2All about “Computer”Technically, a computer is a programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use Some of the major parts of a personal computer (or PC) include the, CPU, memory (or RAM), hard drive, and video card. While personal computers are by far the most common type of computers today, there are several other types of computers. For example, a "minicomputer" is a powerful computer that can support many users at once. A "mainframe" is a large, high-powered computer that can perform billions of calculations from multiple sources at one time. Finally, a "supercomputer" is a machine that can process billions of instructions a second and is used to calculate extremely complex calculations.
3-Types of Computer-Digital and Analog Computer *Analog Computer -It refers to numerical values that have a range. This systems were the first type to be produced, one of which was the slide rule *Digital Computer -It refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (Os or 1s),which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current .*Wearable Computers: A record-setting step in the evolution of computers was the creation of wearable computers. These computers can be worn on the body and are often used in the study of behavior modeling and human health.
4Other types of Computer *Hybrid Computers: These computers are a combination of both digital and analog computers. In this type of computers, the digital segments perform process control by conversion of analog signals to digital ones*Mainframe Computers: Large organizations use mainframes for highly critical applications such as bulk data processing and ERP. Most of the mainframe computers have the capacities to host multiple operating systems and operate as a number of virtual machines and can thus substitute for several small servers.* Microcomputers: A computer with a microprocessor and its central processing unit is known as a microcomputer. They do not occupy space as much as mainframes. When supplemented with a keyboard and a mouse, microcomputers can be called as personal computers.* Desktops: A desktop is intended to be used on a single location. The spare parts of a desktop computer are readily available at relative lower costs. Power consumption is not as critical as that in laptops.
5* Laptops: Similar in operation to desktops, laptop computers are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use. Laptops run on a single battery or an external adapter that charges the computer batteries.*Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs): It is a handheld computer and popularly known as a palmtop. It has a touch screen and a memory card for storage of data. PDAs can also be effectively used as portable audio players, web browsers and smart phones.*Minicomputers: In terms of size and processing capacity, minicomputers lie in between mainframes and microcomputers.*Supercomputers: The highly calculation-intensive tasks can be effectively performed by means of supercomputers. Quantum physics, mechanics, weather forecasting, molecular theory are best studied by means of supercomputers. Their ability of parallel processing and their well-designed memory hierarchy give the supercomputers, large transaction processing powers.
6ASPECTs OF COMPUTER*Hardware*Software*People ware
7* Hardware *-Hardware refers to a physical piece of a computer. This could be a hard drive, monitor, memory chip, or CPU. The key idea is that the item is something you can touch. This compares to software which is not tangible in any way. You can't pick it up or weigh it. Yet, without software, hardware is useless.
8Components of Computer Five components of computer: Input Devices Output Devices Processing Devices Storage Devices Networking devices
9Input Devices-Accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Also, the input devices send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information Common Example:
10Output Devices- Output devices translate processed data from the microprocessor back into a understand, appreciate and put to use Common Example:
11Processing Devices-Where the input data are change , and usually combined with other information, to produce data into a more useful Common Example;
12Storage Devices-A computer storage device is any type of hardware that stores data. The most common type of storage device, which nearly all computers have, is a hard drive. The computer's primary hard drive stores the operating system, applications, and files and folders for users of the computer. Common Example:
13Networking Devices-Networking devices are some of the most important items that allow us to communicate with others, surf the Web, send and receive streams of data, and hold a videoconference with employees spread all over the world. Understanding networking devices is almost a survival requirement in our highly advanced, hi-tech, and modern world Common example;
14* Software *-Software is a generic term for organized collections of computer data and instructions, often broken into two major categories: system software that provides the basic non-task-specific functions of the computer, and application software which is used by users to accomplish specific tasks. System software is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a functional unit without having to be concerned with the low-level details such as transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display.
15Types of Software- System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software- Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way.- Application software, also known as an application, is a computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks.
16* People Ware *-People ware refers to the role of people in the computing process. While hardware and software make up a computer system, both are designed to be used by humans . People ware can refer to many different things, including computer engineers, programmers, individual computer users, or groups of people. Anyone who designs, develops, or uses computer systems plays an important role in the computing process and may be considered people ware People ware is sometimes considered a third aspect that takes into account the importance of humans in the computing process. People ware is less tangible than hardware or software, since it can refer to many different things. Examples of people ware include individual people, groups of people, project teams, businesses, developers, and end users.