Presentation on theme: "Types & Genres. Revisit PAGOS Specific purpose may determine organization adjustment, claim, request, complaint, inquiry, response, to-file, etc. Determine."— Presentation transcript:
Types & Genres
Revisit PAGOS Specific purpose may determine organization adjustment, claim, request, complaint, inquiry, response, to-file, etc. Determine whether correspondence is: good news / positive / neutral bad news / negative persuasive / sales
Direct Approach Organization OPENING: main idea, purpose, request BODY: details CLOSING: request action (if needed), goodwill closing
Acceptancestrive to help receiver understand and accept the bad news. Positive imagepromote good image of yourself and your organization. Strive to reduce bad feelings. Convey fairness. Message claritymake the message so clear that no further correspondence is necessary. Protectionavoid creating legal liability.
Indirect Approach Organization (BEBE) Buffer: opening with context Explanation Bad news (offer alternative?) Exit: goodwill closing (offer alternative?)
Start with any good news or positive elements the letter contains. State a fact or provide a chronology of events. Refer to enclosures in the letter. Thank the reader for something he or she has done. State a general principle.
How effective are the following openings for a letter that refuses to grant credit? Reveals the bad news bluntly. Sounds phony and canned. Unfortunately, your application for credit has been reviewed negatively. We sincerely regret that we must deny your credit application.
Gives the wrong impression. We are delighted to receive your application for credit. The recent resurgence of interest in the stock market caught many of us by surprise. Is not relevant. How effective are the following openings for a letter that refuses to grant credit?
How effective are the following openings for a letter that refuses a request for a donation? Fails to engage the reader. Compliments reader and implies approval. Your request for a monetary contribution has been referred to me for reply. We appreciate the fine work your organization is doing to provide early childhood programs that meet the needs of parents and very young children.
Use the passive voice. Use the passive voice. Suggest a compromise or an alternative. Suggest a compromise or an alternative. Imply the refusal. Imply the refusal. Be clear but not overly graphic. Be clear but not overly graphic. Place the bad news in a subordinate clause. Place the bad news in a subordinate clause. Use a long sentence. Use a long sentence. Avoid the spotlight. Avoid the spotlight. Techniques for Cushioning Bad News Techniques for Cushioning Bad News
Use a long sentence. Dont put the bad news in a short, simple sentence. Avoid the spotlight. Put the bad news in the middle of a paragraph halfway through the message.
Place the bad news in a subordinate clause. Although we have no opening for an individual with your qualifications at this time, we are pleased that you thought of us when you started your job search.
Be clear but not overly graphic. Instead of this Our investigation reveals that you owe three creditors large sums and that you were fired from your last job. Try this Our investigation reveals that your employment status and your financial position are unstable at this time.
Imply the refusal. Instead of this We cannot contribute to your charity this year. Try this Although all our profits must be reinvested in our company this year, we hope to be able to support your future fund-raising activities.
Suggest a compromise or an alternative. Although the cashmere sweater cannot be sold at the erroneously listed price of $18, we can allow you to purchase this $218 item for only $118.
Consider using passive voice verbs. Instead of this We cannot make a contribution at this time. Try this A contribution cannot be made at this time. Passive-voice verbs focus attention on actions rather than on personalities. They are useful in being tactful.
Active voice I cannot allow you to return the DVD player because.... Passive voice Return of the DVD player is not allowed because.... Ryan checked the report, but he missed the error. The report was checked, but the error was missed. Consider using passive voice verbs.
Notice that passive-voice verb phrases always include helper verbs, such as is, are, was, were, being, or been. Examples of helper verbs forming passive voice: The report was checked. The schedule is being revised. Invitations were sent.
Offer the reader another way to get whats wanted (compromise, substitute, etc.) Suggest the writer really cares about the reader. Enable the reader to reestablish psychological freedom (choice). End on a forward looking, positive note.
To have the reader act. To provide enough information so the reader knows exactly what to do. To overcome any objections that might prevent or delay action.
Opening: Problem statement? Hook? Detail? Situation/Context? Request? LINK TO READER BENEFIT Body: details, reasons, etc. Close: restate request, idea
AIDA Attention Interest Desire Action
Capture the ATTENTION of the reader. Offer something valuable, promise a benefit, ask a question, provide a quotation, and so forth
Build INTEREST. Emphasize a central selling point. Make rational and emotional appeals
Elicit DESIRE. To reduce resistance, use testimonials, money-back guarantees, free samples, performance tests, or other techniques.
Motivate ACTION. Offer a gift, promise an incentive, limit the offer, set a deadline, or guarantee satisfaction. Include a P.S. with a special inducement.
Benefits and advantages the reader gets from using your services buying your products following your policies adopting your ideas Demonstrate your concern for quality and meeting customers needs
Adapted to the audience Saving money vs. saving time Developed using logic and details Accurate Detailed Phrased in You-Attitude Benefits are often frontloaded