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1 Ali Siffin Battle A.S. Hashim, MD From: And:

2 Sources of Reference ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Qutaybah, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Madelung, Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and Companions Tabatabaei, Lapidus, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid Dakake Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3 Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard. Cambridge History of Islam. Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press.

3 In this Slide Show Following Uthmans Death Who was Muawiya? Alis Camp Muawiyas Camp Ali Heading to face Muawiya Alis forces Reach al-Raqqa الرقه Access to the Water The Battle William Muir Writes Edward Gibbon Writes Arbitration at Daumat al-Jandal دومة الجندل Deliberations of the Arbitration The Deceit of Ibn Aas

4 Prelude The Battle of Siffin, Time period: (May-July 657AD) occurred during the First Fitna (Sedition), or First Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Al-Raqqa الرقة, Syria.

5 Following Uthmans Death Ali becomes Khalifa in an anxiety ridden atmosphere Ali removes all Benu Umayya governors from office Muawiya refuses to acknowledge Alis orders Aisha (Umm al-Mumineen) along with Talha and Zubair lead a rebellion against Ali During the few months of the Jamal affairs Muawiya consolidates his base of power Benu Umayya in Jamal affair (being forgiven and freed by Ali), join Muawiya to fight against Ali Muawiya takes advantage of the circumstances and uses the bloodied shirt of Uthman to raise emotions Syria in a frenzy against Ali, to avenge the blood of Uthman.

6 The Envoy Having defeated Aisha at the Jamal Battle, Ali returned from Basra to Kufa in Rajab of 36H (January 657AD). Ali transferred the capital of his government to Kufa from Medina because Kufa was more centrally placed, and he could halt Mu'awiya's progress into Iraq. However, Ali tried to settle matters peacefully. He chose Jarir as his envoy, Jarir was the chief of Benu Bajila and governor of Hamdan. The negotiations between Muawiya and Jarir proved fruitless, and Mu'awiya's army pledged an oath that they would not wash or sleep a night at home, until the murderers of Uthman were brought to justice.

7 Asking for Union and Accord In Syria, disorder and incitement to commotion continued unabated. Uthman's shirt, (besmeared with his blood) and the chopped- off fingers of his wife, Naila, were exhibited from the pulpit. In this manner, Mu'awiya raised the entire country of Syria against Ali. Ultimately, both parties, opposed to each other, converged on Siffin where their armies pitched their camps in 37H/657AD. Even at this stage, Ali sent three men, viz. Bashir Ansaari, Sa'eed Hamdani, and Shith Tamimi to Mu'awiya to induce him to settle for union, and coming together. According to Tabari (5h vol., p. 243), Mu'awiyas reply was: "Go away from here, only the sword will decide between us."

8 Who was Muawiya? Mu'awiya was appointed by Omar as governor over Jordan when his brother Yazid (governor of Jordan) had died Then in addition, Muawiya became governor of Sham in Syria, Muawiya was a cousin of Uthman. Uthman, added Palestine, and North Syria to Muawiyas governorship after their governors had died. Muawiya is now the governor of Syria (Sham plus Northern Territory) and Jordan plus Palestine. Thus increasing Muawiyas power to a very high level By Alis time, Muawiya has been governor for 17 years. He was well entrenched. Was generous to his loyalist at the expense of public treasury Was therefore well liked in Syria

9 Who was Muawiya? Mu'awiya worked in a clever, subtle, and hardly noticeable manner. Mu'awiya worked in a clever, subtle, and hardly noticeable manner. He began to use the rich public treasury of Syria for his own, often buying favors or influencing friends. He began to use the rich public treasury of Syria for his own, often buying favors or influencing friends. Mu'awiya's influence became much firmer with the passage of years, people got used to his name and position. Mu'awiya's influence became much firmer with the passage of years, people got used to his name and position. When Khalifa Uthman started to reign Mu'awiya was emboldened. When Khalifa Uthman started to reign Mu'awiya was emboldened. Once this happened, not only did the rest of the Umayya family spread its tentacles but Mu'awiya was much bolder in working with the public treasury and helping himself to buy friends and influence people. and helping himself to buy friends and influence people. He knew well the weakness of man for money.

10 The Side of Muawiya Ali fired Mu'awiya as well as other governors of Benu Umayya line Mu'awiya defied, and declined to give his allegiance to Ali. Mu'awiya started a campaign for the revenge of the blood of Uthman. Mu'awiya started a campaign for the revenge of the blood of Uthman. Muawiya exploited Uthman in a clever way: Often, in the center of the main mosque in Damascus, they would show the bloody shirt in which Uthman had died, raising people's emotions. Often, in the center of the main mosque in Damascus, they would show the bloody shirt in which Uthman had died, raising people's emotions. Every Friday, highly emotional speeches were given to arouse the emotions, and let everyone cry. Every Friday, highly emotional speeches were given to arouse the emotions, and let everyone cry. Muawiya was aided by the hordes of Benu Umayya, all in a challenge to grab power of Khilaafah. The simple man in Damascus and Syria believed them and gave them full support.

11 Alis Camp Ali's camp was trying very hard: to bring the Islamic nation together, and to unify it and to put energy once more in the sagging Islamic spirit. Ali's side was a camp of virtue and righteousness, with volunteers who would give their blood and life for Islam. Ali's side was a camp of virtue and righteousness, with volunteers who would give their blood and life for Islam. Imam Ali's camp had many of the Prophet's Companions, people coming from Medina to help, and among them were highly respected personalities such as Ammar. and among them were highly respected personalities such as Ammar. Ali's camp was for the ideals of Islam, and the welfare of Muslims and their lives, not only then but even now. Ali's camp was for the ideals of Islam, and the welfare of Muslims and their lives, not only then but even now. Ali's camp was of the righteous, upright, and virtuous.

12 Muawiyas Camp Mu'awiya was painstakingly building his campaign and forces. Mu'awiya was painstakingly building his campaign and forces. Mu'awiyas ambition was to become the Khalifa, the ruler. People of Muawiya were not versed in Islamic ideals or knowing much of Ali's contribution to Islam. People of Muawiya were not versed in Islamic ideals or knowing much of Ali's contribution to Islam. Mu'awiya paid them enticing salaries from the State Treasury (like tax money in our days), Mu'awiya promised them a high, prestigious, or influential position. Mu'awiya promised them a high, prestigious, or influential position. Mu'awiya bargained with Amr Ibn Aas about the governorship of Egypt Muawiyas secret agents even infiltrated Ali's side: to successively entice a number of Ali's adherents by attractive promises of the worldly nature! to successively entice a number of Ali's adherents by attractive promises of the worldly nature! Thus, Mu'awiya used the carrot and stick strategy effectively.

13 Ali on the Way, to face Muawiya Ali headed northwest with a large force, the course was along the Euphrates River. While on the way Ali passed an eerie and gloomy place. Ali asked anxiously, "What do you call this place?" "It is called Karbala," someone answered. On hearing that Ali looked grim. He then said with pain: هنا محطُّ رِحالهم ومهراق دمائهم It is here where they will be stopped and it is here where the blood-shed will be. This became indelible in the mind of Al-Husain. It later proved to be the biggest tragedy in history, but through which Islam was preserved.

14 Siffin From Kufa to Siffin Distance about 700 miles Many overnight stops Distance between overnight stops variable The route is by the Euphrates River Trip is arduous personally let alone for the whole army Kufa Siffin

15 With Ali: Historian Yaqubi (2nd vol., p. 188) writes that: Ali had 80,000 men, including 70 Companions who participated in Badr, 70 Companions who took oath at Hudaibiya, and 400 prominent Ansaars and Muhaajirs; while Mu'awiya had 120,000 Syrians. Of his family Ali was accompanied by: Al-Hasan and Al-Husain of Fatima, and his teenage Al-Abbas of Umm Al-Baneen Muhammad Ibn Al-Hanafiya Ibn Abbas and others.

16 Siffin in Brief 1. Ali leaves Kufa along the Euphrates River 1. Ali leaves Kufa along the Euphrates River 2. Negotiations (for several weeks) fail to dissuade from fighting 2. Negotiations (for several weeks) fail to dissuade from fighting 3. Fighting: Battle of Siffin takes place, fighting severe 4. Ammar the Companion killed by Mu'awiya side 5. Mu'awiya uses deceit, Ash'ath to undermine Ali 6. Mu'awiya averts his defeat, lifts 500 Qurans on spears 7. Qurans on spears bring fighting to a halt, 8. Ali's side in disorder and arguments 9. Ali recognizes the deceit, urges his men to fight: they refuse 10. Ali is forced to accept Arbitration 11. A year later, deception at Arbitration by Mu'awiya's side

17 Alis forces Reach al-Raqqa الرقه Seeing that war was inevitable, Ali gathered his forces, and, after at first planning to invade Syria from the North, he attacked directly, marching through Mesopotamia. Arriving at al-Raqqa الرقه, on the banks of the Euphrates, the Syrian vanguard was sighted, but it withdrew without engagement. The people of al-Raqqa were hostile to Ali, and without their cooperation his army would have difficulty crossing the river. Eventually, Malik al-Ashtar threatened the townspeople, which forced their co-operation.

18 al-Raqqa الرقه Al-Riqqa

19 Finally they Meet at Siffin So, finally, the army managed to cross the river, by means of a bridge of boats. Ali's army then marched along the right bank of the Euphrates, until they came across the Syrian outpost of Sur al- Rum, where there was a brief skirmish, but Ali's advance was not slowed. So in Dhul Hijjah 36H (May 657AD), the army of Ali came into sight of Mu'awiya's main forces, which were encamped on the river plain at Siffin.

20 Access to the Water Mu'awiya had stationed: his general, Amr ibn al-Aas, with 10,000 men on the river to deny Ali's army any access to water. Appeals to allow the water fail. Alis general, Malik al-Ashtar, led the attack to gain access to the water; After heavy fighting, Amr's forces were dislodged from the river bank. But Ali insisted on free access to Muawiyas forces to the water. But Ali insisted on free access to Muawiyas forces to the water. Even then, Ali did not immediately press forwards with his attack instead, the two sides remained encamped facing each other for 110 days while attempts were made at a negotiated settlement. During this time, there were at least 90 skirmishes between tribal columns in the two armies, but no general battle.

21 Mu'awiya Refuses Mu'awiya refused Ali as Khalifa until those complicit in Uthman's murder be brought to justice. Ali saw Mu'awiya as motivated by ambition, the ambition for power. Moreover, Ali's position began to harden; regarding the murder of Uthman, he is said to have stated "I will not say that he was wrongly attacked, nor will I say that the attack was justified." As compromise was impossible, the negotiations remained deadlocked, but both sides were reluctant to fight, because it would mean killing fellow Muslims. This situation lasted 110 days.

22 Ali Sends Delegations Ali's next step was, as usual, to try and come to a peaceful settlement. He deputed Bashir bin Amr, Sa'id bin Qais and Ibn Rabi, but Mu'awiya declined the offer to the delegates. Ali still did not give up and he sent a second delegation, but it also failed. For the next three months, (May, June and July, 657AH), the armies remained in camps at Siffin facing each other neither at war nor at peace. This negotiations lasted 110 days, during which time, there were at least 90 skirmishes between tribal columns in the two armies, but no general battle. There was much heat in the discussions with Mu'awiya, and finally Ali was obliged once again to resort to arms on 8th Safar, 36H/July 26, 657AD.

23 The Battle On 8th Safar 36H (26 July 657AD) Ali gave the order for a full attack. The battle lasted all day, and into the night. The fighting lulled a little in the darkness, but started again even more fiercely the following day. Despite his age (he was now 58) Ali attacked personally With his Medina troops in the center, And with his troops from Basra and Kufa on the flanks.

24 William Muir Writes William Muir writes in "The Caliphate, its Rise and Fall (London, 1924, p. 261) "Both armies drawn out in entire array, fought till the shades of evening fell, neither having got the better. The following morning, the combat was renewed with great vigor. Ali posed himself in the center with the flower of his troops from Medina, and the wings were formed, one of the warriors from Basra, the other of those from Kufa. Mu'awiya had a pavilion pitched on the field; and there, surrounded by five lines of his sworn body-guards, he watched the fight.

25 William Muir Writes Amr with a great weight of horse, bore down upon the Kufa wing which gave away; and Ali was exposed to imminent peril, both from thick showers of arrows and from close encounter. Reproaching the men of Kufa for their cowardice, the Khalifa fought bravely, his unwieldy figure notwithstanding, sword in hand, and manfully withstood the charge. Ali's general Ashtar, at the head of 300 readers of (the Quran) led forward the other wing, which fell with fury on Mu'awiya's Turbaned body-guard. Four of its five ranks were cut to pieces, and Mu'awiya, bethinking himself of flight, had already called for his horse, when a martial couplet flashed in his mind, and he held his ground."

26 Edward Gibbon Writes Edward Gibbon writes in "The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire" (London, 1848, 3rd vol., p. 522) that: "The Khalifa Ali displayed a superior character of valor and humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to wait the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. The ranks of the Syrians were broken by the charge of the hero, who was mounted on a piebald horse, and wielded with irresistible force, his ponderous and two edged sword."

27 Edward Gibbon Writes Appalled by the carnage, Ali sent a message to Mu'awiya and challenged him to single combat, saying that whoever won should be the Khalifa. In Gibbon's words, "Ali generously proposed to save the blood of the Muslims by a single combat; but his trembling rival (Muawiya) declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death." Mu'awiya had indeed lost his nerve, and was about to flee from the field, a trick of his accomplice Amr ibn al-Aas saved them from destruction.

28 Edward Gibbon Writes At length, Mu'awiya made his mercenaries tie copies of Holy Quran to their lances and flags, demanding for the decision of arbitration. Tabari (6th vol., p. 46) writes that, "The defeat startled Mu'awiya in the face. Amr Ibn al-Aas, however, had a trick up his sleeve for this emergency, and it was the raising of the Quran aloft on spear-heads, and announcing, "Brethren, this Book of God alone will decide between you and us." It will be recalled that even before the commencement of the battle, Ali had invited Mu'awiya by sending his three men to turn to the Quran for a decision, but Muawiya declined the offer, by telling them: "Go away from here, only the sword will decide between us." (Tabari, 5th vol., p. 243).

29 The Intercession of the Holy Quran Now they sought the intercession of the Holy Quran to escape the unpleasant consequences of an ignominious defeat. At this Ali came forward and expostulated his soldiers, saying, "It is an infamous stratagem and a nefarious device of Amr and Mu'awiya to cloak their defeat. Beware of the trick which they are playing. You should fight to a finish." But Ali's men refused to fight. Ali, with a great expectation of victory in sight, was therefore impelled to call a retreat.

30 Possibilities of Arbitration Mu'awiya and Amr did not necessarily think that all of Ali's army would accept an arbitration, but they were sure that some of them would favor this, and so at the least it would cause dissension in Ali's army. Ali's entire army quickly began chanting along with Mu'awiya's men. Ali urged his army to fight on, saying that Mu'awiya was simply using a trick and was on the point of defeat, but the soldiers did not listen. Ali and al-Ashtar spent a long time arguing against their men, but they could not change their minds.

31 Upon Seeing the Quran on Spears Ali's fighters, taken aback and confused, became divided, each arguing with the other. Ali's fighters, taken aback and confused, became divided, each arguing with the other. Of course, Al-Ash'ath, the General in Ali's camp, now a secret agent working for Mu'awiya, was the most persistent on stopping the fight. Of course, Al-Ash'ath, the General in Ali's camp, now a secret agent working for Mu'awiya, was the most persistent on stopping the fight. He undermined everything and added much to the confusion and was quite decisive in halting the fight. He undermined everything and added much to the confusion and was quite decisive in halting the fight. Some of the staunch fighters in Ali's camp even began to threaten Ali with his life if he didn't agree to Mu'awiya's request! Having had no choice, Ali reluctantly and unwillingly had to consent to the demands of his fighters. They wanted arbitration, and arbitration they got.

32 About the Negotiations Meanwhile Ali's followers now became divided; a group of 12,000 soldiers broke away from the main army, and instead camped at the nearby village of Harura. They took issue with the arbitration because they did not see it as proper under Islam. They said that the leadership of the Muslim world was not Ali's nor Mu'awiyas personal property, Ali managed to persuade them to rejoin his army, but it proved only temporary. These soldiers later became the core of the Kharijis (dissenters) الخوارج.

33 Events During Siffin 1.Alis vivacious spirit did wonders to his camp 2.Hashim ibn Utba and Ammar ibn Yasir 3.Importance of Ammar 4.The charge of Ammar 5.Ibn Aas comes to the challenge 6.Ash'ath became a secret agent for Mu'awiya

34 Event: Ali During Siffin Even though Ali was near 58 years old, his boldness, unique prowess, and incising hits had the same lightning speed as when he was younger. Even though Ali was near 58 years old, his boldness, unique prowess, and incising hits had the same lightning speed as when he was younger. The vivacious spirit of Ali did wonders to his camp. The vivacious spirit of Ali did wonders to his camp. His fighters followed suit, and the fighting was fierce. His fighters followed suit, and the fighting was fierce. Every time Ali finished an opponent he would yell "Allaahu Akbar", and it is said in one day he shouted Allaahu Akbar 523 times! The sound and fury of the battle was ominous and to see death beaming in the eye is a frightening experience. The sound and fury of the battle was ominous and to see death beaming in the eye is a frightening experience. Everyone was thankful when nighttime came and the two groups disengaged, and each was after their own wounded.

35 Event: Hashim ibn Utba and Ammar ibn Yasir The fighting continued fiercely, and casualties mounted, including Hashim ibn Utba and Ammar ibn Yasir, both of whom were Companions of the Prophet on the side of Ali. Both sides had by now ran out of ammunition for their quivers and so the battle was fought hand-to-hand. Both Ali and Mu'awiya were unhappy at the heavy losses both sides were taking, but Mu'awiya was particularly dejected, believing that the battle would eventually be lost.

36 Event : Importance of Ammar Ammar, about 93 yrs old, was in Alis camp Ammar, was highly regarded Companion of the Prophet The Prophet (pbuh) had told Ammar 30 Yrs earlier: يا عمار سوف تقتلك الفئة الباغيه O Ammar, you will be killed by the malicious group. Ammar along with 400 companions fought Muawiya bravely until Ammar was killed. A lot of Commotion was the result in Muawiyas camp. Since they knew of the Prophets Saying on his behalf. Added to that, the ominous news of Ammar's death confirmed to them that they were the malicious side, not Alis.

37 Ammars Charge Ammar asked for a drink before charging It was milk, just as the Prophet had informed him that before his death he would have a drink of milk. Ammar, charging by now, kept repeating, "Follow me to Heavens, follow me to Heavens," and people kept following him, and they kept fighting. and people kept following him, and they kept fighting. Ammar at one time was near the tent of Mu'awiya when he was surrounded by too many of the foe and cut badly. when he was surrounded by too many of the foe and cut badly. He managed to reach Ali's camp despite his wounds and he died as the Prophet had told him before.

38 Event : Ibn Aas comes to the challenge Amr Ibn Aas, (the General of Muawiya) came out to challenge Ali. Amr Ibn Aas, (the General of Muawiya) came out to challenge Ali. Ibn Aas was overwhelmed by Ali, and he lost control and fell to the ground. Ibn Aas was overwhelmed by Ali, and he lost control and fell to the ground. When Ali was about to slay him, Ibn Aas, lying on his back and shaking nervously, alarmed, raised his legs and displayed his genital parts to Ali and all around! raised his legs and displayed his genital parts to Ali and all around! He did this to disgust Ali and to spare him his life! He did this to disgust Ali and to spare him his life! Seeing Ibn Aas lying on his back, shaking with fright, legs up in the air, exposing his male organ in such a humiliating manner: Ali became disgusted and turned his head away, bypassing Ibn Aas. Ali became disgusted and turned his head away, bypassing Ibn Aas. Ali gave Ibn Aas his life rather than kill him. Ali believed that by such act, Ibn Aas was too lowly to be hit by his sword!

39 Event : Works of Secret Agent, Ashath Muawiyas agent approached a one-eyed General in Imam Ali's forces by the name of Ash'ath who was one of the three most important commanders. who was one of the three most important commanders. Mu'awiya sent a secret message promising Ash'ath wealth and enticing position if he helped disrupt Ali's camp. Mu'awiya sent a secret message promising Ash'ath wealth and enticing position if he helped disrupt Ali's camp. He promised to reward him exceptionally well, lavishly so. Ash'ath became a secret agent for Mu'awiya, and from then on this man never lost an opportunity without undoing Ali's side. and from then on this man never lost an opportunity without undoing Ali's side. He was quite effective in undermining Ali's side, even though his daughter was married to Al-Hasan the son of Ali!

40 The Arbitration: 1. The arbitrators 2. Alis soldiers: Confused and Angry 3. Alis advice 4. Deliberations of the arbitration 5. The representative in the arbitration, 6. The deceit of Ibn Aas 7. The Kharijis and the upheaval in Iraq

41 Alis Soldiers: Confused and Angry The soldiers of Ali were impatient, noisy and quite angry: They attacked al-Ashtar with whips, calling him a warmonger; they even threatened to send Ali to Mu'awiya as a prisoner if he did not accept the arbitration. With his army in mutiny against him, Ali had no choice but to accept the arbitration. Ali wanted: his kinsman Abdullah ibn Abbas or Malik al-Ashtar to represent him in the arbitration, but the army rejected these candidates. They claimed Al- Ashtar as too prejudiced, and Ibn Abbas was related, very close to his cause. So Ali's men insisted that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari be the representative.

42 Alis Advice The arbitration was to be in Ramadhan a year hence. Ali had to agree to his fighters insistence of this choice in order to ward off bloody dissensions in his army. According to Usud al Ghaaba" (3rd vol., p. 246), Ali: had, therefore, taken care to personally explain to the arbitrators, "You are arbiters on condition that you decide according to the Book of God, and if you are not so inclined you should not deem yourselves to be arbiters."

43 Arbitration at Daumat al-Jandalدومة الجندل Daumat al-Jandal Nowadays

44 Deliberations of the Arbitration One year after the Siffin battle the arbitration took place as agreed upon. One year after the Siffin battle the arbitration took place as agreed upon. There were deliberations for two months. There were deliberations for two months. Ash'ari was no match to Ibn Aas, as Ali had expected. Ash'ari was no match to Ibn Aas, as Ali had expected. Ali's representative was easily tricked by Ibn Aas, a stinking story in itself! Ibn Aas had convinced Ash'ari that it was best to demote both Ali and Mu'awiya and let the people decide their choices. Ibn Aas had convinced Ash'ari that it was best to demote both Ali and Mu'awiya and let the people decide their choices. Ibn Aas flattered the old Ash'ari to deliver his speech first, though Ali's side tried to persuade Ash'ari not to, since none could trust Ibn Aas. though Ali's side tried to persuade Ash'ari not to, since none could trust Ibn Aas. Ash'ari did not listen to them and he naively accepted. And:

45 The Deceit of Ibn Aas Ash'ari ascended the Minbar (pulpit) and announced that: Ali and Mu'awiya were to be removed and for the people to make their choices afterwards. Ash'ari was followed by Ibn Aas. Ash'ari was followed by Ibn Aas. Ibn Aas said, "I agree with Ash'ari that Ali is to be removed, but in my opinion Mu'awiya is fit for the Khilaafah and should be the new Khalifa!" but in my opinion Mu'awiya is fit for the Khilaafah and should be the new Khalifa!" With that an uproar came about and Ali's people knew they were double crossed, emotions were high and they went home agonizing at the deceit.

46 The Upheaval in Iraq In Iraq, emotional upheaval was evident, and because of these treacheries, another confrontation against Mu'awiya was in the mind, and Ali once more was busy preparing a large new force. and Ali once more was busy preparing a large new force. But he continued with a heavy, sorrowful heart, yet holding to his Islamic ideals unswervingly. But he continued with a heavy, sorrowful heart, yet holding to his Islamic ideals unswervingly. As if this was not enough, the Kharijis broke rank and rebelled against him. They spread devastation everywhere: killing and destroying, and many towns and villages suffered at their hands. They spread devastation everywhere: killing and destroying, and many towns and villages suffered at their hands.

47 In Conclusion Ali: and the Battle of Siffin Following Uthmans Death Alis Camp Muawiyas Camp Ali Heading to face Muawiya Alis forces Reach al-Raqqa الرقه The Battle William Muir Writes Edward Gibbon Writes Arbitration at Daumat al-Jandal دومة الجندل The Deceit of Ibn Aas

48 Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

49 THANK YOU Be in Gods Care Dr. A.S. Hashim


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