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The Influence of the Media on Politics The Pervasiveness of Television - Television becomes major news source in 1960s. - It remains a major news source.

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Presentation on theme: "The Influence of the Media on Politics The Pervasiveness of Television - Television becomes major news source in 1960s. - It remains a major news source."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Influence of the Media on Politics The Pervasiveness of Television - Television becomes major news source in 1960s. - It remains a major news source today. - Movement away from network news to cable. - Growth of comedy news programs. The Persistence of Radio - Radio news evolved in early 1900s. - Today, talk radio is a source of political commentary. The Declining Importance of Newspapers The World Wide Web

2 The Influence of the Media on Politics Whenever there is a crisis, most people turn first to television for information

3 The Pervasiveness of Television The growth of around-the-clock cable news and information shows is one of the most important developments in recent years. Half of the public are regular viewers of CNN, CNBC, MSNBC, or Fox News.

4 Radio and Newspapers One household in 100 does not have a radio, compared with 4 in 100 without television 9 out of 10 people listen to the radio every week; 8 out of 10 do so every day Daily newspaper circulation is one copy for every six people Core newspaper audience is aging USA Today is the nations top-circulation newspaper Radio Newspapers

5 The Internet Internet Access by Selected Characteristics: 2009 (in percentages) AGE Internet Access yrs.56.4% yrs.55.9% yrs.57.8% yrs.51.1% 65 + yrs.20.7% RACE White, non-Hispanic55.6% African American34.3% Asian51.8% Hispanic (any race)29.8% Educational Attainment Less than high school 9.0% High school/GED30.8% Some college or associate 54.3% Bachelor or higher73.5% Family Income Less than $25, % $25,000 - $49, % $50,000-$74, % $75,000-$99, % $100,000 or more74.1% Technology Gap or Digital Divide In 2007, 29% of Americans surveyed did not have Internet access anywhere

6 The Changing Role of the American News Media The media not only provide an arena for politics; they are themselves players in that arena Political Mouthpiece - The Power of the Media

7 The Power of the Media Where Americans Get Their News

8 The Changing Role of the American News Media Financial Independence Objective Journalism Why should we be concerned about the concentration of ownership in the media? A shrinking number of owners and editors exercise great power over what is communicated to large numbers of people. A Sampling of Rupert Murdochs holdings

9 The Changing Role of the American News Media The Impact on Broadcasting - Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to recognize the effectiveness of radio to reach the public -The televised Presidential Debate between Kennedy and Nixon

10 The Changing Role of the American News Media Newspapers first appeared as early as First newspaper: Boston News- Letter, April 1704 –Avoided controversial issues During Revolutionary War, newspapers abandon impartiality and work to build resistance to British policies 1833 advent of the penny press 1848, creation of the Associated Press Yellow journalism Centralization of ownership of newspapers in early 20th century has continued to this day -You provide the pictures, Ill provide the war.

11 The Changing Role of the American News Media Investigatory Journalism Seymour Hersh and the Pentagon Papers Robert Woodward and Carl Bernstein and Watergate Nina Totenberg and Clarence Thomas Michael Isikoff and Monica Lewinsky

12 The Changing Role of the American News Media Media Conglomerates Some of the largest include: AT&T CBS Corporation & Viacom (owned by National Amusements) Comcast Corporation General Electric Hearst Corporation News Corporation Sony Time Warner Grupo Televisa The Times Group Vivendi The Walt Disney Company New York Post

13 The Changing Role of the American News Media Regulation of the Media Standards and norms of the journalistic profession Telecommunications Act. Content regulation of the broadcast media. Equal time rule. Prior restraint not permitted.

14 Mediated Politics The Media and Public Opinion One very popular tactic of politicians trying to get free press is to stage pseudo-events

15 Mediated Politics The Media and Public Opinion Officials want to control information about themselves and their policies, including the way such information is framed and presented by the media

16 Mediated Politics Factors That Limit Media Influences on Public Opinion Political Socialization Selectivity Needs Recall and Comprehension Audience Fragmentation

17 Are the Media Biased? What do these figures imply about the practice of selective exposure?

18 Interpreting The power to set the context, to frame the issue, to interpret the facts, and potentially to provide legitimacy for people, issues, or groups are powerful and controversial functions of the media Socializing The media is an agent of socialization, teaching us political facts and opinions that help form our political belief-structures and our political culture Sources of Media Power

19 Mediated Politics Public Opinion Agenda Setting - The medias ability to determine which issues will be covered, in what detail, and in what context - and conversely, of deciding which stories are not news and thus are not going to be covered Issue Framing - Issue framing in a political context, means presenting an issue in a way that will likely get the most agreement from others. From a political sense, language is often used as a way to gain compliance on contentious points

20 Public Opinion Issue Framing The power to set the context, to frame the issue, to interpret the facts, and potentially to provide legitimacy for people, issues, or groups are powerful and controversial functions of the media Agenda Setting Deciding what will be presented, defining the problems and issues to be addressed by decision makers

21 The Partisanship and Ideology of Journalists, Policy Makers, and the Press

22 The Media and Elections Choice of Candidates Presidential candidates welcome invitations to appear with Oprah, Leno, or Letterman, and try to reformulate their messages in a light, comedic style that fits the program

23 The Media and Elections Campaign Events Where Americans Learn About Candidates and Campaigns How does the media affect campaigns? Determining front- running candidates Charging for advertising Televising debates Portraying charismatic politicians as more electable

24 The Media and Elections Technology - With the Web, citizens now have the opportunity to interact with each other on a wide range of political topics Image Making and Media Consultants A portrait of Abraham Lincoln as Abe the Rail Splitter and Barack Obama as a family man. The Media Impact on Voter Choice o Personality over Substance o The Horse Race o Negative Advertising o Information About Issues

25 The Media and Elections The Media Impact on Voter Choice o Making A Decision o Election Night Reporting The Media and Governance o When policies are being formulated and implemented, decision makers are at their most impressionable. o Some critics contend that the medias pressuring policy makers to provide immediate answers forces them to make hasty decisions.

26 The Media and Governance Political Institutions and the News Media President garners most attention through bully pulpit. - Speaks through press secretary or press conferences. - Coverage of the president is generally unfavorable. Congress 535 members pose a challenge. - Coverage of Congress is also generally negative. Supreme Court is more private; coverage is limited. Officials may issue press releases. May also hold briefings or conferences. Speak to reporters on background or deep background. May also get information off the record. New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) sets libel boundaries.

27 Presidential News Conferences with White House Correspondents PresidentAverage per Total Month Number Herbert Hoover ( ) Franklin D. Roosevelt ( ) Harry Truman ( ) Dwight Eisenhower ( ) John Kennedy ( ) Lyndon Johnson ( ) Richard Nixon ( ) Gerald Ford ( ) Jimmy Carter ( ) Ronald Reagan ( ) George Bush ( ) Bill Clinton ( ) George W. Bush ( ) Barack Obama ( ) SOURCE: Gerhard Peter. presidential News Conferences. The American Presidency Project. Ed. John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. Santa Barbara, CA University of California

28 Approximately what percentage of United States households do NOT have a television? A.2% B.5% C.15% D.25% Which federal agency is responsible for regulating the media? A.National Advertising Council B.Federal Media Commission C.Federal Communications Commission D.None of these

29 Media consultants _______. A.Work to enhance the image of their candidate B.Try to create a negative image of the opposing candidate C.Use focus groups to advise their candidate D.All of these

30 Which of these is most likely to receive negative coverage from the press? A.The White House B.Congress C.The Supreme Court D.State Legislatures The party identification of most journalists is ______________. A.Democrat B.Republican C.Independent D.Moderate


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