the cells came from a different human being.

30 Cloning The connection is embryonic stem cell problems... Immune rejection The hope is to avoid tissue rejection – by using stem cells from an embryo created by cloning. The theory is that the stem cells will be exact genetic copies of the recipients own cells (not proven yet). Adult stem cells, of course, already are exact genetic copies of the recipients own cells.

31 Cloning Whats the difference between cloning and fertilization?

32 Cloning Cloning is also known as… Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)

33 Cloning removes the nucleus of an ovum and then takes a somatic cells nucleus and tranfers it to the ovum. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) removes a nucleus of an ovum and then takes a somatic cells nucleus and tranfers it to the ovum.

34 Cloning Therapeutic cloning, also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer, will not be the route to successful stem-cell therapies, many scientists say. In fact, if therapeutic cloning were vital, it would make stem-cell therapies prohibitively expensive. Because scientists don't know which, if any, methods will work, they hope they will be free to explore all of them. "Not only would it be expensive, but logistically it could be impossible because you will have to have every single hospital in the world set up to do therapeutic cloning and prepared to do the different protocols," said Jose Cibelli, a cloning researcher at Michigan State University in East Lansing.Jose Cibelli Wired News, 12/01/04

35 Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS Its a religious or subjective opinion about when human life begins. False, we know from science when human life begins. The question is – when does human life have inherent value? Excess embryos will be destroyed anyway. False, 88 percent are designated for future attempts at pregnancy. Other embryos are wanted for adoption. (Snowflakes) Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT or so-called therapeutic cloning) does not involve creating human embryos because there is no sperm. False, a human embryo is created when a diploid complement of human DNA is initiated to begin human development.

36 Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS SCNT advocates make diagrams leaving out the word embryo and use the term blastocyst instead. Blastocyst is another name for embryo – it is simply a developmental stage of the embryo. Cloning advocates argue that human life doesnt begin until the blastocyst is implanted on the wall of the uterus. There is no change in the genetic makeup of the human being that occurs during or after implantation. Artifical wombs will soon allow further development of human beings outside of the womans body. Enacting a ban on all human cloning will make criminals out of scientists. No more so than other bans we have in place to prevent scientists from doing unethical research.

37 Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS Banning somatic cell nuclear transfer will crush the states economy and will prevent the growth of biotechnology within the state. When the focus is only on proven and successful research with pluripotent adult stem cells, this will allow the state economy to grow faster. Proposed legislation prohibits cloning of human cells. HB2355 specifically allows for the cloning of DNA and human cells – the bill only prohibits the cloning of human beings. Those who favor cloning for research would never want to allow human clones to develop past two weeks of age. Scientists are already discussing how to move beyond this stage because of their lack of success with current research.

38 Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS If someone received therapy from this research they would become a felon if they entered Kansas. This is a ludicrous statement for two reasons. 1) Its like saying that if someone ate beef from a mad cow in another country, they would be a felon by simply entering the United States and 2) this possiblity is not even on the horizon because there hasnt been any success with embryonic stem cell research.

39 Cloning Artificial wombs – steps have already been taken with animals in Japan. Some scientists would like to gestate human embryos in animal wombs. Washington Post, January 16, 2004 New Jersey allows cloning and implantation up to birth, and mandates the human being must be destroyed before birth.

40 Cloning puts women at risk for exploitation Notable feminists opposing these technologies: Foremost promoter of Proposition 71 in California – state senator Deborah Ortiz (D) called for a moratorium on egg extraction. She is concerned about the effect the procedures have on women. Judy Norsigian, executive director of Our Bodies Ourselves, says, A primary concern is the substantial risks to women's health posed by the extraction procedure and the inability to obtain true informed consent from egg donors given the current lack of adequate safety data. U.S. Senator Mary Landrieu (D-Louisanna), cosponsored human cloning ban with Sen. Brownback. U.S. Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), has signed as a cosponsor.

41 Cloning 1.France (7 year jail sentence) 2.Germany 3.Canada (5 yr jail sentence) 4.Australia 5.Norway 6.Switzerland 7.U.N. declaration condemning human cloning Over 60 countries around the world ban all forms of human cloning.

42 Cloning 1.Michigan 2.Iowa 3.Arkansas 4.North Dakota 5.South Dakota 6.Louisianna States that have banned all forms of human cloning. None of these states biotech industries have suffered as a result.

43 Natural Law Self-evident truths Foundational principles at some level known to everyone Built into human nature and the human mind We cant NOT know it Also known as the moral law

44 Natural Law or Religion? Many religions are strongly against SCNT, BUT they are not always against it just because of any particular religious document or any particular biblical verse However it is a result of – careful reasoning based on science AND careful reasoning based on natural law

45 Natural Law Science The question of when human life begins has already been answered by science through scientific methods, and also by studying human embryology and human developmental biology. Natural Law What has not yet been resolved by the secular public is the question of when human life has intrinsic value…

46 Natural Law If not at the very beginning, then WHEN?

47 Natural Law If human life does not have inherent worth at the very beginning, then by default there is a period of time when that human being is considered as

48 Natural Law Who has the right to own human beings? For how long do they own them?

49 Natural Law Through natural law and natural rights, the moral truth can be discovered about the moral status of an embryo. It is self-evident that no human being should ever be considered as property.

50 Natural Law Protecting human life at all stages agrees with every religion that defends the truth of inherent human dignity, and agrees with every religion that believes human beings are meant to be ends in themselves and not means only.

51 Natural Law Religions that have principles of equality, dignity and basic human rights are in accord with our founding principles of the United States of America, found in our Declaration of Independence which rests on self-evident truths and natural law.

52 Ethical Concerns There was praise for the forward march of science; progressive and liberal leaders championing new scientific techniques that promise to cure disease, eradicate illness and suffering, and advance the progress of the human race; elite institutions of higher education embarking on their own initiatives, training students, and supporting researchers in the new science; the intellectual elite of the country decrying the obstructionist, anti-modern views of the people who oppose or publicly challenge the underlying ethical rationale of the new science. Eugenics – in the early 20 th century was the movement to improve the human race through better breeding.

53 Two views usually expressed in a debate: Utilitarian – believes sometimes a human being can be used for anothers purpose (as pragmatic or practical). Intrisic value – believes a human being has inherent worth and should never be used for anothers purpose (as property). Ethical Concerns

54 Many want complete scientific freedom… …but we cant give scientists a blank check. Ethical Concerns From a recent scholarly article comparing Nazi and Communist government: "This faith in science was about more than economics. Both societies also believed that science could be used to create perfect human beings, and ultimately a perfect society. –How Evil Works by Anne Applebaum

55 Ethical Concerns National Academies of Science is claiming to construct guidelines to conduct ethical research with embryonic stell cells. How do you conduct ethical reasearch with something that is unethical to begin with? NAS has also refused to: call for a ban on human-animal hybrids call for an increase in adult stem cell therapies

56 Federal legislation In 2001 the U.S. House voted to ban human cloning. In 2003 the U.S. House voted to ban human cloning. Waiting for the U.S. Senate… State legislation In 2001 the Kansas House voted to ban human cloning. In 2002 the Kansas House voted to ban human cloning. In 2002 the Kansas House voted to ban destructive embryonic research. Waiting for the Kansas Senate…

57 Adult Stem Cells are non-controversial Everyone can get behind adult stem cells. Adult stem cells are actively helping people today. More people are willing to invest their own money in adult stem cells. Umbilical cord blood and umbilical cord matrix are a rich source of adult stem cells. Federal money is establishing umbilical cord banks for easy donation and use.

58 Opportunity for KANSAS 1.California invested $1.3 billion in embryonic stem cells and they are mired in court case after court case. 2.Other states are distracted with embryonic stem cells. 3.This gives Kansas the perfect opportunity to become the flagstaff for research with adult stem cells. 4.Adult stem cell research could be a historical beginning of breaking new economic ground in Kansas.

59 "As to diseases, make a habit of two things-- to help, or at least do no harm." --- Hippocrates, The Epidemics ---

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