Presentation on theme: "Business Communication Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1Business Communication Workshop Course Coordinator: Ayyaz Qadeer Lecture # 16
2We have discussed……Organize your material before writing you first draft can prevent rambling and unclear message.Direct (Deductive) organizational planWriting plan for an information requestImproving openers for routine request lettersImproving closings for routine request lettersThree kinds of goodwill messagesGoodwill Messages: Cards or personalized lettersTips for writing goodwill messages
3We have discussed…… General Plan: When Seller is at Fault Buyer or Another at FaultPlan for Approving CreditAcknowledging First OrdersGranting FavorsAnnouncements
5Objectives Apply the three-step writing process to bad-news messages. Show how to achieve an acceptable audience-centered tone.Differentiate between the direct and indirect approaches, and discuss when it’s appropriate to use each one.Evaluate Buffer StatementsTechniques for deemphasizing Bad News
6Objectives Derive proper Ending for a Bad-News Message continuedDerive proper Ending for a Bad-News MessageList three techniques for saying “no.”Define defamation.Discuss guidelines for delivering bad news to job applicants.Design a plan for refusing Requests or ClaimsDesign a plan for announcing Bad News to Customers and Employees
7Resolving Business Problems Call the individual involved.Describe the problem and apologize.ExplainWhy the problem occurredWhat you are doing to resolve itHow you will prevent the problem from happening againFollow up with a letter thatDocuments details discussed in the phone callPromotes goodwill
8The Three-Step Writing Process Why is writing bad-news messages different from writing good-news messages?How do you plan bad-news messages?How do you know when to use the direct or indirect approach when writing bad news messages?Why is proofreading bad-news messages so critical?
9Strategies for Bad-News Messages When delivering bad news, you have five main goals:Convey the bad newsGain acceptance for itMaintain as much goodwill as possibleMaintain a good image for the organizationReduce or eliminate the need for future correspondence on the matter
10Creating an Effective Audience-Centered Tone How does the proper tone help your readers accept a bad-news message?What are some negative words or phrases to avoid when writing bad-news?Why does using respectful language help you protect your audience's pride?
11Indirect (Inductive) Organizational Plan Bad-News PlanBuffer (pleasant or neutral statements, reader-oriented)ExplanationNecessary data, tactfully statedPertinent favorable, then unfavorable actsReader benefit reasonsDecision (implied or expressed) along with offer of additional help or suggestionsPositive, friendly closeAppreciationInvitation to further action desiredEasy action, dated when desirable (EA)Offer of further help, reader benefit (RB)
12Using the Direct Approach The key is to analyze your reader first.Decide if the reader would like the bad news right away or needs to be eased into it.If you know your audience can handle bad news first, use the direct approach.The direct approach starts with a clear statement of bad news then proceeds to reasons.
13How to Write a Buffer Avoid saying no Avoid using an arrogant tone Avoid wordy and irrelevant languageAvoid apologizingAvoid writing a long buffer
14Possible Buffers for Opening Bad-News Messages Best newsAppreciationAgreementFactsUnderstandingApology
15Evaluating Buffer Statements How effective is the following opening for a letter that refuses to grant credit?Unfortunately, your application for credit has been reviewed negatively.(Reveals the bad news bluntly.)
16Evaluating Buffer Statements How effective is the following opening for a letter that refuses to grant credit?We are delighted to receive your application for credit.(Gives the wrong impression.)
17Evaluating Buffer Statements How effective is the following opening for a letter that refuses to grant credit?The recent resurgence of interest in the stock market caught many of us by surprise.(Is not relevant.)
18Evaluating Buffer Statements How effective is the following opening for a letter that refuses a request for a donation?Your request for a monetary contribution has been referred to me for reply.(Fails to engage the reader.)
19Evaluating Buffer Statements How effective is the following opening for a letter that refuses a request for a donation?We appreciate the fine work your organization is doing to provide early childhood programs that meet the needs of parents and very young children.(Compliments the reader but doesn’t imply approval.)
20Characteristics of Good Refusal Messages Provide sufficient detail to make reader accept the messageImply the reader is better offExplain company policy as being logicalOffer no apologyAvoid personal assaults
21Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Avoid the spotlight. Put the bad news in the middle of a paragraph halfway through the message.Use a long sentence. Don’t put the bad news in a short, simple sentence.
22Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Place the bad news in a subordinate clause.Although we have no position for an individual with your qualifications at this time, we are pleased that you thought of us when you started your job search.
23Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Use the passive voice.Instead of this:We cannot make a contribution at this time.Try this:A contribution cannot be made at this time.
24Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Be clear but not overly graphic.Instead of this:Our investigation reveals that you owe three creditors large sums and that you were fired from your last job.Try this:Our investigation reveals that your employment status and your financial position are unstable at this time.
25Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Imply the refusal.Instead of this:We cannot contribute to your charity this year.Try this:Although all our profits must be reinvested in our company this year, we hope to be able to support your future fund-raising activities.
26Techniques for Deemphasizing Bad News Suggest an alternative.Although the cashmere sweater cannot be sold at the erroneously listed price of $18, we can allow you to purchase this $218 item for only $118.
27Recapitulation We have discussed how to resolve Business Problems The Three-Step writing processStrategies for Bad-News Messages: When delivering bad news, you have five main goalsHow to create an Effective Audience-Centered ToneIndirect (Inductive) Organizational Plan: Bad News Plan
28RecapitulationIf you know your audience can handle bad news first, use the direct approachBuffer statements: Possible Buffers for opening Bad-News MessagesEvaluation of Buffer statements: Possible issues in writing Buffer in the opening paragraphCharacteristics of good Refusal MessagesTechniques for deemphasizing Bad News