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P1a Energy & Energy Resources Mr D Powell. Mr Powell 2008 Index Generating Energy 266 4 4.

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Presentation on theme: "P1a Energy & Energy Resources Mr D Powell. Mr Powell 2008 Index Generating Energy 266 4 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 P1a Energy & Energy Resources Mr D Powell

2 Mr Powell 2008 Index Generating Energy 266 4 4

3 Mr Powell 2008 Index 4.1 Fuel for Electricity p266 (K) Power stations work by heating water to produce steam which turns a turbine and electrical generator; coal, oil and gas, are burned and uranium/plutonium fissions to heat the water. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed. (K) Power stations work by heating water to produce steam which turns a turbine and electrical generator; coal, oil and gas, are burned and uranium/plutonium fissions to heat the water. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed.

4 Mr Powell 2008 Index What is the energy source...

5 Mr Powell 2008 Index How do Power Stations Work This model shows a typical hydroelectric dam. The water has lots of GPE which is given to the turbine, which turns a magnet in a coil of wire in a generator to produce electricity.

6 Mr Powell 2008 Index Nuclear Reactor... Now these labels have got out of order, can you sort them out then write them out correctly.... PartFunction Fuel rods Rods which slow down the reaction and dipped into the reactor water Large chunk of bored out carbon in which the rods sit to slow or moderate the reaction Control rodsAre the radioactive uranium and source of energy SteamKeeps the radiation from leaking out Concrete shieldHot water coming out to turn the turbine. ModeratorCold and pumped into the reactor

7 Mr Powell 2008 Index Nuclear Reactor... Your teacher will give you a copy of this diagram. Can you label it up correctly.... PartFunction Control rods Rods which slow down the reaction and dipped into the reactor Moderator Large chunk of bored out carbon in which the rods sit to slow or moderate the reaction Fuel rodsAre the radioactive uranium and source of energy Concrete shieldKeeps the radiation from leaking out SteamHot water coming out to turn the turbine. waterCold and pumped into the reactor

8 Mr Powell 2008 Index Nuclear Reactor... (answers)

9 Mr Powell 2008 Index Sources of Energy For each of the following slides summarise the information in a grid like this one below or use a spider diagram.. TypeAdvantagesDisadvantages Nuclear Gas Oil Coal Solar Wind Tidal Hydroelectric Geothermal

10 Mr Powell 2008 Index Nuclear Nuclear fuel is a non-renewable energy source. The atoms of Uranium split or decay converting stored nuclear energy into kinetic energy It has many advantages to fossil fuels for example it does not produce carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. It produces harmful radiation if a reactor leaks Fuel rods have to be stored for a long time

11 Mr Powell 2008 Index Evolution of Nuclear Power Nuclear Power stations are the future and are getting more and more efficient as this timeline shows.

12 Mr Powell 2008 Index Oil / Gas / Coal Power stations fuelled by fossil fuels or nuclear fuels are reliable sources of energy. This means they can provide power whenever it is needed. However, their start-up times vary according to the type of fuel used. This list shows the type of fuel in order of start of time going from short to long. 1.gas-fired station (shortest start-up time) 2.oil-fired station 3.coal-fired station 4.nuclear power station (longest start-up time) Nuclear power stations and coal-fired power stations usually provide 'base load' electricity - they are run all the time because they take the longest time to start up. Oil-fired and gas-fired power stations are often used to provide extra electricity at peak times, because they take the least time to start up. Oil, Gas and Coal all polluted the environment with CO 2

13 Mr Powell 2008 Index Solar Advantages of Solar energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Disadvantages are that Solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the cost of their electricity is high. Solar panels may only produce very hot water in very sunny climates, and in cooler areas may need to be supplemented with a conventional boiler. Although warm water can be produced even on cloudy days, neither solar cells nor solar panels work at night

14 Mr Powell 2008 Index Wind Wind Power: The force of the wind turns the blades of a wind turbine which in turn causes a generator to spin and produce electricity. The larger the blades or wind the more energy produced. Energy only when there is wind. Low running costs Cause of noise pollution Cause of visual pollution

15 Mr Powell 2008 Index Tidal Waves: The rocking motion of waves makes the nodding ducks move up and down. This movement is translated into a rotary movement which eventually turns a generator.

16 Mr Powell 2008 Index Hydroelectric Hydro power: Water stored in reservoirs above the power station is allowed through pipes to turn the turbines which create electricity. This is very good when you have an available source of water.

17 Mr Powell 2008 Index Geothermal Geothermal: In some volcanic areas, hot water and steam rise naturally to the surface, having been heated up by the decay of radioactive substances (e.g.. Uranium) within the earth. This steam can be used to drive turbines. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Disadvantages are that most parts of the world do not have suitable areas where geothermal energy can be exploited.

18 Mr Powell 2008 Index Homework – Example.... Dungeness B is an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor power stations Has a generating capacity of 1110 MWh of electricity – the equivalent of supplying over 1.5 million homes. Will close in 2018

19 Mr Powell 2008 Index Mini Test... 1.From memory write down a list of all the energy sources we covered today. Put an R next to them if they are renewable in our lifetime? 2.Write down an advantage and disadvantage for two of them? 3.How cold water be altered so that it can be made to turn a turbine? 4.Why are a Power Stations CO 2 emissions important to consider?

20 Mr Powell 2008 Index What do I mean...

21 Mr Powell 2008 Index 4.2 Energy from Wind and Water p268 (K) Energy from renewable energy sources can be used to drive turbines directly (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes. (K) Energy from renewable energy sources can be used to drive turbines directly (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes.

22 Mr Powell 2008 Index What is it? Hydro-electricity is a renewable energy resource which means it will never run out. It works by water travelling down pipes which turns a turbine and generator.

23 Mr Powell 2008 Index How do Power Stations Work This model shows a typical hydroelectric dam. The water has lots of GPE which is given to the turbine, which turns a magnet in a coil of wire in a generator to produce electricity. Recap

24 Mr Powell 2008 Index How does it work... OrderFunction 1 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 2 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 3 Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir. 4This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5 The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel TASK - Can you correctly order these statements and copy them into your book

25 Mr Powell 2008 Index How does it work... OrderFunction 1 water is stored in a reservoir. This provides water pressure to the turbine by gravity. 2 The water then travels through a channel from the reservoir to the turbine. 3The turbine moves round due to the water flowing through the channel 4This turns a generator to create an electrical current. 5Any spare energy is used to pump the water back to the reservoir.

26 Mr Powell 2008 Index World Facts 1.Hydro electric power provides 20% of the worlds electricity. 2.In mountainous countries such as New Zealand and Switzerland, hydro electric power provides over half the countries electricity. New Zealands largest hydro-electric power station is located in Southland, on Lake Manapouri in Fiordland National Park. It generates a substantial amount of the countrys electricity. There is also another station on the Monowai River. www.snc-lavalin.com

27 Mr Powell 2008 Index Advantages & Disadvantages. 1.Finding an area to build the power stations is hard to find as it may effect the surrounding environment or people living there. 2.Once the dam is built the energy is very cheap. 3.No waste or pollution is produced 4.The dams are very expensive to build 5.Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there. 6.Can be used on demand 7.Hydroelectric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, whereas others can not. (Nuclear) 8.Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life. TASK – you are an interested party in a Hydroelectric scheme i.e. Farmer, power company director, person who lives their etc..... Look at the arguments for and against and come up with an argument from your viewpoint of why / why not it should be build. TASK Write out a paragraph of your angle.

28 Mr Powell 2008 Index Pelamis Wave Power Generator Web TASK – you are an energy entrepreneur, can you explain how this works and sell it to the chairman of British Energy as a renewable source. Pair up with a friend and try it out? Then write out your description in your books + diagram... Homework – what further details can you find out about Pelamis?

29 Mr Powell 2008 Index 4.3 Power from the Sun and Earth p270 (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes. Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun's radiation using solar cells. (U) In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. (K) Renewable energy sources are wind, the rise and fall of water due to waves and tides, and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes. Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun's radiation using solar cells. (U) In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy.

30 Mr Powell 2008 Index Solar Power in Context An un-official world record was set last night as the Zephyr a British-built spy plane managed to stay in the air for 82 hours and 37 minutes powered only by solar panels and rechargeable batteries at night. The plane could fly indefinitely says the aircraft designers at the defence firm QinetiQ, they feel that in the future the Zephyr would be able to fly for weeks or months at a time. £20 million pounds has been invested into the Zephyr so far by the Ministry of Defence. The plane weighs 30kg (66lbs) which is strong enough to 2kg flying at about 60,000ft. The plane has a rechargeable battery that is twice a efficient as anywhere in the world, the plane itself is made with a carbon fibre frame and is covered in super-light solar arrays that are thinner than paper. The flight which took place at the US armys Yuma grounds in Arizona was launched by three people holding it above their heads as they run for takeoff. There is an official world record set by Global Hawk in 2001 of an uncrewed flight and that stands at 30 hours and 24 minutes TASK Read the article then think about what this actually means for us in term of air travel? Write a paragraph of your thoughts?

31 Mr Powell 2008 Index Geothermal Geothermal: In some volcanic areas, hot water and steam rise naturally to the surface, having been heated up by the decay of radioactive substances (e.g.. Uranium) within the earth. This steam can be used to drive turbines. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs. No harmful polluting gases are produced. Disadvantages are that most parts of the world do not have suitable areas where geothermal energy can be exploited. TASK - Make a copy of the diagram & text and add your own comments to form a short informational leaflet on Geothermal Power.

32 Mr Powell 2008 Index Application: Ground Source Heat Pump This is a way of compressing heat energy in vast volumes of water to give us a higher temperature which is then compressed to a smaller area.

33 Mr Powell 2008 Index What is a solar cell? The solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. A solar panel is made of many solar cells which usually have a total output of 12V

34 Mr Powell 2008 Index Crystalline Cells There are two types of solar cell. These are mono crystalline and poly crystalline. These are wired in series to produce solar panels As each cell produces a voltage of between 0.5 and 0.6 Volts, 36 cells are needed to produce an open- circuit voltage of about 20 V. This is sufficient to charge a 12 Volt battery under most conditions. The output from a solar cell is at its greatest when the light hits the cell at right angles. They are made of a thin sandwich of Cover glass, Transparent glue, Anti reflective coating then Silicon and gallium arsenide conductor layers to generate current flow TASK - Make a copy of the diagram & text and add your own comments to form a short informational leaflet on Solar cells

35 Mr Powell 2008 Index Mini Question... (K) Energy from renewable energy sources can be used to drive turbines directly 1.The sentence below was the main learning aim from our lesson. In your book write a short paragraph to explain how what you did today which helped you to understand what this means. 2.Can you explain why this is a better system of generating electricity than burning fuels

36 Mr Powell 2008 Index Homework – Solar Power Look in the library, internet, around you at home or at school to find out the following. Find 10 electrical devices which use solar power. Draw a sketch picture of each or print one out. Write down any extra information about the device or transfer i.e. How many Watts is needed for the device to run Draw a sankey diagram (estimated) if you can.

37 Mr Powell 2008 Index What do I mean...

38 Mr Powell 2008 Index 4.4 Energy and the Environment p272 (U) Energy transfers effect the environment. These effects include the release of substances into the atmosphere, noise and visual pollution, and the destruction of wildlife habitats. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed. (U) Energy transfers effect the environment. These effects include the release of substances into the atmosphere, noise and visual pollution, and the destruction of wildlife habitats. (S) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels and renewable energy sources to generate electricity i.e. cost of building power stations, the start-up time of power stations, the reliability of the energy source, the relative cost of energy generated and the location in which the energy is needed.

39 Mr Powell 2008 Index Energy use Pie Charts We can clearly show our energy use by displaying it as a Pie chart. 1% represents 3.6 of a circle so 360 = 100%. (5% = 5 x 3.6 = 18 of the chart)

40 Mr Powell 2008 Index Energy use Pie Charts We can clearly show our energy use by displaying it as a Pie chart. 1% represents 3.6 of a circle so 360 = 100%. (5% = 5 x 3.6 = 18 of the chart) Using the Pie Chart below can you work out what the angle would be for each slice & also the amount of energy if 100% = 150GW Then draw your own accurate version of the chart. Slice Angle Power in GW Coal Petrol Gas Others Nuclear Hydro Slice Angle Power in GW Coal9037.5 Petrol147.661.5 Gas7230 Others3.61.5 Nuclear32.413.5 Hydro14.46

41 Mr Powell 2008 Index Energy use Pie Charts Now you have an accurate copy of your own chart answer the following questions; 1)What is the main use of energy in this economy? 2)If you reduced the % use to ½ its original value how many GW of energy would you need to Power your economy? 3)How could you meet this efficiency demand, make a sensible suggestion and back it up with the reasons why and how you might do it? 4)What form might others be Slice Angle Power in GW Coal9037.5 Petrol147.661.5 Gas7230 Others3.61.5 Nuclear32.413.5 Hydro14.46

42 Mr Powell 2008 Index Nelson Thornes work... Now look at energy use in the UK from pages 272/273 in the Nelson Thornes Textbook. Read the text on both pages and answer the associated questions. Now look at pages 274/5 an try and tackle the ideas here as well.

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