2 Idea This is the best know set of suggestions for breaking bad news. Not based on rigorous research.Stood the test of time.Most popular set of “rules” amongst teachers and practitioners.Not to be followed in a slavish manner.
3 KeyThe key point of the model is that it interlaces facts with questions about feelings.Getting the balance right.
4 Suitability Not just cancer. Any serious illness. Patient’s and doctors differ in their perceptions of seriousness.They also differ amongst themselves!
5 Ten Steps A logical sequence. Remember you have time – not to be completed in one breakneck go!
6 1 Preparation Know all the facts. Ensure privacy. Find out who the patient wants present.Introduce yourself.
7 2 What Does the Patient Know? Open ended questions.Statements may make the best questions.“How did it all start?”
8 3 Is More Information Wanted? Not forced on them.“Would you like me to explain a bit more?”
9 4 Give a Warning Shot Not straight out with it! “I’m afraid it looks rather serious”
10 5 Allow DenialAllow the patient to control the amount of information they receive.
11 6 Explain If Requested Step by step. Detail will not be remembered but the way you explain it will be.
12 7 Listen to Concerns “What are your concerns at the moment?” Allow time and space for answers.
13 8 Encourage Ventilation of Feelings Acknowledge the feelings.Non-judgmental.Vital step for patient satisfaction.
14 9 Summarise Concerns. Plans for treatment. Foster hope. ? Written information.
15 10 Offer FurtherAvailability.Information.Future needs will change.