2News and News Sources Promises of Confidentiality Some sources won’t talk unless you promise them confidentialityTo renege on a promise is to risk a lawsuit filed by the source
3News and News Sources Tips for Reporters on Promising Confidentiality: Do not routinely promise confidentiality as a standard interview techniqueAvoid giving an absolute promise of confidentialityDo not rely exclusively on information from a confidential source
4News and News Sources Tips for Reporters on Promising Confidentiality: Consider whether others (police attorneys, etc…) will want to know the identify of he source before publishing or broadcasting the material.Consider whether you can use the information without disclosing that is was obtained from a confidential source.
5News and News Sources The Failure to Keep a Promise Cohen v. Cowles Media (1992)The First Amendment does not shield journalists from lawsuits or civil liability when they breach promises of confidentiality to their sources
6News and News Sources The Failure to Keep a Promise Cohen v. Cowles Media (1992)Promissory Estoppel: The legal theory on which the plaintiff in Cohen v. Cowles Media prevailed after journalists breached promises of confidentiality to himThe theory allows courts to enforce promises, even though there is no legally binding contract, in order to avoid injustice
7News and News Sources Four Key Elements of Promissory Estoppel: The defendant made a clear and definite promise to the plaintiff;The defendant intended to induce the plaintiff’s reliance on that promise;The plaintiff reasonably relied on the promise to his or her detriment; andThe promise must be enforced in the interests of justice to the plaintiff.
8Constitutional Protection of News Sources Branzburg v. Hayes, 1972The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the scope of protection varies depending upon:The type of proceeding (grand jury, criminal case, civil case)The appellate jurisdiction in which the case in question arises, andThe nature of the information
9Constitutional Protection of News Sources Civil CasesCourts are most likely to recognize the right of a journalist to refuse to testify in a civil case
10Constitutional Protection of News Sources Civil CasesCourts will consider:Is the information of certain relevance in the case?Does the information go to the heart of the issue before the court?Can the person who wants the information show there is no other source for the information?
11Constitutional Protection of News Sources Criminal CasesIn these cases, courts must balance journalistic privilege with the Sixth Amendment right of the defendant to compel testimony
12Constitutional Protection of News Sources Grand Jury ProceedingsCourts have routinely denied a First Amendment privilege to withhold information from grand jury hearings
13Constitutional Protection of News Sources Special ProsecutorsCourts have refused to extend a reporter’s privilege when confidential information is requested by a special prosecutor
14Constitutional Protection of News Sources Anonymity and the InternetCan parties in a lawsuit force Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to reveal the names of persons who post anonymous messages online?Courts are split – some have required ISPs to reveal the names, and others have established difficult barriers to overcome before this information is given
15Constitutional Protection of News Sources Nonconfidential Information and Waiver of the PrivilegeCourts have been reluctant to protect reporters when nonconfidential information is at issueMost subpoenas issued today to journalists are to gain access to nonconfidential information
16Constitutional Protection of News Sources Who is a Journalist?In re Madden, 1998The 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals defined a journalist as someone who:Is engaged in investigative reportingIs gathering news; andPossesses the intent at the beginning of the news-gathering process to disseminate this news to the public
17Constitutional Protection of News Sources Telephone RecordsThere is no First or Fourth Amendment right protecting telephone subscribers from being denied notification when their records are turned over to the government in a felony investigation
18Legislative and Executive Protection of News Sources Shield LawsVirtually every state has some protection for reporters40 states now have “shield laws” that provide varying degrees of protection to journalists who seek to keep confidential sources and information
19Legislative and Executive Protection of News Sources Shield LawsCongress is currently considering legislation that would establish a federal shield law
20Legislative and Executive Protection of News Sources Newsroom SearchesA law enforcement agency may conduct a warranted search of a newsroom to find work products:When there is a probable cause to believe that the person possessing such materials has committed or is committing a criminal offense to which the materials will relate.Where there is reason to believe that the immediate seizure of such materials is necessary to prevent the death of or serious harm to a person.
21Legislative and Executive Protection of News Sources Newsroom SearchesA search warrant may be used instead of a subpoena to obtain documentary materials if:There is a reason to believe that the giving of notice pursuant to gaining a subpoena would result in the destruction, alteration, or concealment of such materials.That such materials have not been provided in response to a court order directing compliance with a subpoena, all other legal remedies have been exhausted, and there is reason to believe that further delay in gaining the material would threaten the interests of justice.
22Legislative and Executive Protection of News Sources How to Respond to a SubpoenaTry to avoid the problem by not offering promises of confidentiality unnecessarilyDiscuss the matter with an editorDon’t talk with anyone outside of the paperIf the subpoena requests only published material or video previously broadcast, you may be able to provide the material without disputeBegin gathering material for a subpoena as soon as it is servedIf you believe source names should be withheld, but the newspaper does not, hire your own lawyer
23The Contempt Power Contempt and the Press Situations most likely to result in contempt problems for the press include:Failure to pay a judgment in a libel or privacy caseFailure to obey a court orderRefusal to disclose the identity of a sourceCritical commentary about the courtTampering with a jury
24The Contempt Power Limitations on the Contempt Power Legislative LimitsCongress has passed laws that limit use of the summary judgment power of federal judges to dispose of contempt citations
25The Contempt Power Limitations on the Contempt Power Court-Imposed LimitsThe Federal Rules of Criminal Procedures requires that in many instances notice be given the contemnor and a hearing be allowed
26The Contempt Power Limitations on the Contempt Power First Amendment LimitationsThe U.S. Supreme Court ruled that freedom of the press to comment on the judiciary must be protected except in those circumstances where the commentary presents a serious threat to the proper functioning of the legal process
27The Contempt Power Collateral Bar Rule Rule that requires all court orders, even those that appear to be unconstitutional and are later deemed to be unconstitutional by an appellate court, must be obeyed until they are overturned