Presentation on theme: "The Digital Transformation of 21 st Century News Journalism Presentation to Conference on Digital Media and Journalism, School of Communication, Ming Chuan."— Presentation transcript:
The Digital Transformation of 21 st Century News Journalism Presentation to Conference on Digital Media and Journalism, School of Communication, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 12 October, 2012 Professor Terry Flew Creative Industries Faculty Queensland University of Technology
Drivers of Digital Transformation Convergence of media industries and content Distribution of content across multiple delivery platforms Media globalization Exponential increase in information and entertainment content available to consumers User-created content, participatory media, and blurring of producer/consumer lines
Its not just the Internet Rise of knowledge-intensive industries and creative industries Network externalities Rise of peer production and sharing – openness and mass collaboration in Web 2.0 environments
From mass communications media to social media: the crisis of news MASS COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA (20 TH CENTURY) SOCIAL MEDIA (21 ST CENTURY) MEDIA DISTRIBUTION Large-scale; barriers to entryDramatically reduced barriers to entry MEDIA PRODUCTION Complex division of labour; media professionals as content gatekeepers Easy to use web 2.0 technologies; small, multi-purpose teams as preditors (Miller) MEDIA POWER Assymetrical – one-way communications flow Greater empowerment of users/audiences through interactivity and choice MEDIA CONTENT Tendency towards standardised mass appeal content Segmentation of media content markets and long tail economics (Anderson) PRODUCER/CONSUMER RELATIONSHIP Mostly impersonal, anonymous and commoditised (audience as mass market target) Potential to be more personal; rise of the produser (Bruns); user networks and communities PAYMENT SYSTEM Audiences cross subsidised by advertisers (commercial media) or tax revenues (public service media) Not clear as yet: subscription, freemium, free?
Ways of thinking about digital transformations MAJOR TRANSFORMATION INCREMENTAL CHANGE OPTIMISTIC Democratization of journalism with rise of participatory media culture e.g. Clay Shirky, Charles Leadbeater, John Hartley, Henry Jenkins New ways of accessing and delivering the news – journalists have always dealt with technological change PESSIMISTIC Cult of the amateur; loss of maninstream journalism jobs not compensated for by the Internet Strengthening power of major media corporations
OECD, Evolution of News and the Internet (2010) 1.Declining sales of print newspapers 2.News consumption migrating to the Internet 3.Structural crisis of newsrooms – shift of classified and print advertising 4.New opportunities online, but new competitors (e.g. sports organizations) 5.Move to digital-only newspapers? 6.Online advertising generates less income
Decline in newspaper sales
U.S. advertising spend 2011 Source: KPCB Internet Trends 2012
Shift of young people to online news Sample – font is arial 28 – only use arial on slides no other fonts including any charts or diagrams –Sample Sample –Sample »Sample If you need to add a graphic scale to fit inside this white box
The new online news media ecosystem Sample – font is arial 28 – only use arial on slides no other fonts including any charts or diagrams –Sample Sample –Sample »Sample If you need to add a graphic scale to fit inside this white box
Newspaper advertising revenues
The crisis of mainstream journalism Undermining of traditional news business models Falling share prices/rising debt for established news media businesses Shift in the attention economy of users Crisis of authority for professional journalism Growing public distrust of journalists Rise of the PR state
The renewed appeal of alternative journalism The Fifth Estate (Dutton, Benkler) Non-profit [organizations] focused on bringing to light direct, documentary evidence about government behavior so that many others, professional and otherwise, can analyse the evidence and search for instances that justify public criticism … [they use] uses a combination of volunteerism, global presence, and decentralized action to achieve its results (Benkler, 2011: 55).
Monitory democracy (John Keane) solving a basic problem facing contemporary democracies: how to promote the unfinished business of finding new ways of democratic living for little people in big and complex societies, in which substantial numbers of citizens believe that politicians are not easily trusted, and in which governments are often accused of abusing their power or being out of touch with citizens, or simply unwilling to deal with their concerns and problems (Keane, 2010: 354).
Lessons from the online alternative journalism movement A sustainable business model matters Continuing advantages of mainstream media: brand, workforce, audience Challenge of the news/opinion relationship Potential for access to information to become stratified by income Shifting role of public service media – from PSBs to multi-platform media
Wikileaks as an alternative
Pros and cons of Wikileaks Challenge of tech-savvy critical outsiders Need in democracies for transparency and information access Wikileaks effect will be felt for a long time But … –Very reliant on Julian Assnage as charismatic figurehead –Dilemma of internal accountability –Balance of fact and advocacy –Continued reliance on mainstream media outlets