Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HAZARD & RISK The identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "HAZARD & RISK The identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment."— Presentation transcript:

1 HAZARD & RISK The identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment damage. There are many types of hazards in and around the workplace. Some are fixed, others are obvious and many are hidden and developing. We need to identify all types of hazards and take the appropriate steps to reduce the risk or, if possible, to eliminate the hazard.

2 How would you define the terms hazard and risk?
A hazard is a source of danger which can be defined as “a condition or situation that exists in the work environment that could result in physical harm, injury and/ or damage”. Risk relates to exposure to the danger and is defined as “the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard”.


4 Can you give me some examples of a visible hazard?
Untidy Working area Missing machine guards Broken or damaged ladders Slippery surface. Visible hazards are the obvious defects that can be readily seen and identified by inspection.

5 Can you give me some examples of a hidden hazard?
Toxic/asphyxiating gases Vapors inside a confined space Emission from a radioactive source Hidden hazards are not readily seen without you attention being prompted. For example, inspecting a crane requires specialist knowledge to detect these hazards. In many instances the use of a well defined checklist can prompt you to inspect the not so obvious.

6 Can you give some examples of a developing hazard?”
Building and structural damage due to vibration or moisture Corrosion and weathering of metal components Exposure to constant noise which is above the recommended levels Abnormal wear and tear on critical parts of machinery, plant and equipment Deterioration from ultra-violet radiation or chemical reaction Developing hazards are the type of hazard which, if not fixed, could become worse. They may also represent a hidden hazard. You may think your inspection effective because you have made a list of obvious or visible hazard you can fix, but you could be missing the hidden or developing hazard. We can demonstrate how this could happen by using a portable electric drill as an example.

7 Working at Heights

8 Working at Heights Operatives not wearing safety helmets
No edge protection to roof nothing to stop materials falling off Roof ladder not long enough Access ladder tied to gutter Ladder leaning on gutter Access ladder too short Manual handling Unprotected skylight Operative kneeling on fragile roof materials Operative not wearing sensible clothing Loose tools in bag liable to fall out onto persons below Carrying tools up ladder. Only one hand available to steady operative on the ladder No safe access onto roof Working at Heights

9 Ground Excavations

10 Ground Excavations No ladder or safe access
Operatives not wearing safety helmets Timbering inadequate to safety support the sides of the excavation Cable crossing excavation both unprotected and unsupported Edges of excavation unsafe and breaking away Some wedges used to tighten up timbering missing No securing pins in screw jack Operatives not wearing correct safety footwear Operative climbing on screw jack Board incorrectly toed in Spoil heap in dangerous position Soil slipping between trench supports Unwedged strut across excavation Can of fuel incorrectly stored Ground Excavations

11 Lifting Operations

12 Lifting Operations No safety clip on crane hook
Shackle between crane hook and sling ring Knot in right-hand sling Angle between legs of sling too wide Insecure slinging method, chain too near end of load. Is load secure? Spare sling legs not hooked back Load off level What is SWL of sling? Signaller not wearing safety helmet Correct hand signals not being used Adjacent excavation not guarded Outrigger of crane too near to edge of trench on unstable ground Tag rope not being used Driver cannot see signaler Nails in timber sticking up Spoil heap causing possible trip hazard Spoil heap sited too close to edge of excavation Lifting Operations

13 CATEGORIES OF HAZARDS To help you identify hazards, they are grouped into six (6) general categories.

14 Does anyone know the 6 general categories of hazards?
Physical (noise, vibration, temperature) Chemical /Substances (exposure to cyanide, acids, caustic soda, lead) Ergonomic ( work area layout, equipment design, instrument layout) Radiation (ultraviolet exposure from the sun or welding, infra-red from drying or heating processes) Biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites) Psychological (work load, shift arrangement, workplace violence) Within these general categories there will be hidden, visible and developing hazards. Inspections should try to identify and correct all hazards types and categories.

15 ASSESSING THE RISK Once we have identified a hazard, it needs to be assessed for the probability of causing injury, harm or loss. Identification of the hazards is only part of the ask. As each hazard is identified an assessment of the level of risk is critical.

16 “Does anyone remember the definition of risk?”
RISK relates to exposure to a danger and is defined as “the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard” We need to analyse the possible consequence of a hazard and the likelihood of the hazard resulting in injury, harm or damage. By doing this we can identify the things we need to fix immediately and those we can plan to do later. A risk rating can be given to each hazard based o the likelihood, exposure frequency ( how often) and possible consequences. Risk can be grouped into three general categories, high risk hazards, medium risk hazards and low risk hazards.

17 What would be an example in each category?
Some Consequences of high risk examples would be: Loss of life Permanent disability Loss of body part Extensive loss of structure, equipment or material You need to use your judgment as to the likelihood of something happening. You need to consider how often people are exposed to the hazard and the consequences of any loss or injury resulting from the hazard. HWE has Job Safety Analysis.

18 “What would be an example in each category?” cont..
Some Consequences of medium risk examples would be: Serious injury or illness that results in a temporary disability Property damage that is disruptive but less severe than a high risk hazard

19 “What would be an example in each category?” cont..
Some Consequences of Low risk examples would be: Minor, on-disabling injury or illness Non-disruptive property damage

20 DEALING WITH HAZARDS After identifying a hazard, fix it or put in place controls that minimise the risk of exposure. A method of control must be selected and applied to each hazard. The important thing is to select the most practical and effective method. There are five main methods of controlling hazards.

21 Can anyone suggest what these are?
Elimination Replacement Isolation Control (work permits ) Personal Protective Equipment Disciplines (Procedures, work instruction ) Elimination and replacement means removing the hazard , or practice altogether. Engineering means to isolate, enclose and contain the hazard. Administrative controls are things like isolation and Lock Out. Personal Protective Equipment Should be seen as the “last line of defence” against hazardous situations. It should be considered if all other methods are impractical. Personal Protective Equipment is often used in conjunction with safe work procedures. It is common to use a number of methods together to control and eliminate hazards.

22 How can we, as individuals, help to eliminate hazards and protect ourselves and others?
Clean up after the job Store and stack items correctly Post hazard warning signs Barricade the work area if a short term hazard exists eg welding /excavation Operate equipment correctly Follow the specified safe work procedures Not walk away from a hazard – fix or report it

23 SUMMARY During the talk we have discussed how to:
Identify different types of hazards Categorize hazards Assess the risk associated with hazards Eliminate hazard

24 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job
Divide the task into sequences of basic steps. Hazard Identification – Identify all potential hazards in each basic step .

25 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job
Estimate the consequence or severity of the event Consequences Categories 5 Major Causing death to one or more people. Loss or damage is such that it could cause serious business disruption (e.g. major fire, explosion or structural damage). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value 4 Sever Causing permanent disability. (e.g. loss of limb, sight or hearing). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value. 3 Significant Causing temporary disability. (e.g. fractures). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value. 2 Minor Causing significant injuries. (e.g. sprain, bruises, and lacerations). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. damage to fixtures and fittings. 1 Slight Causing minor injuries. (e.g. cuts, scratches). No lost time likely other than for first aid treatment. Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. superficial damage to interior decorations.

26 Determine the Likelihood or probability of event occurring
Likelihood Categories 5 Certain Absence of any management controls. If conditions remains unchanged there is almost 100% certainty that an accident will happen. (e.g. broken rung on a ladder, live exposed electrical conductor, and untrained personnel). 4 Probable Serious failures in management controls. The effect of human behavior or other factors could cause an accident but is unlikely without this additional factor (e.g. ladder not secured properly, oil spilled on floor, poor trained personnel). 3 Possible Insufficient or substandard controls in place. Loss is unlikely during normal operation, however it may occur in emergencies or non routine conditions (e.g. keys left in forklift trucks; obstructed gangways; refresher training required). 2 likely The situation is generally well managed, however occasional lapses could occur. This also applies to situations where people are required to behave safely in order to protect themselves but are well trained. 1 Improbable Loss, accident or illness could only occur under exceptional conditions. The situation is well managed and all reasonable precautions have been taken. Ideally, this should be the normal state of the workplace.

27 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job
Evaluate the Risk- Likelihood X Severity Certain 5 10 15 20 25 Probable 4 8 12 16 Possible 3 6 9 Improbable 2 Negligible 1 LIKELIHOOD SEVERITY Slight Minor Significant Severe Major

28 How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job
Risk Management – by setting control measures. Re evaluate the risk after control measures.


Download ppt "HAZARD & RISK The identification of hazards fits into the overall safety management program as one method of reducing the risk of injury and equipment."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google