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Very low cost extruders (VLEC)

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1 Very low cost extruders (VLEC)
for small scale production of food and feeds D. Bounie, E. Van Hecke USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille) IAAL (Institut Agricole et Alimentaire) Bâtiment C6 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex - France Tel : +33 (0) , Fax : +33 (0) Smart Extrusion Workshop, Sydney 2 december 1997

2 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

3 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

4 + ! ENERGY DENSITY OF BABY FOODS
Energy requirements for a 65 months child 765 kcal / day Baby-food = 425 kcal / day + Breast feeding 520 ml milk /day, at 65 kcal / 100 ml (540 ml in Africa, 500 ml in Viet Nam) 340 kcal / day Energy density of gruels 425 / 340 = 125 kcal / 100 ml one meal = 170 ml max. if two meals / day : 340 ml / day Dry content of baby food > 30 g. d.b. / 100 ml calorie content of blended flours ~ 4 kcal / g d.b. (4 for carbohydrate and protein, 9 for fat) Max. viscosity of gruel to be ingested is 1.6 Pa.s !

5 ENERGY DENSITY OF BABY FOODS
Influence of dry matter content on viscosity Feeding of infants and preschool children with gruels - either instant or boiled - is limited by : volume (170 ml max.) and consistency of gruels (1.6 Pa.s max.) 1.6 Viscosity (Pa.s) 15 20 25 30 35 dry matter (g) / 100 ml 10 traditional home treatment 30 Ways to increase energy density by decreasing gruel viscosity : addition of fat hydrolysis of starch : synthesis of endogeneous amylases (germination) addition of exogeneous amylases drastic thermomechanical treatments : extrusion cooking

6 PROCESSING OF PRECOOKED BLENDED FLOUR
with alternatives for supplementation with vitamin/mineral mix Grinding Drum drying Mixing + cooking VMS Precooked flour Extrusion cooking Mixing VMS Milling (Vitamin/mineral supplement) Grinding Roasting Mixing VMS

7 VIETNAMESE BABY FOOD : FLOWSHEET
Full fat soya seeds Whole corn seeds Rice Mung beans Sesame Salt VIETNAMESE BABY FOOD : FLOWSHEET 2 - Dehulling 3 - Winnowing Dehulled soya seeds 1 - Drying Hulls Wheighing Dehulling Dehulled mung beans Hulls Winnowing 4 - Mixing 5 - Extrusion cooking 6 - Cooling / drying 7 - Milling 8 - Mixing 9 - Bagging Other ingredients : dried meat powder, mushrooms, carrots, yeast, malt

8 TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE FOOD
Cereals and legums, eggs, mushrooms and spices ... fruits ... dried fishes ...

9 WEANING FOOD : Raw materials
Salt Sesame Soya Rice Corn

10 WEANING FOOD : Process 1 - Preconditioning of soya :
moisturizing + drying 2 - Dehulling of soya

11 WEANING FOOD : Process 3 - Winnowing of soya 4 - Mixing of ingredients
Coarse premix

12 WEANING FOOD : Process 5 - Extrusion cooking Extrusion-cooker
Die outlet Starved and choked screw Barrel and screw

13 WEANING FOOD : Process 6 - Cooling / drying 7 - Milling

14 mineral/vitamins premix
8 - Post mixing with mineral/vitamins premix WEANING FOOD : Process 9 - Bagging

15 WEANING FOOD : End product

16 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

17 REFUGEE CAMPS IN GREAT LAKES REGION
South Kivu (ex-Zaïre) Rwanda

18 SEVERE MALNUTRITION IN REFUGEE CAMPS
Marasmus Kwashiorkor

19 STORAGE AND GENERAL DISTRIBUTION
OF RELIEF FOOD

20 GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

21 Individual weekly ration (1200 kcal/day)
INDIVIDUAL RATION & FAMILY COOKING Individual weekly ration (1200 kcal/day) Beans 50 g Corn 250 g Oil 15 g Salt 15 g

22 CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION
Area of manual mixing Cleaner Dust removal Stocks of raw materials Hammer mills Belt conveyor Fan Screw conveyor Extrusion cooker Cutter Hammer mill Batch mixer (500 Kg) Continuous Conveyor Bagging and sewing Stocks of end-products Screw or pneumatic elevator Scew Workshop CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION OF RELIEF BLENDED FLOURS ( > 20 MT/day - Kenya)

23 CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION
Mill Screw conveyor Mixer Screw elevator Feeding bin Screw extractor Extrusion cooker Cutter Fan Pneumatic conveyor Delivery Horizontal batch mixer Cleaning Wheighing Wastes Stocks (raw materials) (end products) Water Warehouse (CMV, sugar,salt spare parts) Packaging + sewing Office Trucks unloading Electrical cabinet station Toilets + bathroom CENTRALIZED PRODUCTION OF RELIEF BLENDED FLOURS ( > 5 MT/day - Kenya)

24 PLAN Very Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (VLEC) vs. Low Cost Extrusion Cooking (LEC) and classical Extrusion Cooking Possible applications of VLEC feeds at farm-level integrated traceability from feeds to livestock locally processed nutritious weaning foods (development projects) on going project in Viet Nam destruction of antinutritional factors and optimisation of energy density through improvment of formula and control of thermomechanical treatment precooked blended flours for relief aid present situation in Africa small scale production at « camp level » vs. centralized production in remote countries : from emergency to rehabilitation and development Pilot equipment developped at the University of Lille

25 CAPITAL COST REQUIREMENT FOR A 0.5 MT/HR LEC WEANING FOOD FACTORY
(Harper, 1995) Land (2 ha) Site preparation electrical water/sewer roads building (450 m2) bulk grain storage handling Machinery cleaning/dehulling module processing module blending module packaging module (manual) ancillary machinery spare 10% crate, insurance, 20% 10% Engineering, installation, management training Cost subtotal (machinery & installation) VAT (14%) on investment expense Cost total 25 20 15 60 112 63 49 57 34 68 51 354 102 341 136 156 168 Item sub-total Cost (US$x103) 1,200 1,368 Total Expected cost for VLEC : 11,000 US$

26 TYPICAL MANUFACTURING COSTS FOR A PACKAGED FORTIFIED BLENDED FOOD
(Harper, 1995) (500 kg/hr or 12 MT/day; 3 8-hr shifts/day, 5 days/week; formula : 70% cereal, 30% oilseed; packaging 250g poly bags) Cost Category Materials Salaries/wages Depreciation Electricity Other utilities Maintenance Spare parts Tranport Misc. Subtotal 14% Total Category component White maize Soya beans Vitamins Minerals Poly bags Master bags Manager QC technician Supervisor Mech./Elec. Operators Labourers Clerical Accountant Packers Equipm. (10 yr) Building (40 yr) Daily requirement (A) 2.65 1.14 12.0 kg 31.2 kg 48,000 480 1 2 3 12 4 60 7,200 kW-hr 1,200 MT/km Unit cost US$ (B) 136.2/MT 282/MT 75/kg 50/kg 22/1,000 480/1,000 49/shift 31.3/shift 43.6/shift 21.8/shift 4.1/shift 1.4/shift 2.7/shift 19.1/shift 179.8/day 49/day 0.05/kW-hr 21.8/day 13.6/day 65.4/day 0.3/MT-km 409/day daily costs (US$) (C= AxB) 1327 1179 245 425 288 63 49 131 44 17 11 19 82 180 334 22 14 27 332 409 Specific cost (US$/MT) (D=C/12) 110.5 98.2 20.4 35.4 24.0 5.2 4.1 10.9 3.6 1.4 0.9 1.6 6.8 15.0 27.8 1.8 1.1 5.4 27.3 34.1 449 or US$ 0.45 62.9 512 or US$ 0.51

27 LOW COST EXTRUDERS FOR DRY EXTRUSION
Almex (Netherlands) Anderson (USA) Brady Corp. (USA) Croix (France) France Extrusion (France) Insta-Pro (U.K.) Millbank (New Zealand) Setrem Inotec (France) Main manufacturers Equipment Anderson 4,5 Anderson 8 Anderson 12 Brady 206 Croix T 95 Insta-Pro 500 Insta-Pro 2000R Insta-Pro 2500 Millbank 500 Millbank 1000 Setrem S50 Setrem X125 Power (kW) 19 56-93 74.5 22 37 55 90 35 Heating Autogenous (+steam) Autogenous Output (kg/hr) 250 1,000 10,000 900-1,350 350 750 500-1,500 Screw diameter (mm) 114 203 305 95 138 L/D ratio 12 8 Screwspeed (RPM) 280 360 550 Moisture content during extrusion (%) < 18 % (> 20 % with steam) 20 % max > 14 % Temperature (°C) 205 ° max 205° max 140 (soja) 170 (cereals) (cereals) (soya) 150 Principal technical specifications 11 11

28 V.L.E.C. AT UNIVERSITY OF LILLE

29 (adjustable die clearance)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS drive motor : electric motor (power rating : 7.5 kW) ; motor speed : 1500 RPM transmission : single ribbed, no-split belt + set of pulleys (reduction =1/3) screw speed : 0 to 500 rpm ; continuous variation of speed using electronic speed variator working at controlled torque cast iron frame capacity : 30 to 60 kg/hr pototype’s price: < 20,000 US$ (price of serial machine is expected to be less than 10,000 $) BARREL AND SCREW (L/D = 3.25) Barrel with helicoidal or longitudinal grooves Screw Clamping ring A B C D = 24 mm D = 40 mm L = 130 mm Die plate D Head space (adjustable die clearance) 13 13

30 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bounie D., Briend A. and Greletty Y., Précuisson des aliments de l’aide d’urgence : comportement rhéologique de bouillies énergétiques préparées à partir de divers mélanges obtenus par cuisson-extrusion. In Proc. Conf. Agoral 94 : La Cuisson des Aliments, Nantes, 5-6 octobre 1994, pp Bressani R., Harper J.M., Wickstrom B., Processed and packaged weaning foods : development, manufacturing and marketing. In : Improving the nutritional status of children during the weaning period, Mitzner K. and al. Eds., Intl Food and Nutrition Program, MIT, Cambridge, MA, pp Coll., Low cost extrusion cookers. Second International Workshop Proceedings, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Wilson D.E. and Triebelhorn R.E. Eds., Fort Collins, Colorado State University Coll., Pour améliorer l’alimentation des jeunes enfants en Afrique Orintale et Australe : une technologie à la portée des ménages. Proceedings of International Symposium, Nairobi, Oct. 1989, Alnwick D. and al. Eds., CRDI, Ottawa Harper J.M., Low-cost extrusion : possibilities for Africa. The SA J. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, 7(4), pp Harper J.M. and Jansen G.R., Production of nutritious precooked foods in developing countries by low-cost extrusion technology. Food Review Intl., 1(1), pp 27-97 Jansen G.R., O’Deen L., Triebelhorn R.E. and Harper J.M., The caloric densities of gruels made from extruded corn-soy blends. UNU Food Nutr Bull, 3(1), pp 39-44 Jansen G.R., Centrally processed weaning foods for use in developing countries. Food Reviews Intl, 8(3), Walker A.F., The contribution of weaning-food to protein-energy malnutrition. Nutrition Research reviews, 3, pp 25-47


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