Presentation on theme: "HAZARD & RISK The identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment."— Presentation transcript:
1 HAZARD & RISKThe identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment damage.There are many types of hazards in and around the workplace. Some are fixed, others are obvious and many are hidden and developing. We need to identify all types of hazards and take the appropriate steps to reduce the risk or, if possible, to eliminate the hazard.
2 How would you define the terms hazard and risk? A hazard is a source of danger which can be defined as “a condition or situation that exists in the work environment that could result in physical harm, injury and/ or damage”.Risk relates to exposure to the danger and is defined as “the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard”.
4 Can you give me some examples of a visible hazard? Untidy Working areaMissing machine guardsBroken or damaged laddersSlippery surface.Visible hazards are the obvious defects that can be readily seen and identified by inspection.
5 Can you give me some examples of a hidden hazard? Toxic/asphyxiating gasesVapors inside a confined spaceEmission from a radioactive sourceHidden hazards are not readily seen without you attention being prompted. For example, inspecting a crane requires specialist knowledge to detect these hazards.In many instances the use of a well defined checklist can prompt you to inspect the not so obvious.
6 Can you give some examples of a developing hazard?” Building and structural damage due to vibration or moistureCorrosion and weathering of metal componentsExposure to constant noise which is above the recommended levelsAbnormal wear and tear on critical parts of machinery, plant and equipmentDeterioration from ultra-violet radiation or chemical reactionDeveloping hazards are the type of hazard which, if not fixed, could become worse. They may also represent a hidden hazard.You may think your inspection effective because you have made a list of obvious or visible hazard you can fix, but you could be missing the hidden or developing hazard.We can demonstrate how this could happen by using a portable electric drill as an example.
8 Working at Heights Operatives not wearing safety helmets No edge protection to roof nothing to stop materials falling offRoof ladder not long enoughAccess ladder tied to gutterLadder leaning on gutterAccess ladder too shortManual handlingUnprotected skylightOperative kneeling on fragile roof materialsOperative not wearing sensible clothingLoose tools in bag liable to fall out onto persons belowCarrying tools up ladder. Only one hand available to steady operative on the ladderNo safe access onto roofWorking at Heights
10 Ground Excavations No ladder or safe access Operatives not wearing safety helmetsTimbering inadequate to safety support the sides of the excavationCable crossing excavation both unprotected and unsupportedEdges of excavation unsafe and breaking awaySome wedges used to tighten up timbering missingNo securing pins in screw jackOperatives not wearing correct safety footwearOperative climbing on screw jackBoard incorrectly toed inSpoil heap in dangerous positionSoil slipping between trench supportsUnwedged strut across excavationCan of fuel incorrectly storedGround Excavations
12 Lifting Operations No safety clip on crane hook Shackle between crane hook and sling ringKnot in right-hand slingAngle between legs of sling too wideInsecure slinging method, chain too near end of load. Is load secure?Spare sling legs not hooked backLoad off levelWhat is SWL of sling?Signaller not wearing safety helmetCorrect hand signals not being usedAdjacent excavation not guardedOutrigger of crane too near to edge of trench on unstable groundTag rope not being usedDriver cannot see signalerNails in timber sticking upSpoil heap causing possible trip hazardSpoil heap sited too close to edge of excavationLifting Operations
13 CATEGORIES OF HAZARDSTo help you identify hazards, they are grouped into six (6) general categories.
14 Does anyone know the 6 general categories of hazards? Physical (noise, vibration, temperature)Chemical /Substances (exposure to cyanide, acids, caustic soda, lead)Ergonomic ( work area layout, equipment design, instrument layout)Radiation (ultraviolet exposure from the sun or welding, infra-red from drying or heating processes)Biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites)Psychological (work load, shift arrangement, workplace violence)Within these general categories there will be hidden, visible and developing hazards. Inspections should try to identify and correct all hazards types and categories.
15 ASSESSING THE RISKOnce we have identified a hazard, it needs to be assessed for the probability of causing injury, harm or loss.Identification of the hazards is only part of the ask. As each hazard is identified an assessment of the level of risk is critical.
16 “Does anyone remember the definition of risk?” RISK relates to exposure to a danger and is defined as “the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard”We need to analyse the possible consequence of a hazard and the likelihood of the hazard resulting in injury, harm or damage. By doing this we can identify the things we need to fix immediately and those we can plan to do later.A risk rating can be given to each hazard based o the likelihood, exposure frequency ( how often) and possible consequences.Risk can be grouped into three general categories, high risk hazards, medium risk hazards and low risk hazards.
17 What would be an example in each category? Some Consequences of high risk examples would be:Loss of lifePermanent disabilityLoss of body partExtensive loss of structure, equipment or materialYou need to use your judgment as to the likelihood of something happening.You need to consider how often people are exposed to the hazard and the consequences of any loss or injury resulting from the hazard.HWE has Job Safety Analysis.
18 “What would be an example in each category?” cont.. Some Consequences of medium risk examples would be:Serious injury or illness that results in a temporary disabilityProperty damage that is disruptive but less severe than a high risk hazard
19 “What would be an example in each category?” cont.. Some Consequences of Low risk examples would be:Minor, on-disabling injury or illnessNon-disruptive property damage
20 DEALING WITH HAZARDSAfter identifying a hazard, fix it or put in place controls that minimise the risk of exposure.A method of control must be selected and applied to each hazard.The important thing is to select the most practical and effective method.There are five main methods of controlling hazards.
21 Can anyone suggest what these are? EliminationReplacementIsolationControl (work permits )Personal Protective EquipmentDisciplines (Procedures, work instruction )Elimination and replacement means removing the hazard , or practice altogether.Engineering means to isolate, enclose and contain the hazard.Administrative controls are things like isolation and Lock Out.Personal Protective EquipmentShould be seen as the “last line of defence” against hazardous situations. It should be considered if all other methods are impractical.Personal Protective Equipment is often used in conjunction with safe work procedures.It is common to use a number of methods together to control and eliminate hazards.
22 How can we, as individuals, help to eliminate hazards and protect ourselves and others? Clean up after the jobStore and stack items correctlyPost hazard warning signsBarricade the work area if a short term hazard exists eg welding /excavationOperate equipment correctlyFollow the specified safe work proceduresNot walk away from a hazard – fix or report it
23 SUMMARY During the talk we have discussed how to: Identify different types of hazardsCategorize hazardsAssess the risk associated with hazardsEliminate hazard
24 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Divide the task into sequences of basic steps.Hazard Identification – Identify all potential hazards in each basic step .
25 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Estimate the consequence or severity of the eventConsequences Categories5MajorCausing death to one or more people. Loss or damage is such that it could cause serious business disruption (e.g. major fire, explosion or structural damage). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value4SeverCausing permanent disability. (e.g. loss of limb, sight or hearing). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value.3SignificantCausing temporary disability. (e.g. fractures). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value.2MinorCausing significant injuries. (e.g. sprain, bruises, and lacerations). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. damage to fixtures and fittings.1SlightCausing minor injuries. (e.g. cuts, scratches). No lost time likely other than for first aid treatment. Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. superficial damage to interior decorations.
26 Determine the Likelihood or probability of event occurring Likelihood Categories5CertainAbsence of any management controls. If conditions remains unchanged there is almost 100% certainty that an accident will happen. (e.g. broken rung on a ladder, live exposed electrical conductor, and untrained personnel).4ProbableSerious failures in management controls. The effect of human behavior or other factors could cause an accident but is unlikely without this additional factor (e.g. ladder not secured properly, oil spilled on floor, poor trained personnel).3PossibleInsufficient or substandard controls in place. Loss is unlikely during normal operation, however it may occur in emergencies or non routine conditions (e.g. keys left in forklift trucks; obstructed gangways; refresher training required).2likelyThe situation is generally well managed, however occasional lapses could occur. This also applies to situations where people are required to behave safely in order to protect themselves but are well trained.1ImprobableLoss, accident or illness could only occur under exceptional conditions. The situation is well managed and all reasonable precautions have been taken. Ideally, this should be the normal state of the workplace.
27 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Evaluate the Risk- Likelihood X SeverityCertain510152025Probable481216Possible369Improbable2Negligible1LIKELIHOODSEVERITYSlightMinorSignificantSevereMajor
28 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Risk Management – by setting control measures.Re evaluate the risk after control measures.