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(p 1) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Very low cost extruders (VLEC) for small scale production of food and.

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Presentation on theme: "(p 1) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Very low cost extruders (VLEC) for small scale production of food and."— Presentation transcript:

1 (p 1) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Very low cost extruders (VLEC) for small scale production of food and feeds D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille) IAAL (Institut Agricole et Alimentaire) Bâtiment C Villeneuve dAscq Cedex - France Tel : +33 (0) , Fax : +33 (0) Smart Extrusion Workshop, Sydney 2 december 1997

2 (p 2) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

3 (p 3) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

4 (p 4) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 ENERGY DENSITY OF BABY FOODS Energy requirements for a 65 months child 765 kcal / day Breast feeding 520 ml milk /day, at 65 kcal / 100 ml (540 ml in Africa, 500 ml in Viet Nam) 340 kcal / day Baby-food = 425 kcal / day + one meal = 170 ml max. if two meals / day : 340 ml / day Energy density of gruels 425 / 340 = 125 kcal / 100 ml calorie content of blended flours ~ 4 kcal / g d.b. (4 for carbohydrate and protein, 9 for fat) Dry content of baby food > 30 g. d.b. / 100 ml Max. viscosity of gruel to be ingested is 1.6 Pa.s ! !

5 (p 5) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 ENERGY DENSITY OF BABY FOODS Influence of dry matter content on viscosity Viscosity (Pa.s) dry matter (g) / 100 ml 10 Feeding of infants and preschool children with gruels - either instant or boiled - is limited by : volume (170 ml max.) and consistency of gruels (1.6 Pa.s max.) 1.6 traditional home treatment 30 Ways to increase energy density by decreasing gruel viscosity : addition of fat hydrolysis of starch : synthesis of endogeneous amylases (germination) addition of exogeneous amylases drastic thermomechanical treatments : extrusion cooking

6 (p 6) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 PROCESSING OF PRECOOKED BLENDED FLOUR with alternatives for supplementation with vitamin/mineral mix Grinding Drum drying Mixing + cooking VMS Precooked flour Grinding Roasting Mixing VMS Extrusion cooking Mixing VMS Milling (Vitamin/mineral supplement)

7 (p 7) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Full fat soya seeds Whole corn seeds RiceMung beansSesameSalt VIETNAMESE BABY FOOD : FLOWSHEET 2 - Dehulling 3 - Winnowing Dehulled soya seeds 1 - Drying Hulls Wheighing Dehulling Dehulled mung beans Hulls Winnowing 4 - Mixing 5 - Extrusion cooking 6 - Cooling / drying 7 - Milling 8 - Mixing 9 - Bagging Other ingredients : dried meat powder, mushrooms, carrots, yeast, malt

8 (p 8) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE FOOD Cereals and legums, eggs, mushrooms and spices... fruits... dried fishes...

9 (p 9) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : Raw materials Soya Rice Corn Sesame Salt

10 (p 10) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : Process 1 - Preconditioning of soya : moisturizing + drying 2 - Dehulling of soya

11 (p 11) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : Process 3 - Winnowing of soya 4 - Mixing of ingredients Coarse premix

12 (p 12) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : Process Extrusion-cooker 5 - Extrusion cooking Barrel and screw Starved and choked screw Die outlet

13 (p 13) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : Process 6 - Cooling / drying 7 - Milling

14 (p 14) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd Post mixing with mineral/vitamins premix WEANING FOOD : Process 9 - Bagging

15 (p 15) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 WEANING FOOD : End product

16 (p 16) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

17 (p 17) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 REFUGEE CAMPS IN GREAT LAKES REGION South Kivu (ex-Zaïre) Rwanda

18 (p 18) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 SEVERE MALNUTRITION IN REFUGEE CAMPS Marasmus Kwashiorkor

19 (p 19) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 STORAGE AND GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF RELIEF FOOD

20 (p 20) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

21 (p 21) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 INDIVIDUAL RATION & FAMILY COOKING Individual weekly ration (1200 kcal/day) Corn 250 g Beans 50 g Oil 15 g Salt 15 g

22 (p 22) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Area of manual mixing Cleaner Dust removal Stocks of raw materials Dust removal Hammer mills Belt conveyor Fan Screw conveyor Extrusion cooker Cutter Hammer mill Batch mixer (500 Kg) Continuous mixer Conveyor Bagging and sewing Stocks of end-products Screw or pneumatic elevator Scew conveyor Workshop Batch mixer (500 Kg) CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION OF RELIEF BLENDED FLOURS ( > 20 MT/day - Kenya)

23 (p 23) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 Mill Screw conveyor Mixer Screw elevator Feeding bin Screw extractor Extrusion cooker Cutter Screw conveyor Fan Mill Pneumatic conveyor Delivery bin Horizontal batch mixer Cleaning Wheighing Wastes Stocks (raw materials) Stocks (raw materials) Stocks (end products) Water Warehouse (CMV, sugar,salt spare parts) Packaging + sewing Office Trucks unloading Electrical cabinet Wheighing Stocks (raw materials) Stocks (end products) Electrical station Toilets + bathroom CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION OF RELIEF BLENDED FLOURS ( > 5 MT/day - Kenya)

24 (p 24) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

25 (p 25) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 CAPITAL COST REQUIREMENT FOR A 0.5 MT/HR LEC WEANING FOOD FACTORY (Harper, 1995) Land (2 ha) Site preparation electrical water/sewer roads building (450 m 2 ) bulk grain storage handling Machinery cleaning/dehulling module processing module blending module packaging module (manual) ancillary machinery spare 10% crate, insurance, 20% 10% Engineering, installation, management training Cost subtotal (machinery & installation) VAT (14%) on investment expense Cost total Item sub-total Cost (US$x10 3 ) 1,200 1,368 Total Expected cost for VLEC : 11,000 US$

26 (p 26) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 TYPICAL MANUFACTURING COSTS FOR A PACKAGED FORTIFIED BLENDED FOOD (Harper, 1995) (500 kg/hr or 12 MT/day; 3 8-hr shifts/day, 5 days/week; formula : 70% cereal, 30% oilseed; packaging 250g poly bags) Cost Category Materials Salaries/wages Depreciation Electricity Other utilities Maintenance Spare parts Tranport Misc. Subtotal 14% Total Category component White maize Soya beans Vitamins Minerals Poly bags Master bags Manager QC technician Supervisor Mech./Elec. Operators Labourers Clerical Accountant Packers Equipm. (10 yr) Building (40 yr) Daily requirement (A) kg 31.2 kg 48, ,200 kW-hr 1,200 MT/km Unit cost US$ (B) 136.2/MT 282/MT 75/kg 50/kg 22/1, /1,000 49/shift 31.3/shift 43.6/shift 21.8/shift 4.1/shift 1.4/shift 2.7/shift 19.1/shift 1.4/shift 179.8/day 49/day 0.05/kW-hr 21.8/day 13.6/day 65.4/day 0.3/MT-km 409/day Total daily costs (US$) (C= AxB) Specific cost (US$/MT) (D=C/12) or US$ or US$ 0.51

27 (p 27) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 LOW COST EXTRUDERS FOR DRY EXTRUSION Almex (Netherlands) Anderson (USA) Brady Corp. (USA) Croix (France) France Extrusion (France) Insta-Pro (U.K.) Millbank (New Zealand) Setrem Inotec (France) Main manufacturers Equipment Anderson 4,5 Anderson 8 Anderson 12 Brady 206 Croix T 95 Insta-Pro 500 Insta-Pro 2000R Insta-Pro 2500 Millbank 500 Millbank 1000 Setrem S50 Setrem X125 Power (kW) Heating Autogenous (+steam) Autogenous Autogenous (+steam) Output (kg/hr) 250 1,000 10, , ,500 Screw diameter (mm) L/D ratio 12 8 Screwspeed (RPM) Moisture content during extrusion (%) < 18 % (> 20 % with steam) 20 % max > 14 % Temperature content during extrusion (°C) 205 ° max 140 (soja) 170 (cereals) (cereals) (soya) 150 Principal technical specifications

28 (p 28) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 V.L.E.C. AT UNIVERSITY OF LILLE

29 (p 29) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS drive motor : electric motor (power rating : 7.5 kW) ; motor speed : 1500 RPM transmission : single ribbed, no-split belt + set of pulleys (reduction =1/3) screw speed : 0 to 500 rpm ; continuous variation of speed using electronic speed variator working at controlled torque cast iron frame capacity : 30 to 60 kg/hr pototypes price: < 20,000 US$ (price of serial machine is expected to be less than 10,000 $) BARREL AND SCREW (L/D = 3.25) Barrel with helicoidal or longitudinal grooves ScrewClamping ring ABC D = 24 mm D = 40 mm L = 130 mm Die plate D Head space (adjustable die clearance)

30 (p 30) iaal D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke : Very low cost extruders - Sydney, dec. 2 nd 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bounie D., Briend A. and Greletty Y., Précuisson des aliments de laide durgence : comportement rhéologique de bouillies énergétiques préparées à partir de divers mélanges obtenus par cuisson-extrusion. In Proc. Conf. Agoral 94 : La Cuisson des Aliments, Nantes, 5-6 octobre 1994, pp Bressani R., Harper J.M., Wickstrom B., Processed and packaged weaning foods : development, manufacturing and marketing. In : Improving the nutritional status of children during the weaning period, Mitzner K. and al. Eds., Intl Food and Nutrition Program, MIT, Cambridge, MA, pp Coll., Low cost extrusion cookers. Second International Workshop Proceedings, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Wilson D.E. and Triebelhorn R.E. Eds., Fort Collins, Colorado State University Coll., Pour améliorer lalimentation des jeunes enfants en Afrique Orintale et Australe : une technologie à la portée des ménages. Proceedings of International Symposium, Nairobi, Oct. 1989, Alnwick D. and al. Eds., CRDI, Ottawa Harper J.M., Low-cost extrusion : possibilities for Africa. The SA J. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, 7(4), pp Harper J.M. and Jansen G.R., Production of nutritious precooked foods in developing countries by low-cost extrusion technology. Food Review Intl., 1(1), pp Jansen G.R., ODeen L., Triebelhorn R.E. and Harper J.M., The caloric densities of gruels made from extruded corn-soy blends. UNU Food Nutr Bull, 3(1), pp Jansen G.R., Centrally processed weaning foods for use in developing countries. Food Reviews Intl, 8(3), Walker A.F., The contribution of weaning-food to protein-energy malnutrition. Nutrition Research reviews, 3, pp 25-47


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