Presentation on theme: "HAZARD & RISK. How would you define the terms hazard and risk? A hazard is a source of danger which can be defined as a condition or situation that exists."— Presentation transcript:
HAZARD & RISK
How would you define the terms hazard and risk? A hazard is a source of danger which can be defined as a condition or situation that exists in the work environment that could result in physical harm, injury and/ or damage. Risk relates to exposure to the danger and is defined as the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard.
TYPES OF HAZARDS
Can you give me some examples of a visible hazard? Untidy Working area Missing machine guards Broken or damaged ladders Slippery surface.
Can you give me some examples of a hidden hazard? Toxic/asphyxiating gases Vapors inside a confined space Emission from a radioactive source
Can you give some examples of a developing hazard? Building and structural damage due to vibration or moisture Corrosion and weathering of metal components Exposure to constant noise which is above the recommended levels Abnormal wear and tear on critical parts of machinery, plant and equipment Deterioration from ultra-violet radiation or chemical reaction
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards Working at Heights
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards 1.Operatives not wearing safety helmets 2.No edge protection to roof nothing to stop materials falling off 3.Roof ladder not long enough 4.Access ladder tied to gutter 5.Ladder leaning on gutter 6.Access ladder too short 7.Manual handling 8.Unprotected skylight 9.Operative kneeling on fragile roof materials 10.Operative not wearing sensible clothing 11.Loose tools in bag liable to fall out onto persons below 12.Carrying tools up ladder. Only one hand available to steady operative on the ladder 13.No safe access onto roof Working at Heights
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards Ground Excavations
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards Ground Excavations 1.No ladder or safe access 2.Operatives not wearing safety helmets 3.Timbering inadequate to safety support the sides of the excavation 4.Cable crossing excavation both unprotected and unsupported 5.Edges of excavation unsafe and breaking away 6.Some wedges used to tighten up timbering missing 7.No securing pins in screw jack 8.Operatives not wearing correct safety footwear 9.Operative climbing on screw jack 10.Board incorrectly toed in 11.Spoil heap in dangerous position 12.Soil slipping between trench supports 13.Unwedged strut across excavation 14.Can of fuel incorrectly stored
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards Lifting Operations
Hazard Awareness – Spot the Hazards 1.No safety clip on crane hook 2.Shackle between crane hook and sling ring 3.Knot in right-hand sling 4.Angle between legs of sling too wide 5.Insecure slinging method, chain too near end of load. Is load secure? 6.Spare sling legs not hooked back 7.Load off level 8.What is SWL of sling? 9.Signaller not wearing safety helmet 10.Correct hand signals not being used 11.Adjacent excavation not guarded 12.Outrigger of crane too near to edge of trench on unstable ground 13.Tag rope not being used 14.Driver cannot see signaler 15.Nails in timber sticking up 16.Spoil heap causing possible trip hazard 17.Spoil heap sited too close to edge of excavation Lifting Operations
CATEGORIES OF HAZARDS
Does anyone know the 6 general categories of hazards? Physical (noise, vibration, temperature) Chemical /Substances (exposure to cyanide, acids, caustic soda, lead) Ergonomic ( work area layout, equipment design, instrument layout) Radiation (ultraviolet exposure from the sun or welding, infra- red from drying or heating processes) Biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites) Psychological (work load, shift arrangement, workplace violence)
ASSESSING THE RISK
Does anyone remember the definition of risk? RISK relates to exposure to a danger and is defined as the probability of any injury or loss occurring from the hazard
What would be an example in each category? Some Consequences of high risk examples would be: Loss of life Permanent disability Loss of body part Extensive loss of structure, equipment or material
What would be an example in each category? cont.. Some Consequences of medium risk examples would be: Serious injury or illness that results in a temporary disability Property damage that is disruptive but less severe than a high risk hazard
What would be an example in each category? cont.. Some Consequences of Low risk examples would be: Minor, on-disabling injury or illness Non-disruptive property damage
DEALING WITH HAZARDS
Elimination Replacement Isolation Control (work permits ) Personal Protective Equipment Disciplines (Procedures, work instruction ) Can anyone suggest what these are?
How can we, as individuals, help to eliminate hazards and protect ourselves and others? Clean up after the job Store and stack items correctly Post hazard warning signs Barricade the work area if a short term hazard exists eg welding /excavation Operate equipment correctly Follow the specified safe work procedures Not walk away from a hazard – fix or report it
SUMMARY During the talk we have discussed how to: Identify different types of hazards Categorize hazards Assess the risk associated with hazards Eliminate hazard
How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Divide the task into sequences of basic steps. Hazard Identification – Identify all potential hazards in each basic step.
Consequences Categories 5Major Causing death to one or more people. Loss or damage is such that it could cause serious business disruption (e.g. major fire, explosion or structural damage). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value 4Sever Causing permanent disability. (e.g. loss of limb, sight or hearing). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value. 3SignificantCausing temporary disability. (e.g. fractures). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value. 2Minor Causing significant injuries. (e.g. sprain, bruises, and lacerations). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. damage to fixtures and fittings. 1Slight Causing minor injuries. (e.g. cuts, scratches). No lost time likely other than for first aid treatment. Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value e.g. superficial damage to interior decorations. Estimate the consequence or severity of the event How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job
Likelihood Categories 5Certain Absence of any management controls. If conditions remains unchanged there is almost 100% certainty that an accident will happen. (e.g. broken rung on a ladder, live exposed electrical conductor, and untrained personnel). 4Probable Serious failures in management controls. The effect of human behavior or other factors could cause an accident but is unlikely without this additional factor (e.g. ladder not secured properly, oil spilled on floor, poor trained personnel). 3Possible Insufficient or substandard controls in place. Loss is unlikely during normal operation, however it may occur in emergencies or non routine conditions (e.g. keys left in forklift trucks; obstructed gangways; refresher training required). 2likely The situation is generally well managed, however occasional lapses could occur. This also applies to situations where people are required to behave safely in order to protect themselves but are well trained. 1Improbable Loss, accident or illness could only occur under exceptional conditions. The situation is well managed and all reasonable precautions have been taken. Ideally, this should be the normal state of the workplace. Determine the Likelihood or probability of event occurring
How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Evaluate the Risk- Likelihood X Severity Certain Probable Possible Improbable Negligible LIKELIHOOD SEVERITY Slight Minor Significant Severe Major
How do I develop a Task Hazard analysis for a critical job Risk Management – by setting control measures. Re evaluate the risk after control measures.