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Issue 1: The question of promoting reliable microfinancing practices in LEDCs Expert Chair: Leo Kim.

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Presentation on theme: "Issue 1: The question of promoting reliable microfinancing practices in LEDCs Expert Chair: Leo Kim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Issue 1: The question of promoting reliable microfinancing practices in LEDCs Expert Chair: Leo Kim

2 Recent Issues (Failure) 2010, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh restricted microfinancing practices after repeated suicide reports from borrowers: – Accused companies for exploitations, harsh collection tactics, and exorbitant interest rates – Spread to nearby states like Bangladesh and Pakistan Bangladesh removed Muhammad Yunus as the director of Grameen Bank, and exerts more control as of now Lebanons microfinance struggles due to MFIs collapsing, when many burrowers indebted

3 Recent Issues (success) State of the Microfinance Campaign Reports 2006 reports microcredit is one of the most powerful tools to address global poverty Some MFIs that learned from previous mistakes fixed systems; better results Tunisia managed to grow flower-business practicing microfinance

4 On-going Problems Report by Youssef Fawaz: – microfinance institutions are struggling as clients drown themselves in debt by borrowing money from multiple institutions Increased institutions Absence of regulation & credit bureaus – Other issues than multiple borrowings: Political Instability like Arab Spring: people became delinquents as their business suffered Economic Instabilities: When states with strong trade-ties falters, it also influences microfinancing practices

5 On-going Problems (cont.) Political reasons: – Some governments discouraged borrowers from repaying loans due to high interest rates – Some locals strived for political favor and subsidized loans at below-market rates or gave credit without checking Lack of education – some clients do not know how much credit can they manage without indebting themselves, and even with finance, they cannot produce competitive products as they are not so skillful Lack of proper MFIs: Most are incapable

6 General Stance India: India has the negative view on this issue as its government does put complaints on MFIs, and theres the Andhra Pradesh region, which should be paid attention to. India advocates for changes from the current system. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is the origin of microfinance, and recent trends show that it follows Indias actions, which the government discourages people from using MFIs.

7 General Stance (cont.) Neighboring states follow same stance as India and Bangladesh, and discourage microfinance. LEDCs: Are in more dire need of microfinancing practices, as it can work as a key to poverty alleviation. MEDCs: Some MEDCs also practice microfinance in means to help their own impoverished citizens MFIs: They are crucial to microfinance, yet they are not so regulated, and most MFIs are for-profit, meaning their ultimate goal is not poverty eradication.

8 Issue 2: The question of preventing religious and racial discrimination in the workplace Expert Chair: Samuel Hsia

9 Recent Issues Right now, the United States has a workplace discrimination issue going on: discrimination based on gender and sexuality – Republicans in the House of Representatives are blocking the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

10 Recent Issues (cont.) – White House spokesman Jay Carney claims executive order to end such discriminations is redundant Causes backlash Various complaints from LGBT activist groups across the United States Human Rights Campaign VP of communications Fred Sainz disagrees strongly, says that executive order is needed.

11 General Stance Currently, the main ongoing issue with workplace discrimination is happening in the United States right now Democrats: They are pushing for the Employment Non- Discrimination Act (ENDA) through Congressional voting procedures Republicans: They are voting against the the ENDA Executive Branch: Taking a more conservative approach and not involving in manners directly

12 General Implications For companies: In general, for companies this means spending more resources on making and enforcing laws that prevent workplace discrimination – something that the companies may be unwilling to do. For the United States government: One main controversy is that once the law is passed, carrying out the law may be much more complicated than expected – the degree of intervention that the USG could have in corporations is still undecided. For the discriminated: If passed, this law could could greatly benefit their working experiences.

13 FAMINE IN HORN OF AFRICA

14 KEY THINGS TO KNOW Drought occurred at the end of 2010 This problem is affecting more than 13 million people in the region (which includes Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda – the poorest region in the continent) The main causes for this problem are: – Shortage of food – Climate change – Agricultural policy – Military conflicts – Effects of global markets on local economies

15 KEY THINGS TO KNOW More than 40% of the population of the Horn of Africa are living in areas where there are severe food shortages Many farmers are dis-incentivized from growing food because of cheaper imports – this hurts their local markets and the governments dont do much to stop this

16 ORGANIZATIONS World Food Programme UNICEF – From 2011 to now, number of people in need of assistance has decreased from 13M to 8M There are many organizations that are donating food and necessities to these people in the region, but the ones listed are the biggest ones

17 SOURCES THAT MAY BE HELPFUL TO YOU AND YOUR RESEARCH Rice, Xan. "Hunger Pains: Famine in the Horn of Africa." The Guardian: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 1 Apr Stastna, Kazi. "Horn of Africa Famine as Much about Geopolitics as Drought." CBC News: n. pag. CBC News. Web. 1 Apr Tisdall, Simon. "East Africa's Drought: The Avoidable Disaster." The Guardian: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 1 Apr "Help Children in the Horn of Africa." UNICEF. UNICEF, n.d. Web. 1 Apr

18 FAMINE IN HORN OF AFRICA

19 KEY THINGS TO KNOW Drought occurred at the end of 2010 This problem is affecting more than 13 million people in the region (which includes Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda – the poorest region in the continent) The main causes for this problem are: – Shortage of food – Climate change – Agricultural policy – Military conflicts – Effects of global markets on local economies

20 KEY THINGS TO KNOW More than 40% of the population of the Horn of Africa are living in areas where there are severe food shortages Many farmers are dis-incentivized from growing food because of cheaper imports – this hurts their local markets and the governments dont do much to stop this

21 ORGANIZATIONS United Nations World Food Programme – WFP has provided food to stable and unstable areas in the region – WFP has programmes that helps the region try to get back to farming by teaching them new ways of irrigation and agriculture UNICEF – From 2011 to now, number of people in need of assistance has decreased from 13M to 8M because of UNICEFs aid

22 U.S. and the EU U.S. – Possible that U.S.s counter-terrorism policies have actually worsened the situation EU – Provided 791M – European Commission Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO) provided: Shelter Food Nutritional services Clean drinking water Sanitation Healthcare Recovery

23 SOURCES THAT MAY BE HELPFUL TO YOU AND YOUR RESEARCH Rice, Xan. "Hunger Pains: Famine in the Horn of Africa." The Guardian: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 1 Apr Stastna, Kazi. "Horn of Africa Famine as Much about Geopolitics as Drought." CBC News: n. pag. CBC News. Web. 1 Apr Tisdall, Simon. "East Africa's Drought: The Avoidable Disaster." The Guardian: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 1 Apr "Help Children in the Horn of Africa." UNICEF. UNICEF, n.d. Web. 1 Apr "Horn of Africa Crisis: Somalia's Famine." Al Jazeera: n. pag. Al Jazeera. Web. 1 Apr "Horn of Africa - SHARE." Humanitarian and Civil Protection. European Commission, n.d. Web. 1 Apr


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