Presentation on theme: "Quantitative evaluation of texts"— Presentation transcript:
1Quantitative evaluation of texts Content analysisQuantitative evaluation of texts
2Questions about content When we talk about “cop shows” or “news” or “sports” we think about certain kinds of content. Usually, we perceive certain regularities in the content and notice when a single ‘text’ or ‘artifact’ deviates from those expectations.Sometimes we think certain regularities exist, while others dispute our beliefs.
3The need for careful analysis Because our own hunches and expectations can be in error, and much of our understanding of the effects, values, and role of telecommunications is dependent upon the nature of the content of television, radio, film, videogames, etc. it is often necessary to more carefully analyzed that content.
4Text analysesMany ways of evaluating content/texts are available. We call the entire group of methods “text analysis.”The most heavily quantitative form of text analysis is “content analysis.”
5DefinitionContent analysis: A research technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively measuring specified characteristics of a text.
6Content analysis in telecommunications research Content analysis is probably the most common form of research found in scholarly study of telecommunicationsIt demands the least money and resourcesThe downside is that many consider it “an easy publication” and produce very low-quality work
7Goals of text analysis To explain the nature of communication. Describe the content, structure, and functions of the messages contained in texts.What does the text mean? How does it achieve that meaning?To describe how communication is related to other variables.Input variables – Outcome variablesFor example: How does a corporate takeover affect television news coverage?To evaluate texts by using a set of standards or criteria.Must establish a set of standards against which the communication can be compared.Example: Is the text too hard to read for 12-year-olds?
8Types of textsMost any fixed symbolic whole—a story, a textbook, a church, a transcribed conversation, a website, and on and on can be considered a ‘text’. Sometimes a whole series of stories (Star Trek, season 2) may be considered a ‘text’.
9Acquiring texts Listen to conversations in naturalistic settings Conversations produced in a labVisit rooms of teenage girlsLiterary or historical sources (novels or films)Record shows off the airVisit or mirror websites
10Procedures Determine the recording units Develop content categories Select the text(s) to be analyzedDetermine the recording unitsDevelop content categoriesTrain observers to code units into categoriesCarry out the coding while monitoring for qualityAnalyze the data
11Sampling in content analysis Population: totality of texts we want to say something aboutThis is often more difficult than it seemsAll issues of the Herald Leader over a period of a year?All coverage of terrorism in the elite press?We can analyze a census or we can sampleThe same sorts of sampling techniques used for surveys can be applied hereRandom v. non-random samplingMany non-random samples chosen for theoretical as well as convenience reasons
12Sampling Commonly multiple stages in sampling documents Selecting communication sourcesNewsweekPrime Time televisionSampling documentsPick an issue, particular showsSampling within documentsFront page v. all pages, etc.
13Units of observationChosen first according to theory, then by convenienceArticlesBroadcastsBooksPicturesMoviesLettersConversations
14Recording unitsRecording units are the actual ‘pieces’ of the observational units that are scored according to your category schemeFor example, if I were observing a single episode of NCIS, I might score every 5 minutes of the show for the presence or absence of humor. The 5-minute segment would be my recording unit.
15Recording units Single word or symbol Theme Character May be too small—large number of data points generatedThemeSingle assertion about some subjectMay have overlapping themesCharacterPerson or animal categorized rather than words or themesSentence or paragraphMay have ambiguous or conflicted evidence of one or more categories of contentItemWhole book, film, radio programDifficulty coding into single categoriesPhysical size measureColumn inchesNumber of seconds
16Coding categoriesThe category scheme is the set of dimensions you use to evaluate your recording units and the available options you have for scoring one recording unit on each dimensionFor example:Recording unit: SceneDimension: Emotionality of a sceneScoring options: High/Medium/Low
17Coding categoriesThe coding categories must be carefully developed in order to see that when the actual data are generated, they answer your theoretic questions of the textI can’t tell you how many times I’ve had to reject manuscripts because the coding scheme was not adequate to answer the theoretical questions posed in the literature review
18Coding scheme Conceptualization coding categories The code book provides the rules for assigning a coding unit to one or another categoryIt is an actual set of rules for assigning the proper codes (scoring) to each coding unit
19Coding rulesWhat are the rules for determining which category a given recording unit should be placed in?How do we know whether a given paragraph is pro-Lunsford, neutral, or anti-Lunsford?This is a crucial part of the coding scheme. A naïve coder who simply applies the rules should get the outcome the theorist/ researcher intended.
20Good coding categories Categories should be:ExhaustiveMutually exclusiveDerived from a single classification principleIndependentAdequate to answer the questions asked of the data
21Practice codingIn order to see that coders use the instrument as the researcher intended, the researcher holds practice sessionsRelated content, usually not from the actual sample, is coded and the results discussed
22Coding sheet example Coding units Coding categories Length of song (secs)# different wordsMain topical focus# instruments playedVocal enhancementOops I did it againWe are the worldStairway to heavenUnchained melody
23Coding reliabilityTo ensure that the coding scheme is reliable we have to test itCoders score identical contentThe more often different coders produce the same scores for the identical content, the more reliable the coding scheme isResults are compared using statistical tests for reliabilityCronbach’s alpha; Krippendorff’s alphaA rule of thumb is that the coding scheme is reliable if alpha is at least .70
24Reliability v. Validity v. Precision The highest levels of reliability are usually found with very simple, extreme codes (true v. false; happy v. sad) but these simple codes often don’t provide the precision we want (clearly true, seemingly true, ambiguous, seemingly false, clearly false) and therefore reduce the value of the results—validity may suffer.The researcher has to consider the tradeoff
25Data analyses Descriptive statistics are often used PercentagesMeanStandard deviationMay compare across textsTo test hypotheses, etc.Compare findings to some predictionRelative percentages among categories, between sources on same categoriesCorrelations among categories, with predictor variables, with outcome variablesE.g., goriness of violence with measures of audience enjoyment