Presentation on theme: "The Influence of the Media on Politics"— Presentation transcript:
1The Influence of the Media on Politics The Pervasiveness of Television- Television becomes major news source in 1960s.- It remains a major news source today.- Movement away from network news to cable.- Growth of comedy news programs.The Persistence of Radio- Radio news evolved in early 1900s.- Today, talk radio is a source of political commentary.The Declining Importance of NewspapersThe World Wide WebNewspapers and television use Web sites.People who read Internet news also use other sources.Also provides access to other countries’ news.Debate over whether the Internet is good for politics: Blogs, citizen journalists
2The Influence of the Media on Politics Years 2000, 2004, 2007Whenever there is a crisis, most people turn first to television for information
3The Pervasiveness of Television Greater reliance on experts and pundits.Use of cable channels for narrowcasting.The growth of around-the-clock cable news and information shows is one of the most important developments in recent years. Half of the public are regular viewers of CNN, CNBC, MSNBC, or Fox News.
4Radio and Newspapers Radio Newspapers One household in 100 does not have a radio, compared with 4 in 100 without television9 out of 10 people listen to the radio every week; 8 out of 10 do so every dayDaily newspaper circulation is one copy for every six peopleCore newspaper audience is agingUSA Today is the nation’s top-circulation newspaper
5The Internet Technology Gap or Digital Divide AGE Internet Access15-24 yrs. 56.4%25-34 yrs. 55.9%35-44 yrs. 57.8%45-64 yrs. 51.1%65 + yrs. 20.7%RACEWhite, non-Hispanic 55.6%African American 34.3%Asian 51.8%Hispanic (any race) 29.8%Educational AttainmentLess than high school 9.0%High school/GED 30.8%Some college or associate 54.3%Bachelor or higher 73.5%Family IncomeLess than $25, %$25,000 - $49, %$50,000-$74, %$75,000-$99, %$100,000 or more 74.1%Technology Gap or Digital DivideIn 2007, 29% of Americans surveyed did not have Internet access anywhereU.S. Census Bureau,Internet Access by Selected Characteristics: 2009 (in percentages)
6The Changing Role of the American News Media Political Mouthpiece - The Power of the MediaThe media not only provide an arena for politics; they are themselves players in that arena
7Where Americans Get Their News The Power of the MediaWhere Americans Get Their News
8The Changing Role of the American News Media Financial Independence“Objective Journalism”A Sampling of Rupert Murdoch’s holdingsRupert Murdoch is owner of News Corporation - the world's second-largest media conglomerate (behind The Walt Disney Company) as of 2008 and the world's third largest in entertainment as of 2009, Myspace.com and TV GuideWhy should we be concerned about the concentration of ownership in the media?A shrinking number of owners and editors exercise great power over what is communicated to large numbers of people.
9The Changing Role of the American News Media The Impact on Broadcasting - Franklin D.Roosevelt was the first president to recognize the effectiveness of radio to reach the publicThe televised Presidential Debatebetween Kennedy and Nixon
10The Changing Role of the American News Media Newspapers first appeared as early as 1690.First newspaper: Boston News-Letter, April 1704Avoided controversial issuesDuring Revolutionary War, newspapers abandon impartiality and work to build resistance to British policies1833 advent of the penny press1848, creation of the Associated PressYellow journalismCentralization of ownership of newspapers in early 20th century has continued to this dayIn the early days of the U.S., the press was partisan.Movement from financial support of the press by political parties to expanded circulation and more emphasis on advertising led to the development of the penny press. Penny press newspapers were cheap, tabloid-style papers produced in the middle of the 19th century by Benjamin Day & the NY Sun, then in 1835 James Gordon Bennett’s NY Herald, and then in 1841 the NY Tribune were peddled in the streets.AP was formed in May 1846 by a group of 5 newspapers in NY including the Sun and Herald who wanted to pool resources to collect news, i.e. Mexican American War.Beginnings of Yellow Journalism: In 1898, newspapers provided the major source of news in America. At this time, it was common practice for a newspaper to report the editor's interpretation of the news rather than objective journalism. If the information reported was inaccurate or biased, the American public had little means for verification. With this sort of influence, the newspapers wielded much political power. In order to increase circulation, the publishers of these papers often exploited their position by sponsoring a flamboyant and irresponsible approach to news reporting that became known as "yellow journalism." Though the term was originally coined to describe the journalistic practices of Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst proved himself worthy of the title. Today, it is his name that is synonymous with "yellow journalism.“The 1920s gave rise to muckraking ( to search for and expose real or alleged corruption, scandal, etc. in politics.Today the press tries to be more objective.“You provide the pictures,I’ll provide the war.”
11The Changing Role of the American News Media Investigatory JournalismSeymour Hersh and the Pentagon PapersRobert Woodward and Carl Bernstein and WatergateNina Totenberg and Clarence ThomasMichael Isikoff and Monica LewinskyThe "Pentagon Papers" is the popular term for a 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the U.S. government concerning the Vietnam War.
12The Changing Role of the American News Media Media ConglomeratesSome of the largest include:AT&TCBS Corporation & Viacom(owned by National Amusements)Comcast CorporationGeneral ElectricHearst CorporationNews CorporationSonyTime WarnerGrupo TelevisaThe Times GroupVivendiThe Walt Disney CompanyNew York Post
13The Changing Role of the American News Media Regulation of the MediaStandards and norms of the journalistic profession.1996 Telecommunications Act.Content regulation of the broadcast media.Equal time rule.Prior restraint not permitted.
14Mediated Politics The Media and Public Opinion Press has little effect on long term beliefs; Media effects may lead to short term changes in opinion; Media sways uncommitted voters and raises new issues.One very popular tactic of politicians trying to get free press is to stage “pseudo-events”
15Mediated Politics The Media and Public Opinion Officials want to control information about themselves and their policies, including the way such information is framed and presented by the mediaStrategies to Control the Media: Isolating the candidate from the media; Holding staged media events; Using spin; Appearing on talk shows or in candidate debates.
16Mediated PoliticsFactors That Limit Media Influences on Public OpinionPolitical SocializationSelectivityNeedsRecall and ComprehensionAudience Fragmentation
17Are the Media Biased?Questions about effects of media bias; Media bias unavoidable--journalists are human; Media generally thought to be liberal; Recent growth of conservative news sources; Looking at good stories over issues; Can be charmed by interesting personalities.What do these figures imply about the practice of selective exposure?
18Sources of Media Power Socializing Interpreting The power to set the context, to frame the issue, to interpret the facts, and potentially to provide legitimacy for people, issues, or groups are powerful and controversial functions of the mediaSocializingThe media is an agent of socialization, teaching us political facts and opinions that help form our political belief-structures and our political culture
19Mediated Politics Public Opinion Agenda Setting - The media’s ability to determine which issues will be covered, in what detail, and in what context - and conversely, of deciding which stories are “not news” and thus are not going to be coveredIssue Framing - Issue framing in a political context, means presenting an issue in a way that will likely get the most agreement from others. From a political sense, language is often used as a way to gain compliance on contentious pointssound bytesIn modern times, issue framing tends to involve a great deal of work. Before political speeches are written, focus groups or surveys may be performed to analyze the most effective strategies for addressing an audience. This is particularly the case with speeches in high profile campaigns or State of the Union Addresses in the US.
20Public OpinionIssue FramingThe power to set the context, to frame the issue, to interpret the facts, and potentially to provide legitimacy for people, issues, or groups are powerful and controversial functions of the mediaAgenda SettingDeciding what will be presented, defining the problems and issues to be addressed by decision makers
21The Partisanship and Ideology of Journalists, Policy Makers, and the Press
22The Media and Elections Choice of CandidatesPresidential candidates welcome invitations to appear with Oprah, Leno, or Letterman, and try to reformulate their messages in a light, comedic style that fits the program
23The Media and Elections Campaign EventsWhere Americans Learn About Candidates and CampaignsHow does the media affect campaigns?Determining “front-running candidates”Charging for advertisingTelevising debatesPortraying charismatic politicians as more “electable”
24The Media and Elections Technology - With the Web, citizens now have the opportunity to interact with each other on a wide range of political topicsImage Making and Media ConsultantsA portrait of Abraham Lincoln as “Abe the Rail Splitter” and Barack Obama as a family man.The Media Impact on Voter ChoicePersonality over SubstanceThe Horse RaceNegative AdvertisingInformation About IssuesThe horse race aspect of campaign coverage refers to the candidate’s standing in the polls.
25The Media and Elections The Media Impact on Voter ChoiceMaking A DecisionElection Night ReportingThe Media and GovernanceWhen policies are being formulated and implemented, decision makers are at their most impressionable.Some critics contend that the media’s pressuring policy makers to provide immediate answers forces them to make hasty decisions.When policies are being formulated and implemented, decision makers are at their most Impressionable. Yet by that time, the press has moved on to another issue.Lack of press attention to the way policies are implemented explains in part why we know less about how government officials go about their business than we do about heated legislative debates or presidential scandals.Some critics contend that the media’s pressuring policy makers to provide immediate answers forces them to make hasty decisions, a particular danger in foreign policy: If an ominous foreign event is featured on television news, the president and his advisers feel bound to make a response in time for the next evening news broadcast.
26The Media and Governance Political Institutions and the News MediaPresident garners most attention through bully pulpit.- Speaks through press secretary or press conferences.- Coverage of the president is generally unfavorable.Congress’ 535 members pose a challenge.- Coverage of Congress is also generally negative.Supreme Court is more private; coverage is limited.Officials may issue press releases.May also hold briefings or conferences.Speak to reporters on background or deep background.May also get information off the record.New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) sets libel boundaries.Presidents have become the stars of the media, particularly television, and have made the media their forum for setting the public agenda and achieving their legislative aims.Presidential news conferences command attention. A president attempts to manipulate news coverage to his benefit, as in the Bush administration’s decision to embed reporters with U.S. forces during the early stages of the Iraq War. Presidents or their staff also selectively leak news to reporters.Members of Congress have long sought to cultivate positive relationships with news reporters in their states and districts. They typically have a press relations staffer who informs local media of newsworthy events, produces press releases, and generally tries to promote the senator or representative. The focus of this media cultivation is on the individual member and not on the institution of Congress as a whole.Congress is more likely to get negative coverage than either the White House or the Supreme Court. Unlike the executive branch, it lacks an ultimate spokesperson, a single person who can speak for the whole institution. Congress does not make it easy for the press to cover it. Whereas the White House attentively cares for and feeds the press corps. Most coverage of Congress is about how it reacts to the president’s initiatives.The federal judiciary is least dependent on the press. The Supreme Court does not rely on public communication for political support. Rather, it depends indirectly on public opinion for continued deference to or compliance with its decisions. The Court does not allow television cameras to cover oral arguments, controls the release of audiotape, and bars reporters as well as anyone other than the justices when it meets to discuss cases.It has strong incentives to avoid being seen as manipulating the press, so it retains an image of aloofness from politics and public opinion.The Court held that the First Amendment protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with actual malice (with knowledge that they are false or in reckless disregard of their truth or falsity). Under this new standard, Sullivan's case collapsed.
27Presidential News Conferences with White House Correspondents President Average per Total Month NumberHerbert Hoover ( )Franklin D. Roosevelt ( )Harry Truman ( )Dwight Eisenhower ( )John Kennedy ( )Lyndon Johnson ( )Richard Nixon ( )Gerald Ford ( )Jimmy Carter ( )Ronald Reagan ( )George Bush ( )Bill Clinton ( )George W. Bush ( )Barack Obama ( )SOURCE: Gerhard Peter. “presidential News Conferences.” The American Presidency Project. Ed. John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. Santa Barbara, CA University of California
28National Advertising Council Federal Media Commission Approximately what percentage of United States households do NOT have a television?2%5%15%25%Which federal agency is responsible for regulating the media?National Advertising CouncilFederal Media CommissionFederal Communications CommissionNone of theseA, C
29Work to enhance the image of their candidate Media consultants _______.Work to enhance the image of their candidateTry to create a negative image of the opposing candidateUse focus groups to advise their candidateAll of theseD
30Democrat Republican Independent Moderate The White House Congress The party identification of most journalists is ______________.DemocratRepublicanIndependentModerateWhich of these is most likely to receive negative coverage from the press?The White HouseCongressThe Supreme CourtState LegislaturesC, B