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GCSE English Reading Non-fiction Comparing language.

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1 GCSE English Reading Non-fiction Comparing language

2 GCSE English Reading Non-fiction Lessons 1&2 LO: Can I analyse non-fiction writers use of language in detail? Lessons 1&2 LO: Can I analyse non-fiction writers use of language in detail? Key words: Devices, Effects, Reader response

3 Common linguistic / literary features… 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) Directly addressing the reader Directly addressing the reader Imperatives (commands) Imperatives (commands) Rhetorical questions Rhetorical questions Register - formal/informal language Register - formal/informal language Diction - simple/complex vocabulary Diction - simple/complex vocabulary Figurative language & imagery: similes/metaphor/ Figurative language & imagery: similes/metaphor/ personification etc. Word play & puns Word play & puns Alliteration Alliteration Rhyme & rhythm Rhyme & rhythm Anecdote & allusion Anecdote & allusion Slogan & catchphrase Slogan & catchphrase Statistics & facts Statistics & facts Exaggeration & hyperbole Exaggeration & hyperbole Repetition Repetition Humour Humour Sensory language Sensory language Emotive language Emotive language Punctuation type Punctuation type Expert advice Expert advice Short sentences Short sentences Superlatives Superlatives Lists Lists

4 …budget cut from about £16m to £10m over three years… Chris Ready, Wigan council's portfolio holder for leisure, said: We have a proud history of investing in sport in Wigan borough… That proposal was, Sebastian Coe said, entirely based on a properly resourced replacement track and field facility in Sheffield. After all this, will we just keep on watching as it keeps on happening, again and again? When will we come to our senses? If we could create a Garment Workers Welfare Trust in Bangladesh with that additional 50 cents, we could resolve most of the problems workers face – safety, work environment, pensions, healthcare, housing, their children's health, education, childcare, retirement, old age and travel. 1.1.2.2. 3.3.4.4. We were on a mission. As we turned into our road from the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound drifted over us. We knew we were on our way. Our mouths dropped in awe. We didnt know the word then, but now we knew the feeling. A sea of coloured banners, waves of red and white crashing into shores of blue and white, was rolling off the motorway, driving right past us. Which language devices can you identify? What kind of text? He puts so much butter on them that it runs through the holes and down our arms as we pull at the soft, warm dough with our teeth. We all run our fingers round our plates and lick the stray butter off them. Everyone is so quiet. Both of them have red eyes like white rabbits. Mum starts to roll the pastry out, concentrating hard, like every push is a piece of mathematics. Here, you have a go, darling. IN GROUPS

5 Which text do your short excerpts belong to? Why were these texts created, and who for? Does their purpose and audience affect the kind of language they use?

6 Why writers use particular kinds of language… Humour Facts, statistics and expert advice Sensory description This often wins over the reader, making them more likely to be sympathetic to the writers point of view. These features authenticate a text. They make it more real and believable – we are more likely to trust the text. This can create / evoke a clear image and sense of the thing being described in the mind of a reader. IN PAIRS

7 In the GCSE English Language exam, you are expected to both read and write different kinds of non-fiction. This unit focuses on the reading section of the paper, which asks you to read and respond to texts in certain ways. You are asked… 1.To retrieve information and explain it to show youve fully understood a text (usually a newspaper article) 2.To analyse a texts presentational features, such as headlines and images, and link them to the text (again – usually a newspaper article) 3.To infer meanings, ideas, thoughts, feelings etc. from a text – to read between the lines (usually a descriptive piece) 4.To compare the use of language in two non-fiction texts. This question is worth 16 marks. Youre always asked to compare Source 3 (the descriptive piece) to either Source 1 or Source 2. The question is: Compare the different ways language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. (16 marks) This question is worth 16 marks. Youre always asked to compare Source 3 (the descriptive piece) to either Source 1 or Source 2. The question is: Compare the different ways language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. (16 marks)

8 Analysing / comparing language is not a case of technique spotting, then providing a generic effect for each text. How has this student analysed language? Where have they identified writers techniques, and where do they speak more generally about language? IN PAIRS Both Text 2 and 3 use shock tactics. Phrases such as splattered with each others blood and her abaya stained red shock the reader with their graphic imagery and add to the interest for the reader. The whole article is very descriptive, which enables the reader to picture the highways of death and plumes of smoke. Text 3 uses shock tactics, but for a different purpose: to make the reader feel guilt, which in turn makes them feel compelled to donate. For example thousands of children have been killed and still in real danger induce a feeling of responsibility onto the reader. Furthermore, words such as urgently and please help further reiterate the persuasive style of this text.

9 Analysing / comparing language is not a case of technique spotting, then providing a generic effect for each text. How has this student analysed language? Where have they identified writers techniques, and where do they speak more generally about language? IN PAIRS Both articles use emotive and powerful language but in different ways. Text 2s headline uses military words such as blasted, missile and targeted; these words link with an article about a war torn part of the world where violence is a fact of life. The harsh, sibilant sounds of these words reinforce the violence of their meanings. Similarly, Text 3 uses the word emergency to make the reader take notice. The verbs help and save, skilfully suggest to the reader that they need to take action and the use of the inclusive us makes the reader feel part of a team doing good. In addition the words lives and children make an appeal to the readers emotions as they think that it is serious if lives are at risk and that vulnerable and innocent children can be helped.

10 Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS 1. 2. 3. 4.

11 Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS

12 1. 2. 3. 4. Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS

13 1. 2. 3. 4. Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS

14 1. 2. 3. 4. Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS

15 1. 2. 3. 4. Question: How is language is used for effect in this text. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. IN GROUPS

16 GCSE English Reading Non-fiction Lessons 3&4 LO: LO: Can I write comparatively about language and its effect? Lessons 3&4 LO: LO: Can I write comparatively about language and its effect? Key words: Devices, Effects, Reader response

17 You will usually be comparing an information, news-type text… …with a narrative, story-type text.

18 Useful connectives… For differences …in contrast to…; alternatively…; compared with…; in comparison with…; …is different from…; on the other hand; instead of…; however; otherwise…; whereas…; unlike… Showing similarities …is similar to…; similarly; like/likewise; equally; as with…; moreover…; in the same way…; in a similar way…

19 Readers response to your text? 1. Which words / phrases are useful when thinking about reader response? 2. Are any not appropriate? 3. Which need to be used with may, might, could / perhaps, possibly? learns shocked discovers IN PAIRS

20 Jigsaw Activity 1. A Cooks Tour and Costa Coffee article 2. Black Earth City and British bluebells article 3. Memories of Auschwitz and giant snails article

21 Jigsaw Activity

22 Both texts use lists. The bluebells story explains the reasons why flowers arrive at different times: elevation, latitude, aspect, soils, geology and local climate conditions. This list gives more information and helps the reader understand the issue being described. On the other hand, Black Earth City uses a list to describe the hostel in Russia-. People in the hostel slept, worked, had parties, ate, drank, sulked, wrote letters, cooked smoked and hung out their washing in this place. This long list creates an image in the readers mind and tells us that the hostel is a very busy and lively place and that there are always things going on. IN PAIRS Band 3 (clear, consistent)

23 Both texts use lists, but for different purposes. The bluebells story tells readers about the different factors affecting bluebells appearing in British forests; which are elevation, latitude, aspect, soils, geology and local climate conditions. This list helps the reader understand the issue being described in the text – it is complex and cold weather is just one factor. On the other hand, Black Earth City uses a list for a descriptive purpose - to convey the activity of the hostel in Russia. We are told the people who live in the hostel slept, worked, had parties, ate, drank, sulked, wrote letters, cooked… which gives the impression that this is the centre of their lives. The listing of these verbs creates an image of the overpopulation in the hostel; this is a busy, cramped place where occupants dont get a lot of privacy. IN PAIRS Band 4 (detailed, perceptive)

24 Memories of Auschwitz uses facts and statistics to emphasise how bad the Holocaust was - thousands of prisoners could be kept in Auschwitz and £1.5 million people were killed there. This huge shocks readers as it reveals the scale of murder that took place. The giant snails article uses statistics to tell readers about the giant snail infestation in Florida. 1000 of the snails are caught each week and 117,000 have been caught altogether. Even though this information might surprise the reader, it is unlikely to have the same impact as the shocking statistics in Katie Giles account. IN PAIRS Band 3 (clear, consistent)

25 IN PAIRS Band 4 (detailed, perceptive) Memories of Auschwitz uses facts and statistics because as well as being a personal account of the authors trip it aims to make readers reflect on the terrible events of the Holocaust. We are told that thousands of prisoners were kept at Auschwitz at once, which gives us an idea of the scale of the horror that happened in the concentration camp, and are told that £1.5 million lost their lives altogether. This staggering number gives us a sense of what it would be like to visit a place of such terrible significance. In a similar way, the giant snails article uses statistics to make readers aware of the scale of an issue, this time of a far less serious event- the giant snail infestation in Florida. 1000 of the snails are caught each week and 117,000 have been caught before, which implies that this isnt a small problem. Readers learn that 1,200 eggs a year are laid so perhaps arent surprise the pests are so widespread.

26 Both of these texts shock the readers. In the Costa Coffee article, readers would be surprised to hear that more than 1,700 people applied for just eight jobs at the coffee chain. This gives us an idea of just how much competition there is for a single job and makes us aware of how bad unemployment is. A Cooks Tour shocks readers with a gory description of a pig being killed. The writer describes the fresh blood flying in every direction. Rule of three is also used -shrieking, squealing, struggling – to give readers a clear picture of the pig being slaughtered. This helps readers understand how upsetting this was. IN PAIRS Band 3 (clear, consistent)

27 Both of these texts shock their readers, but in very different ways and using different language techniques to do so. The Costa Coffee article uses shocking statistics to reveal the difficulties facing jobseekers in the UK– more than 1,700 people applied for just eight jobs at the coffee chain, despite wages being as low as £6.10 an hour. Moreover, the retail chain HMV is closing 66 of 220 UK stores, meaning more unemployment in Britain. A Cooks Tour shocks readers with a highly graphic description of a pig being killed. We are given the vivid image of fresh blood flying in every direction and the sensory description of the shrieking, squealing, struggling pig as it is being killed. This alliterative phrase describing the sight and sound of the dying pig suggests the experience left a huge impression on the narrator in contrast to the locals, for whom this is a normal event. IN PAIRS Band 4 (detailed, perceptive)

28 Connective The author / language in the text… The reader… (or we…) Firstly Secondly Thirdly As well as this Furthermore Moreover Finally Lastly Likewise Similarly Unlike As well as In contrast to Advises Argues Builds Connotes Contrasts Conveys Creates Demonstrates Describes Depicts Emphasises Evokes Exaggerates Gives the impression Gives a sense Highlights Informs Implies Indicates Juxtaposes Narrates Persuades Realises Recognises Refers to Reflects Represents Reveals Signifies Suggests Symbolises Shows Tells Is made aware Is informed Is told Is shocked / fascinated / persuaded / made to sympathise etc. Learns Discovers Realises USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES


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