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CSC1720 – Introduction to Internet Essential Materials Virtual Community USENET newsgroup.

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1 CSC1720 – Introduction to Internet Essential Materials Virtual Community USENET newsgroup

2 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Outline What is USENET news? What is USENET news? Newsgroup Naming Newsgroup Naming How does it work? NNTP? How does it work? NNTP? How to search your favorite newsgroup? How to search your favorite newsgroup? Miscellaneous Topics Miscellaneous Topics Do s and Don'ts Do s and Don'ts How to setup a USENET newsgroup? How to setup a USENET newsgroup?

3 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung What is USENET news? Globally distributed discussion forum. Globally distributed discussion forum. Also known as USENET News. Also known as USENET News. A collection of special interest groups, called newsgroups. A collection of special interest groups, called newsgroups. Each newsgroup is devoted to a certain topic. Each newsgroup is devoted to a certain topic. There are over 6,000 newsgroups in the news server of CSC, CUHK. There are over 6,000 newsgroups in the news server of CSC, CUHK. There are over 8,088 newsgroups in the news server of Engineering Faculty, CUHK. There are over 8,088 newsgroups in the news server of Engineering Faculty, CUHK. Under each newsgroup, there are many messages called news articles. Under each newsgroup, there are many messages called news articles.

4 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Definitions News administrator – A person who is in charge of running a news server. News administrator – A person who is in charge of running a news server. News server – A computer that saves, forwards and manages news articles. Usually, a news server is running in one domain. News server – A computer that saves, forwards and manages news articles. Usually, a news server is running in one domain. News reader – A program that allows user to read/post/subscribe/unsubscribe a newsgroup. News reader – A program that allows user to read/post/subscribe/unsubscribe a newsgroup. Newsgroup – An on-line forum that allows users from the Internet to join the discussion on a specific topic. Newsgroup – An on-line forum that allows users from the Internet to join the discussion on a specific topic. Usenet – A collection of newsgroups Usenet – A collection of newsgroups

5 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Terminology Article Article Post Post Posting Posting Follow-up Follow-up Thread Thread Subscribe Subscribe Unsubscribe Unsubscribe Newsreader Newsreader News client News client Expired news Expired news News server News server Newsfeed Newsfeed Way-station Way-station NNTP NNTP

6 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung News reader TinOutlook Express TinOutlook Express

7 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung News reader – Web-based

8 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung News Server – UNIX/Win

9 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Mark Moraes's Explanation Subject: What is Usenet? Date: Sat, 28 Dec :01:25 GMT From: (Mark Moraes) Newsgroups: news.announce.newusers, news.admin.misc, news.answers Followup-To: news.newusers.questions Subject: What is Usenet? Date: Sat, 28 Dec :01:25 GMT From: (Mark Moraes) Newsgroups: news.announce.newusers, news.admin.misc, news.answers Followup-To: news.newusers.questions Usenet is the set of people who exchange articles tagged with one or more universally-recognized labels, called "newsgroups" (or "groups" for short). There is often confusion about the precise set of newsgroups that constitute Usenet; one commonly accepted definition is that it consists of newsgroups listed in the periodic "List of Active Newsgroups" postings which appear regularly in news.lists and other newsgroups. A broader definition of Usenet would include the newsgroups listed in the article "Alternative Newsgroup Hierarchies" (frequently posted to news.lists). An even broader definition includes even newsgroups that are restricted to specific geographic regions or organizations. Each Usenet site makes its own decisions about the set of groups available to its users; this set differs from site to site. Usenet is the set of people who exchange articles tagged with one or more universally-recognized labels, called "newsgroups" (or "groups" for short). There is often confusion about the precise set of newsgroups that constitute Usenet; one commonly accepted definition is that it consists of newsgroups listed in the periodic "List of Active Newsgroups" postings which appear regularly in news.lists and other newsgroups. A broader definition of Usenet would include the newsgroups listed in the article "Alternative Newsgroup Hierarchies" (frequently posted to news.lists). An even broader definition includes even newsgroups that are restricted to specific geographic regions or organizations. Each Usenet site makes its own decisions about the set of groups available to its users; this set differs from site to site.

10 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Newsgroup Naming Newsgroups are organized in a hierarchical structure. Newsgroups are organized in a hierarchical structure. With the broadest grouping first. With the broadest grouping first. Followed by an arbitrary number of sub-groupings. Followed by an arbitrary number of sub-groupings. A notation you're probably familiar with: A notation you're probably familiar with: –rec.music.folks –cuhk.forum –cuhk.cse.csc1720 The name of each newsgroup is based on its content and is self-explanatory. The name of each newsgroup is based on its content and is self-explanatory.

11 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung The Big Eight comp Computer science and related topics. Computer science and related topics. comp.theory.cell-automata comp.internet.library, etc. comp.theory.cell-automata comp.internet.library, etc.news Groups concerned with the news network and news software. Groups concerned with the news network and news software. news.newusers.questions news.software.readers, etc. news.newusers.questions news.software.readers, etc.rec Groups discussing hobbies, recreational activities, and arts. Groups discussing hobbies, recreational activities, and arts. rec.arts.manga, rec.arts.tv, etc. rec.arts.manga, rec.arts.tv, etc.sci Groups discussing scientific research and applications (other than computer science). and arts. Groups discussing scientific research and applications (other than computer science). and arts. sci.aeronautics, sci.geo.meteorology, etc. sci.aeronautics, sci.geo.meteorology, etc. soc Groups that address social issues, where social can mean politically relevant or socializing, or anything in between. Groups that address social issues, where social can mean politically relevant or socializing, or anything in between. soc.culture.swiss, soc.women, etc. soc.culture.swiss, soc.women, etc.talk The talk groups are a forum for debate on controversial topics, The discussions tend to be long-winded and unresolved. This is where to go if you want to argue about religion. The talk groups are a forum for debate on controversial topics, The discussions tend to be long-winded and unresolved. This is where to go if you want to argue about religion. talk.philosophy.humanism talk.religion.buddhism, etc. talk.philosophy.humanism talk.religion.buddhism, etc.misc Anything that doesn't fit into the above categories, or that fits into several categories. Anything that doesn't fit into the above categories, or that fits into several categories. misc.legal, misc.jobs.resume, etc. misc.legal, misc.jobs.resume, etc.humanities Another major group? Another major group? humanities.misc, humanities.classics, etc. humanities.misc, humanities.classics, etc.

12 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Alternate Newsgroups Over the years, some useful/popular local newsgroups are as widely distributed as the core USENET groups. Over the years, some useful/popular local newsgroups are as widely distributed as the core USENET groups. alt - Groups that discuss "alternative ways of looking at things". alt - Groups that discuss "alternative ways of looking at things". alt.gopher, alt.x-files.rpg, etc. alt.gopher, alt.x-files.rpg, etc. biz - Discussions related to business. This newsgroup hierarchy allows postings of advertisements or other marketing materials. Such activity is not allowed in other groups. biz - Discussions related to business. This newsgroup hierarchy allows postings of advertisements or other marketing materials. Such activity is not allowed in other groups. biz.digital.announce, biz.clarinet.webnews.sports, etc. biz.digital.announce, biz.clarinet.webnews.sports, etc. fi - Technical, recreational, and social discussions in Japanese fi - Technical, recreational, and social discussions in Japanese fj.rec.fishing, fj.soc.traffic, etc. fj.rec.fishing, fj.soc.traffic, etc. ieee - Discussions related to the IEEE (Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers) ieee - Discussions related to the IEEE (Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers) ieee.announce, ieee.stds.announce, etc. ieee.announce, ieee.stds.announce, etc. k12 - A group dedicated to teachers and students, kindergarten through high school. k12 - A group dedicated to teachers and students, kindergarten through high school. k12.chat.elementary, k12.library, etc. k12.chat.elementary, k12.library, etc.

13 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Read Newsgroup – Outlook Express

14 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Newsgroup – alt Different news server Different newsgroups

15 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Cannot access news server

16 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Local Newsgroups Your local region/organization may have newsgroups created locally. Your local region/organization may have newsgroups created locally. Though created locally, news may still be passed to other regions/organizations if so wanted and configured. Though created locally, news may still be passed to other regions/organizations if so wanted and configured. For example, CUHK can read tw news though they are created locally in Taiwan. For example, CUHK can read tw news though they are created locally in Taiwan. hk - Hong Kong hk - Hong Kong hk.general, hk.comp.mac, hk.comp.pc, etc. hk.general, hk.comp.mac, hk.comp.pc, etc. tw - Tai Wan (in Big5 Chinese code) tw - Tai Wan (in Big5 Chinese code) tw.bbs.campus.nctu, tw.bbs.lang.spanish, tw.bbs.rec.movie, etc. tw.bbs.campus.nctu, tw.bbs.lang.spanish, tw.bbs.rec.movie, etc. cuhk - You should know! cuhk - You should know! cuhk.forum, cuhk.alumni.forum, etc. cuhk.forum, cuhk.alumni.forum, etc.

17 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung CSC1720 newsgroup News server: news.cuhk.edu.hk csc1720 newsgroup subscribe

18 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung How does it work? You use a news reader to read news, post news, follow-up a piece of news, etc. You use a news reader to read news, post news, follow-up a piece of news, etc. Your newsreader interrogates with a news server. Your newsreader interrogates with a news server. A news server negotiates with other servers to transfer certain newsgroups between each other (news feed). A news server negotiates with other servers to transfer certain newsgroups between each other (news feed). A news server holds the news articles for a certain pre-set period (controlled by the server's administrator). A news server holds the news articles for a certain pre-set period (controlled by the server's administrator). And eventually discards them at their expiry date. And eventually discards them at their expiry date. Page 155, The Whole Internet - User's Guide & Catalog, Ed Krol, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. Page 155, The Whole Internet - User's Guide & Catalog, Ed Krol, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

19 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung How does it work? (cont ) A news server holds the news articles for a certain pre-set period (controlled by the server's administrator). A news server holds the news articles for a certain pre-set period (controlled by the server's administrator). And eventually discards them at their expiry date. And eventually discards them at their expiry date. In CSC, CUHK, In CSC, CUHK, –30 days for local newsgroups, i.e. hk and cuhk –5-10 days for overseas newsgroups News feed generates a huge amount of network traffic and storage requirements. News feed generates a huge amount of network traffic and storage requirements. A typical server subscribing 2,500 newsgroups may receive more than 50 Mbytes per day. A typical server subscribing 2,500 newsgroups may receive more than 50 Mbytes per day. A server administrator may choose not to accept certain group, either because: A server administrator may choose not to accept certain group, either because: –The group is too active and consumes a lot of resources. –The content is not suitable for the proximity, for example, alt.sex may not be appropriate in a working environment.

20 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) The protocol that is used for posting/ distributing/ retrieving USENET news articles among news server. The protocol that is used for posting/ distributing/ retrieving USENET news articles among news server. Quoted from Requests For Comments - RFC977 Quoted from Requests For Comments - RFC977RFC977 –The news server specified by this document uses a stream connection (such as TCP) and SMTP-like commands and responses. It is designed to accept connections from hosts, and to provide a simple interface to the news database. This server is only an interface between programs and the news databases. It does not perform any user interaction or presentation- level functions. These "user-friendly" functions are better left to the client programs, which have a better understanding of the environment in which they are operating. When used via Internet TCP, the contact port assigned for this service is 119.

21 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung How to search newsgroup?

22 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung ROT13 Encryption Potentially offensive postings should be encrypted. Potentially offensive postings should be encrypted. A common encryption method is rot13. A common encryption method is rot13. If you read the content of the news, you may find: If you read the content of the news, you may find: Jrypbzr gur gur pbhefr pfp1720. Guvf zrffntr vf rapelcgrq hfvat ebg13. Jrypbzr gur gur pbhefr pfp1720. Guvf zrffntr vf rapelcgrq hfvat ebg13. You may ask your news reader to decrypt it and you will obtain: You may ask your news reader to decrypt it and you will obtain: Welcome the the course csc1720. This message is encrypted using rot13. Welcome the the course csc1720. This message is encrypted using rot13. Can you figure out how rot13 encrypts text? Can you figure out how rot13 encrypts text? –Rotation 13 – letters are rotated 13 positions further down the alphabet.

23 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung ROT13 in Outlook Express

24 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Moderated Newsgroups Some newsgroups are moderated. Some newsgroups are moderated. A moderator examines the content of a newly posted article first before the article is actually released to the public. A moderator examines the content of a newly posted article first before the article is actually released to the public. Posting to a moderated group is no different than posting to any other group. Posting to a moderated group is no different than posting to any other group. News servers know which groups are moderated and who moderates them. News servers know which groups are moderated and who moderates them. Your newly posted articles are forwarded to the appropriate moderator automatically. Your newly posted articles are forwarded to the appropriate moderator automatically. How about unmoderated newsgroups? How about unmoderated newsgroups?

25 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Threading A thread

26 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung News Attachment

27 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung uuencode / uudecode UNIX-to-UNIX encode UNIX-to-UNIX encode

28 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Encode a file into printable characters Pictures, multimedia files, executable programs can be posted in newsgroups. Pictures, multimedia files, executable programs can be posted in newsgroups. –.MPG,.TXT,.JPG,.EXE, etc. –Translate a binary file into a special code that consists entirely of printable characters. But we cannot post them directly into newsgroups. But we cannot post them directly into newsgroups. –Must be specially encoded to be posted. UUENCODE – a common scheme. UUENCODE – a common scheme.

29 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Cross Posting Sometimes, you may want to post the same article in several groups at once. Sometimes, you may want to post the same article in several groups at once. This is called cross posting. This is called cross posting. For example: For example: You may want to post an article to initiate a discussion on Jacky Cheung's new musical. You think a few newsgroups are related. hk.entertainment, hk.rec.music, hk.general, hk.forsale, alt.music.misc, You may want to post an article to initiate a discussion on Jacky Cheung's new musical. You think a few newsgroups are related. hk.entertainment, hk.rec.music, hk.general, hk.forsale, alt.music.misc, Best specify the Followup-To. Best specify the Followup-To.

30 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Do s and Don ts Don't post "Hi, I am John." type of messages. Don't follow up and reply at the same time. Don't post nasty articles. Do post test messages only to cuhk.test, alt.test, hk.test. Do think before you crosspost. Do post only to relevant groups. Do read news for some time to learn the culture of a newsgroup before posting on the newsgroup.

31 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung When you reply a news or How to write effective reply? How to write effective reply? –Quote and trim messages properly –Top down formatting Please write reply below the original message Please write reply below the original message –HTML/richtext HTML is bad, why? HTML is bad, why? –Reply length Send a reply to a list with one sentence long? Send a reply to a list with one sentence long? –Include your signature

32 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung New Comers news.announce.newusers news.announce.newusers This group consists of a series of articles that explain various facets of Usenet. This group consists of a series of articles that explain various facets of Usenet. news.newusers.questions news.newusers.questions This is where you can ask questions about how Usenet works. This is where you can ask questions about how Usenet works. news.announce.newsgroups news.announce.newsgroups Look here for information about new or proposed newsgroups. Look here for information about new or proposed newsgroups. news.answers news.answers Contains lists of "Frequently Asked Questions" (FAQs) and their answers from many different newsgroups. Learn how to flight jet lag in the FAQ from rec.travel.air; look up answers to common questions about MS Windows in an FAQ from comp.os.ms-windows; etc. Contains lists of "Frequently Asked Questions" (FAQs) and their answers from many different newsgroups. Learn how to flight jet lag in the FAQ from rec.travel.air; look up answers to common questions about MS Windows in an FAQ from comp.os.ms-windows; etc. alt.internet.services alt.internet.services Looking for something in particular on the Internet? Ask here. Looking for something in particular on the Internet? Ask here. alt.infosystems.announce alt.infosystems.announce Adding new information services to the Internet will post details here. Adding new information services to the Internet will post details here.

33 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung How to start a newsgroup? A formal Request for Discussion (RFD) is posted to news.announce.newgroup A formal Request for Discussion (RFD) is posted to news.announce.newgroup Next, Call for Votes (CFV) is posted to the same newsgroup and the voting period will be days. Next, Call for Votes (CFV) is posted to the same newsgroup and the voting period will be days. At the end of the period, the result are posted. At the end of the period, the result are posted. The group will be created only if The group will be created only if –100 yes votes more than no votes –At least two-thirds of the votes were yes.

34 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung How to start a newsgroup?

35 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Internet Commons Flame War Flame War Spew, Blathers Spew, Blathers Excessive Quote Excessive Quote Other Denizens Other Denizens Excessive Quote Excessive Quote Netiquette Netiquette Smileys / Emoticons Smileys / Emoticons Abbreviations Abbreviations

36 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Flame War A flame is a particularly nasty, personal attack on somebody for something he or she has written. A flame is a particularly nasty, personal attack on somebody for something he or she has written. Takes up considerable resources. Takes up considerable resources. Flame wars can be tremendously fun to watch at first. They quickly grow boring, though. Flame wars can be tremendously fun to watch at first. They quickly grow boring, though. THINK! Before you join a flame war. THINK! Before you join a flame war.

37 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Spew Spewers assume that whatever they are particularly concerned about is of universal interest. Spewers assume that whatever they are particularly concerned about is of universal interest. They send numerous articles to numerous newsgroups about the topic they concerned about. They send numerous articles to numerous newsgroups about the topic they concerned about. If you comment on his/her behavior, you will turn up to receive his/her reply which consists of hundreds of lines to comment you! If you comment on his/her behavior, you will turn up to receive his/her reply which consists of hundreds of lines to comment you!

38 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Blathers The problem of blathers is that they can't get to the point. The problem of blathers is that they can't get to the point. They write out screenfuls of words, when others might sum up in a sentence or two. They write out screenfuls of words, when others might sum up in a sentence or two.

39 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Excessive Quote People afflicted with this include the entire original message in their reply without excising irrelevant portions. People afflicted with this include the entire original message in their reply without excising irrelevant portions. The worst quote a long message and then add a single line: The worst quote a long message and then add a single line: –"I agree!"

40 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Other Denizens Net.weenies - These are the kind of people who enjoy LOWER CASED insulting others. Net.weenies - These are the kind of people who enjoy LOWER CASED insulting others. Net.geeks - People to whom the Net is Life, who worry about what happens when they graduate and lose their free, 24-hour access. Net.geeks - People to whom the Net is Life, who worry about what happens when they graduate and lose their free, 24-hour access. Lurkers - Actually, you can't tell these people are there, but they are. They're the folks who read a newsgroup but never post or respond. Lurkers - Actually, you can't tell these people are there, but they are. They're the folks who read a newsgroup but never post or respond. Wizards - People who know a particular Net-related topic inside and out. Wizards - People who know a particular Net-related topic inside and out. Net.saints - Always willing to help a newcomer, eager to share their knowledge with those not born with an innate ability to navigate the Net. They are not as rare as you might think. Post a question about something and you'll often be surprised how many responses you get. Net.saints - Always willing to help a newcomer, eager to share their knowledge with those not born with an innate ability to navigate the Net. They are not as rare as you might think. Post a question about something and you'll often be surprised how many responses you get.

41 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Netiquette Netiquette, which is short for Internet etiquette, is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet; that is, the conduct expected on individuals while online. Netiquette, which is short for Internet etiquette, is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet; that is, the conduct expected on individuals while online. –Netiquette is all about respect. –Keep your messages short and to the point. –Watch your grammar and spelling. –Be careful with humor. Avoid sarcasm. –Be polite. Avoid offensive language.

42 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Netiquette Reference

43 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Netiquette Netiquette Netiquette –Use uppercase words very sparingly. UPPERCASE TEXT YELLS AT PEOPLE. –Never leave your "subject" line blank. –Include your address in the message body (i.e. in your signature file). –Avoid sending flames, which are abusive or insulting messages. Never participate in flame war.

44 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Flame War Damp Squib Damp Squib Detonator Detonator Firefighter Firefighter … reference

45 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Smileys / Emoticons Use emoticons to express emotions. Popular emoticons include Use emoticons to express emotions. Popular emoticons include –:) :( :o :) ;) :-# :-X :-O :( :< : ~ ( :P ;P ^-^ ^_- ;_; T_T $_$ O<[:-3 Use abbreviations and acronyms for phrases such as Use abbreviations and acronyms for phrases such as –BTW, FYI, FWIW, IMHO, TYVM

46 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Examples Reference

47 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Abbreviations Bye For Now Bye For Now By The Way By The Way Grin Grin Hope This Helps Hope This Helps I Just Want To Know I Just Want To Know I Just Want To Say I Just Want To Say In My Humble Opinion In My Humble Opinion Laughing Out Loud Laughing Out Loud On The Other Hand On The Other Hand Rolling on the Floor Laughing Rolling on the Floor Laughing Thinking of You Thinking of You Your Mileage May Vary Your Mileage May Vary

48 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung Acronyms

49 CSC1720 – Introduction to InternetAll copyrights reserved by C.C. Cheung References Internet FAQ Archives Internet FAQ Archives Internet FAQ Archives Internet FAQ Archives How USENET protocol works? How USENET protocol works? How USENET protocol works? How USENET protocol works? The End. The End. Thank you for your patience! Thank you for your patience!


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