Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Mr. Manzo American Government: Continuity and Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 15 Mr. Manzo American Government: Continuity and Change THE NEWS MEDIAChapter 15Mr. ManzoAmerican Government:Continuity and Change
2THE NEWS MEDIA In this chapter we will cover… • Changes over the years • Nature of media coverage today• Effects of the media• Regulation of the media• Politicians and media• Symbiotic relationship
3A Complex Relationship The relationship between the media and policymakers is both subtle and complex.No easy conclusions about who influences whom in what circumstances can be drawn.Television has quickened the pace of the news but it by no means determines American public policy.However, it is also clear that the media is a powerful institution that affects multiple facets of American political life.
4The Media of Yesteryear and Today Change: Media TypesPrint–Newspapers and magazines–BooksElectronic– Radio and TV– Cable TV, Satellite TV– Internet, Social Media (Twitter, Facebook)
5Technological Advances Papers became cheaper and easier to produce and distribute, the telegraph and telephone made reporting simpler and faster.Radio became widely available in the 1920s and television was introduced in the late 1940s.Cable was invented in the 1970s, CNN was founded in 1980, and the Internet didn't become well-known until the late 1990s.
6Declining Readership of Newspapers Newspapers lost nearly 5.5 million readers between 1986 and 1996.The phenomenal growth of the Internet has given the newspaper industry a new source of competition
8Expansion of InternetThe countries in black are connected to the Internet.
9A Reciprocal Relationship Politicians actively court the media’s favor and ascribe to the its power to make or break government policy.Research shows that the mass media have an effect both on public opinion and on the shape of policy choices decision makers face.
12Change: Role of the Media First newspapers appeared as early as 1690Early day of newspapers were partisan press.Mid 1800’s Penny Press for the massesThe late 1800’s was know as Yellow journalism.The 1920’s gave way to muckraking.Today’s press tries to be more objective.
13Broadcast Media Radio News evolved in the 1900’s Today, talk radio is a source of political commentary.Television becomes a major news source beginning in the 1960’s.It remains a major source of news todayMove away from network news to cable news.Growth of comedy news programs
14The Contemporary Media Professionalization of Journalism A number of newspapers have a national audience and are considered quite influential:The New York TimesThe Wall Street JournalUSA TodayThe Christian Science MonitorThe Washington PostThe Los Angeles TimesThese newspapers have a huge effect on television.
15Role of the Media Primary Role: Inform People Scorekeeper Gatekeepers WatchdogsWatergateVietnamWar in AfghanistanScandals (corruption)
16Media RegulationFederal Communication Commission (FCC) regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. It was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and operates as an independent U.S. government agency overseen by Congress.
17No Prior RestraintThe first notable case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled on a prior restraint issue was Near v. Minnesota , 283 U.S. 697 (1931). In that case the Court held prior restraints to be unconstitutional, except in extremely limited circumstances such as national security issues. The ruling came about after Jay Near's newspaper, The Saturday Press, a small local paper that ran countless exposés of Minneapolis's elected officials' alleged illicit activities, including gambling, racketeering, and graft, was silenced by the Minnesota Gag Law of 1925, also known as The Public Nuisance Law. Near’s critics called his paper a scandal sheet, and alleged that he tried to extort money threatening to publish attacks on officials and others. In the Near case the Court held that the state had no power to enjoin the publication of the paper in this way – that any such action would be unconstitutional under the First Amendment.
18Telecommunications Act 1996 The Telecommunications Act of 1996, a comprehensive law overhauling regulation of the telecommunications industry, recognizes the importance of access to telecommunications for people with disabilities in the Information Age. Section 255 of the Act requires telecommunications products and services to be accessible to people with disabilities.Telecommunications products covered include:wired and wireless telecommunication devices, such as telephones (including pay phones and cellular phones), pagers, and fax machinesother products that have a telecommunication service capability, such as computers with modems
19The Pace of the NewsThe increasing rapid pace of electronic news and television’s global coverage shortens the time frame for policy responses.In 1961, when the Berlin Wall went up, President Kennedy had 8 days to respond to the provocative action.In 1989, when the wall came down, President Bush was forced to respond overnight.
20The Media and Politicians Research indicates that roughly 2/3s of officials in policy decisions reported that the media was their most rapid source of information.Over 4/5s indicated that the media were an important source of information.
22How Politicians Use the Media Politicians and government officials often stage media events in order to gain free media coverage. Love Hate Relationship (symbiotic)Candidates and politicians try to control or 'spin' media focus regarding campaign and policy issues.Candidates and politicians may 'leak' a story to the press in order to get their story out without being the focus of that story.Sound bite – comments compressed into several seconds.Press Release, Press Conference
23How Politicians Use the Media Equal Time Rule – if a stations sells time to one candidate it mustbe willing to sell time to the opposing candidate.Right of Reply Rule - if a person is verbally attacked on abroadcast program he/she has the right to respond on that sameProgram.On the Record - all that is said can be quoted and attributedUn-attributable - what is said can be reported but not attributedOff the Record - the information is provided to inform a decision or provide a confidential explanation, not for publicationOn deep background - information may not be included in the article but is used by the journalist to enhance his or her view of the subject matter, or to act as a guide to other leads or sources.On background -briefing may be reported (and the source characterized in general terms as above) but direct quotes may not be used.New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) sets libel boundaries.
24Covering Government PolitiFact The President garners attention from the bully pulpit.The President speaks through the press secretary or press conference.Coverage of the President is generally unfavorable.Congress’s 535 members pose a challengeCoverage of Congress is generally negativeSupreme Court is more private, coverage is limited.PolitiFact
25Media Influence on the Public Press has little effect on long term belief.Media effect may lead to short term changes in opinion.Media sways uncommitted and raise new issues.May also play agenda setting and framing roles.
26Media Bias Questions about the effects of the media Media bias unavoidable – journalists are human.Media generally thought to be liberal.Recent growth of conservative news sources.Looking at good stories over issues.Can be charmed by interesting personalities.People tend to choose news that supports their opinion.
27Seventy-five percent of Republicans and conservatives say the media are too liberal. Democrats and liberals lean more toward saying the media are "just about right," at 57 percent and 42 percent, respectively. Moderates and independents diverge, however, with 50 percent of independents saying the media are too liberal and 50 percent of moderates saying they are just about right.
28Imperviousness of Beliefs Generally neither reading nor watching the news alters what people think.Selective perception is a pervasive human tendency.People search for “comfortable” information that “fits” with preexisting beliefs.People screen out or reject information with which they disagree.In short, we see what we want to see and hear what we want to hear.
29The Media’s InfluenceDo the media have too much influence on policymaking? If so why?If not, why do so many people think the media are so influential?How should a citizen use the media?Should we always believe the news media when they make claims?How can we become better consumers of information?