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P1.3.1 Transferring electrical energy Mr D Powell.

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1 P1.3.1 Transferring electrical energy Mr D Powell

2 Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning

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4 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.4.1 Methods we use to Generate Electricity a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats. a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats.

5 Mr Powell 2012 Index What do I mean...

6 Mr Powell 2012 Index Name the energy source...

7 Mr Powell 2012 Index How do Power Stations Work This model shows a typical hydroelectric dam. The water has lots of GPE which is given to the turbine, which turns a magnet in a coil of wire in a generator to produce electricity. However, they can damage the local ecosystems flooding large areas.

8 Mr Powell 2012 Index How does it work... OrderFunction 1 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 2 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 3 Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir. 4This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5 The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel TASK - Can you correctly order these statements and copy them into your book

9 Mr Powell 2012 Index How does it work... OrderFunction 1 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 2 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 3The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel 4This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir.

10 Mr Powell 2012 Index Nuclear Reactor...

11 Mr Powell 2012 Index Nuclear Reactor... Now these labels have got out of order, can you sort them out then write them out correctly.... PartFunction Fuel rods Rods which slow down the reaction and dipped into the reactor water Large chunk of bored out carbon in which the rods sit to slow or moderate the reaction Control rodsAre the radioactive uranium and source of energy SteamKeeps the radiation from leaking out Concrete shieldHot water coming out to turn the turbine. ModeratorCold and pumped into the reactor

12 Mr Powell 2012 Index Sources of Energy Can you detail how each one of these works in a table or bubble diagram... HowHow does it work? Nuclear Gas Oil Coal Solar Wind Tidal Hydroelectric Geothermal

13 Mr Powell 2012 Index Nuclear Nuclear fuel is a non-renewable energy source. The atoms of Uranium split or decay converting stored nuclear energy into kinetic energy It has many advantages to fossil fuels for example it does not produce carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. It produces harmful radiation if a reactor leaks Fuel rods have to be stored for a long time

14 Mr Powell 2012 Index Oil / Gas / Coal Power stations fuelled by fossil fuels or nuclear fuels are reliable sources of energy. This means they can provide power whenever it is needed. However, their start-up times vary according to the type of fuel used. This list shows the type of fuel in order of start of time going from short to long. 1.gas-fired station (shortest start-up time) 2.oil-fired station 3.coal-fired station 4.nuclear power station (longest start-up time) Nuclear power stations and coal-fired power stations usually provide 'base load' electricity - they are run all the time because they take the longest time to start up. Oil-fired and gas-fired power stations are often used to provide extra electricity at peak times, because they take the least time to start up. Oil, Gas and Coal all pollut the environment with CO 2 but technology is being developed to capture the CO 2 and other gases.

15 Mr Powell 2012 Index Solar Advantages of Solar energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Disadvantages are that Solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the cost of their electricity is high. Solar panels may only produce very hot water in very sunny climates, and in cooler areas may need to be supplemented with a conventional boiler. Although warm water can be produced even on cloudy days, neither solar cells nor solar panels work at night

16 Mr Powell 2012 Index Wind Wind Power: The force of the wind turns the blades of a wind turbine which in turn causes a generator to spin and produce electricity. The larger the blades or wind the more energy produced. Energy only when there is wind. Low running costs Cause of noise pollution Cause of visual pollution

17 Mr Powell 2012 Index Tidal Waves: The rocking motion of waves makes the nodding ducks move up and down. This movement is translated into a rotary movement which eventually turns a generator.

18 Mr Powell 2012 Index Hydroelectric Hydro power: Water stored in reservoirs above the power station is allowed through pipes to turn the turbines which create electricity. This is very good when you have an available source of water.

19 Mr Powell 2012 Index Geothermal Geothermal: In some volcanic areas, hot water and steam rise naturally to the surface, having been heated up by the decay of radioactive substances (e.g.. Uranium) within the earth. This steam can be used to drive turbines. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Disadvantages are that most parts of the world do not have suitable areas where geothermal energy can be exploited.

20 Mr Powell 2012 Index Internet work.. Power Stations Look in the library, internet to complete your table and Task 1. TypeExample / Location Further detail i.e. output power in MW or GW, cost to build, advantages / disadvantages Nuclear Gas Coal Solar Wind Tidal Hydroelectric Geothermal

21 Mr Powell 2012 Index Pelamis Wave Power Generator Web

22 Mr Powell 2012 Index Advantages & Disadvantages. 1.Finding an area to build the power stations is hard to find as it may effect the surrounding environment or people living there. 2.Once the dam is built the energy is very cheap. 3.No waste or pollution is produced 4.The dams are very expensive to build 5.Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there. 6.Can be used on demand 7.Hydroelectric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, whereas others can not. (Nuclear) 8.Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life. TASK – you are an interested party in a Hydroelectric scheme i.e. Farmer, power company director, person who lives their etc..... Look at the arguments for and against and come up with an argument from your viewpoint of why / why not it should be build. TASK Write out a paragraph of your angle to present to another person.

23 Mr Powell 2012 Index G&T Evolution of Nuclear Power - Extension Nuclear Power stations are the future and are getting more and more efficient as this timeline shows.

24 Checklist... P1.4.1 Methods we use to generate electricity a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats. a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats. b b c c d d e e f f a a a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats. a)In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Energy sources include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water biofuels that can be burned to heat water. b)Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. c)Electricity can be produced directly from the Suns radiation. d)In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. e)Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs. f)Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. These effects include: the release of substances into the atmosphere the production of waste materials noise and visual pollution the destruction of wildlife habitats. b b c c d d e e f f a a Checklist... P1.4.1 Methods we use to generate electricity

25 OrderHydroelectric Function 1 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 2 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 3 Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir. 4 This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5 The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel PartNuclear PS Function Fuel rods Rods which slow down the reaction and dipped into the reactor water Large chunk of bored out carbon in which the rods sit to slow or moderate the reaction Control rod s Are the radioactive uranium and source of energy SteamKeeps the radiation from leaking out Concrete shi eld Hot water coming out to turn the turbine. ModeratorCold and pumped into the reactor OrderHydroelectric Function 1 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 2 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 3 Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir. 4 This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5 The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel PartNuclear PS Function Fuel rods Rods which slow down the reaction and dipped into the reactor water Large chunk of bored out carbon in which the rods sit to slow or moderate the reaction Control rod s Are the radioactive uranium and source of energy SteamKeeps the radiation from leaking out Concrete shi eld Hot water coming out to turn the turbine. ModeratorCold and pumped into the reactor P1.4.1 Methods we use to generate electricity

26 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.4.2 The National Grid.....

27 How can you explain these things... P1.4.2 The National Grid

28 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.5.1 General properties of waves.....

29 How can you explain these things... P1.5.1 General properties of waves

30 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.5.2 Reflection.....

31 How can you explain these things... P1.5.2 Reflection

32 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.5.3 Sound.....

33 How can you explain these things... P1.5.3 Sound

34 Mr Powell 2012 Index P1.5.4 Red-shift.....

35 How can you explain these things... P1.5.4 Red-shift

36 Mr Powell 2012 Index 3.4 The National Grid p260 (U) Electricity is transferred from power station to consumers along the National Grid. (K) The uses of step-up and step-down transformers; increasing voltage (potential difference) reduces current, and hence reduces energy losses in the cables. (U) Electricity is transferred from power station to consumers along the National Grid. (K) The uses of step-up and step-down transformers; increasing voltage (potential difference) reduces current, and hence reduces energy losses in the cables.

37 Mr Powell 2012 Index What is the National Grid The grid is a system of cables which link Power Stations to homes, businesses, industry and other infrastructure. Along the way it has to modify the electrical current to make sure that as much of the energy is delivered as possible. Transformers do the modifications! This diagram shows the main routes.

38 Mr Powell 2012 Index Who produces the power. The power comes from a variety of sources. The map shows all the nuclear power stations The house here is putting energy back into the grid from its solar panels.

39 Mr Powell 2012 Index How much do we generate These figures are a big out of date but give the breakdown by source up to The amount is staggering!

40 Mr Powell 2012 Index Transformers These are really basic devices we can change the voltage and current at which the energy is transferred. The idea of this is to save power. (we will come to this shortly) The simple circuit consists of a Power supply, two bulbs and a transformer. The current to the lower bulb is transferred indirectly by a magnetic field induced in the iron loop. The current has been transformed and p.d. has increased and current reduced

41 Mr Powell 2012 Index Transformers & everyday uses... Here is an example of how we can transform voltages and currents. The core is the same as in the previous slide but now you can see that the number of turns of wire are different. The ratio of turns either steps up or steps down the voltage. What happens is when the current flow (alternating current) flows back and fourth in one set of wires it creates (induces) a current in the other set of wires. This examplee is a travel adapter plug!

42 Mr Powell 2012 Index Stepping up / Stepping Down Power station Step up transformer Step down transformer Homes If we keep the voltage the same all the way and wanted the process to be 90% efficient. Throughout the grid we would have to use cables that were 13cm in diameter! They would weight 7000 tonnes. They If we step up the voltage to 132kV the cables would be 4mm in diameter but we would still only lose 10% of the energy in heat. Also home electricity would be dangerous at such high voltages so it must stepped down anyway. 25kV 132kV 230V

43 Mr Powell 2012 Index Revision... We use the national grid to _ _ _ _ _ _ energy to our homes. The step-up transformers increase the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and reduce the _ _ _ _ _ _. The high voltage electricity now at _ _ _ kV moves with _ _ _ thermal losses and means that the wires can be quite _ _ _ _. Finally the step-down transformers mean that the _ _ _ _ _ is reduced to _ _ _ V and is useable in every day appliances. This can only be done with _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from a power station. Power station Step up transformer Step down transformer Homes Copy the diagram and complete the questions in your books on the National Grid transfer voltage current 132low thin 230 voltage alternating current.

44 Mr Powell 2012 Index An Argument.... Should power cables be underground or overhead? Here are some of the arguments used: 1.They take up valuable land. 2.They are more difficult to repair. 3.They are more difficult to install across roads, railways and canals. 4.They are much more expensive. 5.They spoil the landscape. 6.They produce electric and magnetic fields that might affect people. Which of the above arguments would you use to argue against: Underground power cables? Overhead power cables? TASK Imagine you are a spokesperson for an environmental group or power company going on live radio. Write down an argument using your own and these ideas from a perspective....

45 Mr Powell 2012 Index Skill Levels for Revision work…. GradeMinimum Expectation on this task F-G Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements into your books Add some diagrams and ideas from the book Answer some of the questions / maybe with help D-E Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add some diagrams and ideas from your head for some of the statements Finish all of the statements from the book with diagrams and explanations Answer some of the questions B/C Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add diagrams and explanations for all the statements with some help from the book Answer most of the questions / maybe with help After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision A/A* Add diagrams to statements with detailed explanations and make links to each other in a revision concept map. Answer all of the questions After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision

46 Mr Powell 2012 Index Nelson Thornes Revision Page 254 – using the devices in the table try and assign several groups i.e. kinetic, thermal, light. Write out the words in your book and draw a circle around the them large enough to sort the devices into. Discuss in a pair why you placed the devices in which place. Page 256 – Explain the concept of Power in terms of energy and time. What is the difference between a 600W meat grinder and a 1000W meat grinder. Also what implications does this have? P257 – Explain what is meant by a Power rating P258 – What is a kW hour? Give an example calculation to go with your answer. Look at the panel to the right and explain how turning off parts of your PC when not in use might save on power. You can also download the software from LocalCooling and investigate your home PCs energy use.

47 Mr Powell 2012 Index Generating Energy

48 Mr Powell 2012 Index 4.1 Fuel for Electricity p266 (K) Power stations work by heating water to produce steam which turns a turbine and electrical generator; coal, oil and gas, are burned and uranium/plutonium fissions to heat the water. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed. (K) Power stations work by heating water to produce steam which turns a turbine and electrical generator; coal, oil and gas, are burned and uranium/plutonium fissions to heat the water. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed.

49 Mr Powell 2012 Index 4.2 Energy from Wind and Water p268 (K) Energy from renewable energy sources can be used to drive turbines directly

50 Mr Powell 2012 Index 4.3 Power from the Sun and Earth p270 (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes. Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun's radiation using solar cells. (U) In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes. Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun's radiation using solar cells. (U) In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy.

51 Mr Powell 2012 Index 4.4 Energy and the Environment p272 (U) Energy transfers effect the environment. These effects include the release of substances into the atmosphere, noise and visual pollution, and the destruction of wildlife habitats. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed. (U) Energy transfers effect the environment. These effects include the release of substances into the atmosphere, noise and visual pollution, and the destruction of wildlife habitats. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed.

52 Mr Powell 2012 Index Thermal Radiation Quick Questions

53 Mr Powell 2012 Index Skill Levels for Revision work…. GradeMinimum Expectation on this task F-G Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements into your books Add some diagrams and ideas from the book Answer some of the questions / maybe with help D-E Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add some diagrams and ideas from your head for some of the statements Finish all of the statements from the book with diagrams and explanations Answer some of the questions B/C Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add diagrams and explanations for all the statements with some help from the book Answer most of the questions / maybe with help After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision A/A* Add diagrams to statements with detailed explanations and make links to each other in a revision concept map. Answer all of the questions After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision

54 Mr Powell 2012 Index Nelson Thornes Revision Page 260 – Explain what the National Grid is? P266 – How does a Power Station work (in detail with diagram) P267 - What is Nuclear Fission and how can we use it to heat water? P267 – Write a paragraph with reasons to explain which non renewable source you would pick to Power the UK ( Nuclear or Fossil) P268/217 – Use the information here to design a 4 bedroom modern detached house which uses at least 3 forms of renewable sources. Explain how they work in detail. (Grand Designs)Grand Designs P272/3 – Debate with a friend if Nuclear or renewable is better? Read the book before to talk to each other and decide which one is for and against, then swap argument points.

55 Mr Powell 2012 Index End of Unit Revision p

56 Mr Powell 2012 Index Self Study Skill Levels for Revision work…. GradeMinimum Expectation on this task F-G Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements into your books Add some diagrams and ideas from the book Answer some of the questions / maybe with help D-E Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add some diagrams and ideas from your head for some of the statements Finish all of the statements from the book with diagrams and explanations Answer some of the questions B/C Be able to neatly copy down the revision statements Add diagrams and explanations for all the statements with some help from the book Answer most of the questions / maybe with help After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision A/A* Add diagrams to statements with detailed explanations and make links to each other in a revision concept map. Answer all of the questions After the lesson add to your map doing your own revision

57 Mr Powell 2012 Index Pages below this are extras and resources to quick print out that fit into the sequence of lessons. Use as marked & for SEN or to save time on writing!

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