Presentation on theme: "JOURNALISTIC ENGLISH Prof. Chilin Yang Fall 2012 Prof. Chilin Yang Fall 2012 1."— Presentation transcript:
JOURNALISTIC ENGLISH Prof. Chilin Yang Fall 2012 Prof. Chilin Yang Fall 2012 1
Introduction to the Course 2 This is an elective course, so students initiatives are highly appreciated. One mid-term exam, which will be held on the week 14 and make 50% of the final grade.. One oral presentation project, which can be done by either 1 student alone or 2 students together. The oral presentation makes up 30% of the final grade. Class participation will make 20% of the final grade. Your presence and discussion count.
Introduction to the Course 3 Mid-term exam is given based on the reading handout, covering articles studied and discussed in class. Oral presentation topics can be chosen from CBS 48 Hours Mystery, ABC Investigative Headlines, Fox News videos, and NPR programs (e.g., Talk of the Nation, with audio and scripts). Oral presentation will be conducted in weeks 15 & 16.CBS 48 Hours MysteryABC Investigative Headlines Fox News videosNPR programs
Introduction to Journalistic English 4 Just what is news? Despite many efforts, no clear, satisfactory answer to this question has been found. News is something, but not everything can necessarily be news. The value of news is continuously changing with different time and different places. Joseph Pulitzer, the most skillful newspaper publisher of the 19th century, had his own view of news. He instructed his staff to look for stories that wereoriginal, distinctive, dramatic, romantic, thrilling, unique, curious, quaint, humorous, odd and apt-to-be- talked-about.
Introduction to Journalistic English 5 Charles A. Dana said news is anything that will make people talk. Turner Catledge said news is anything you can find out today that you did not know before. These definitions are not entirely satisfactory, though each touches on some aspects of news. Nearly all imply that news is timely, recent and new. They also imply that news is something which interests people, that people will both react to and talk about.
Introduction to Journalistic English 6 Another definition of news says that news is not the thing that happens but just those things reported and made known to the public through publication or broadcast. If news is not the event itself, but the report of the event, then we should turn to the pages of the newspaper to find our definition. From this practical angle, news is what we find in our daily or weekly newspaper. News, simply defined, is what people want and need to know.
News Genres 7 Traditionally news is divided into two broad categories – hard news and soft news. Hard news report specific, tangible events such as a fire, the death of a prominent person, and the passage of a law by state. Such stories are event-oriented. For many years, hard-news stories formed the bulk of newspaper. Hard news taken as a whole did not give a panoramic view of what was happening in the community, the country, and the world. Too many gaps were left, because much of the timely, significant information that readers needed and wanted did not confirm to the traditional hard-news process. The sum of the parts in a newspaper did not add up to a whole picture of life.
News Genres 8 The flaw given by hard news brought into the form of soft news, which intended to provide explanations and interpretations of what was happening in the world to fill the gaps left by hard-news stories. Such stories are process-oriented rather than event-oriented. They are called soft news. Although so many different criteria join the classification of news, news must be represented in a certain genre by the reporter. There are three commonly-seen genres: news, features ( ) and commentaries and columns ( ).
Organization of News 9 News stories can be organized and told in various ways. Basically a news story consists of a beginning (lead), a middle (body or development) and an end (conclusion) Lead Body of Story Conclusion This is the basic structure of a news story. All news stories have a lead a starting place and all have a body, the development of facts introduced in the lead. Conclusions are not ordinarily part of a hard news story, but are common in feature stories.
Organization of News 10 There are many ways to write a lead. One basic type is the summary lead, which is constructed around the five news Ws: who, what, when, where, why and how. The body, or development, of a story elaborates the facts predicted in the lead. The body may be brief or it may be very long. In the one-paragraph news story, the lead and the body are one and the same. News stories may or may not require a conclusion. Some stories tell what they have to tell and then stop; others have careful conclusions. Some conclusions carry the point of the story; others emphasize the significance of the facts presented in the lead and body.
Organization of News 11 The Inverted Pyramid The biggest difference between news writing and ordinary writing lies largely in the structure. News, in general, is written in a so-called inverted pyramid way. Stories written in traditional inverted pyramid style have each succeeding portion relating less important facts. A diagram of the story would look something like this in next page.
Organization of News 12 Lead Elaboration of Lead Action Details Personal Accounts Other Details There are other ways of news arrangements.
News Headlines 13 Headlines play a vital role in attracting the readers attention to the news story. A good headline is made skillfully so that the hurried reader can get the gist of the story at only one glance and evaluates the news immediately. Grammatical Features of Headline: Omission Some grammatical compositions and function words are usually omitted in the headline in order to produce a concise and comprehensive effect or to highlight the most important thing in the limited space.
Some Headlines 14 Teachers Union in Chicago to Extend Strike Into 2nd Week (NY Times) Teachers Union in Chicago to Extend Strike Into 2nd Week As Grocery Dies Off, Down-and-Out Town Lives On, if Barely (NY Times) As Grocery Dies Off, Down-and-Out Town Lives On, if Barely Man Is Accused of Jihadist Plot to Bomb a Bar in Chicago (NY Times) Man Is Accused of Jihadist Plot to Bomb a Bar in Chicago Islamists' Last Stand (The Daily Beast) http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2012/09/16/ayaan-hirsi-ali-on-the- islamists-final-stand.html http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2012/09/16/ayaan-hirsi-ali-on-the- islamists-final-stand.html
News Headlines 15 Omission of Articles Iraq may quit oil-for-food plan ( = Iraq may quit the oil-for-food plan) Use, to Replace Conjunction and Russia, E. U. heads meet ( = Russia and E. U. heads meet) Omission of Personal Relative Pronouns Polygamist will not change life ( = The polygamist will not change his life)
News Headlines 16 Omission of Link Verbs Romney in Israel: Iran containment not an option. (=Romney said in Israel that containment is not an option. Omission of Auxiliary Verbs New policies urged for aging population ( = New policies are urged for aging population)
News Headlines 17 Tenses: Headlines are concise and comprehensive, so it is impossible to employ all tenses in English to concentrate on the news stories. In practice, there are mainly 3 tenses in English news headlines. They are simple present, simple future and present continuous. Simple present: Under normal conditions, the reported stories happened in the past. But in headlines, simple present is usually used to describe them so as to improve the freshness and immediacy of the news and at the same time to save the ed space.
News Headlines 18 Simple Future: In headlines, structures will +verb and to + infinitive are usually used to refer to the future things.The latter is used more with the omission of to to save the space. See the examples below. Polygamist will not change life A day after becoming the first Utah man convicted of bigamy in nearly 50 years in the United States, Tom Green said he has no plans to abandon his polygamist lifestyle even if he ends up in prison.
News Headlines 19 Present Continuous: In headlines, the structure be + present participle is used to describe things happening now. And be is always omitted to save the space. So the present participle is left lonely referring to the present continuous tense. Economy enjoying 7% growth The Chinese economy appeared on track to enjoy the predicted 7 per cent growth rate this year, indicated statistics revealed yesterday on the first third of 2001.
News Headlines 20 Voices: In headlines, the passive voice structure be + past participle usually appears without the auxiliary verb be and the agent introduced by the word by. That is, the past participant itself expresses the passive voice. Kerouacs manuscript auctioned for millions ( = Kerouacs manuscript are auctioned for millions) Youths trained for better prospects ( = Youths are trained for better prospects)
News Headlines 21 Punctuation: In order to save space and be concise, editors do not use all English punctuation marks in headlines. The purposes for using certain punctuation are usually two. One is for making the relations among several components clearer and the other is for saving the number of letters in headlines. Comma: In headlines, comma is frequently used to replace the conjunction and to save the space.
News Headlines 22 Heavy Use of Short Words: Editors usually like to use short, capable and vigorous words and avoid using vague and general words in headlines. For example: instead of using damage or destroy, editors are accustomed to use hit, harm, hurt, ruin or wreck. Another example: in headlines, drop, give up, quit, skip, or yield are often used to replace abandon. Here are some examples: Powell backs one China (backs = supports) Oil cartel decides to cut output (cut = reduce) Israel downs civilian plane from Lebanon (downs = shot down)
Examples of short words (verbs) 23 aid help/ assist; alter change; ask inquire assail denounce; back support; bid attempt balk impede; ban prohibit/ forbid blast explode; clash disagree strongly boost increase; claim cause the death of curb control/restrict; cut reduce due schedule; eye watch with interest face confront; feat progress; fire dismiss
Examples of short words (verbs) 24 grab acquire ; hold retain/ arrest; laud praise; loom happen; map work out mar damage; nix deny/ disapprove name appoint/elect/ nominate; mark celebrate opt choose; ok approve; oust expel pledge promise; rock shake violently/ shock quit resign / step down; kill murder raid attack / search; plot conspire
Examples of short words (Nouns) 25 ace champion; aid assistance; arms weapons; firm company blast explosion; blow injury/ disappointment body committee/ commission; crash collision clash controversy; cop policeman; deal agreement; down decrease; fake counterfeit; fete celebration poll election/ public opinion; post position
Heavy Use of Abbreviations 26 Abbreviations of Organizations or Bodies WTO head to meet APEC ministers (WTO = World Trade Organization; APEC= Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Abbreviations of Technical Terms Spreading ITs promise (IT = Information Technology Abbreviations of Common Things PC sales fall with slow economy (PC = personal computer DJI = Dow-Jones Index; EMS = Express Mail Service EST = Eastern Standard Time; GMT = Greenwich Mean Time; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus
Features of Journalistic English 27 The language in reporting daily news must be concise, simple and easy-to-understand; while the language in feature stories may be a little literary. There is no unified style of journalistic English. Journalistic English is rather a composition of different writing features of various news forms than a fixed style.
Rhetorical Features of Headlines 28 Use of quotations: direct & indirect ones Use of metaphors: Ice cream profits melt away Use of alliteration or rhyming: Bookseller books markets Use of Pun: Summer warms up brewers Use of Hapallage: (a figure of speech) Mouth- watering fair begins