2Identifying Simple Subjects and Verbs A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing a complete thought.A sentence consist of two parts: the subject and the predicate.The subject of the sentence is the part about which something is being said.The predicate is the part that says something about the subject.
3Identifying Subject & Predicate Some residents of the desert have ingenious ways of evading the life-threatening effects of a drought.Bizarre and unbelievable is the method of the Australian fog.These water-holding frogs can lie in a trance for as long as three years between rainfalls.
4Identifying Subjects and Predicates (your turn!) pg. 359 1) The discovery of platinum has been credited to a variety of countries.2) Spanish explorers in search of gold supposedly found the metal in the rivers of South America.3) They considered it a worthless, inferior form of silver.4) Their name for platinum was platina, or “little silver”.5) Back into the river went the little balls of platinum!
5The Verb PhraseThe simple predicate, or verb may consist of more than one word. It may be a verb phrase: are walking, will walk, might have walked. Look for all parts of the verb phrase when you are asked to pick it out.Example: Has Sally helped you (Simple predicate; has helped) the new theater will not have permanent seats. (simple predicate; will have).
6Verb Phrase ExamplesThe verb is underscored; the complete predicate is boldfaced type.1) The fisherman steered the oat toward the middle of the lake.2) They had heard about this popular sport.3) They switched off the motor.4) Paul is using his best lures.5)Everyone is optimistically looking forward to a winning season.
7Verb Phrases (your turn) 1) Scientists throughout the world have expressed concern about the fate of the giant panda in China.2) The animal’s natural habitat has slowly become smaller.3) Many forests of bamboo have died.4) A panda may devour as much as forty pounds of bamboo daily.5) Each tender, green shoot of bamboo contains only a small amount of nutrients.
8How to find the subject of a sentence? You will find it easier to locate a subject if you pick out the verb first.Example:The shutters on that house are painted green.The verb is are painted. Now ask yourself: Who or what are painted? The answer is shutters, so shutters is the subject.
9Identifying Subjects and Verbs Write the subject and verb of each sentence, subject first.1) Despite their fragile appearance, butterflies often fly over a thousand miles during migration.2) The painted lady, for example, has been seen in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.3) In northern Europe, this species was once spotted over the Artic Circle.4) During the spring, millions of painted ladies flutter across North America.5) This huge flock of colorful butterflies leaves its warm winder home in New Mexico.
10For the Mid-Term…On the exam they will provide sentences with portions underlined 1 time for the subject and 2 for the verbs. You will have to choose if these items are correctly or incorrectly identified in each sentence.
11ComplementsA complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning begun by the subject and verb.Example:Snow (S) covered (V) the hillside (C).That book (S) is (V) an autobiography (C).Mark Twain (S) wrote (V) novels (C) about his boyhood.Both Eric (S) and Bob (S) felt (V) rather gloomy (C).
13Your try….. Write the subject, verb, and compliment for each sentence. A hurricane is actually a tropical cycloneThese large, revolving storms are accompanied by destructive winds.The rains of a hurricane are almost always heavyA hurricane has not fronts but has a strange central area.This area is the eye of the hurricane.
14Linking VerbsConnects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.The most commonly used liking verbs are the form of the verb be.Be, being, am, is, shall be, will be, has been, have been, should be, would be can be, could be, are, was, were, had been, shall have been, will have been, should have been, would have been, could have been, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn.
15Subject Complement:*A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb.It identifies, describes or explains the subject.Example:Ben is a policeman. (is - linking verb)I am fine. (am - linking verb) TThat pie smells delicious. (smells - linking verb)In the first example, a player identifies the subject, Jerry. In the second, confident describes the subject, Susan.
16Subject Complement: Predicate nominative All complements follow a linking verb.If the subject complement is a noun or a pronoun, it is a predicate nominative.Explain the subject or give another name for the subject.The caterpillar becomes a butterfly.Ms. Hayes is our teacherA sentence may contain a compound predicate nominative. P.N.Ex. Our teacher is Ms. Hayes or Ms. Rose..
17Subject Complement: Predicate Adjective If the subject complement is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective.A predicate adjective is an adjective (a describing word) that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. In order for a word to be a predicate adjective, it must have a linking verb and describe the subject of the sentence.The idea seems great. (great idea)The idea is great. (great idea)There may be more than one predicate adjective in a sentence. The idea seems great and sensible. (great idea; sensible idea)
18Predicate Nominatives or Adjective? 1) The last scene of the play is very tense.2) The two small birds are finches.3) The music sounded lively4) This costume looks elegant.My goldfish is growing larger everyday.Andrea’s report on digital recording is a detailed one.
20Direct Objects Another kind of complement. The direct object: is a word or group of words thatdirectly receives that action expressed by the verb (must be an action verb not a linking verb) or shows the result of the action.
21Indirect ObjectsAn indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object.There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer.An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase. Example: She gave me the report. (Who received the report? Me.)
22Indirect Objects: Continued Here are some more examples of sentences containing two objects: Indirect Object Direct ObjectTell me a storyHe showed us his war medalsWe bought David a birthday cakeCan you lend your colleague a pen?
23Don’t Mistake A Direct Object for a Subject Complement: Only action verbs can have direct objects. If the verb is linking, then the word that answers the what? or who? Question is a subject complement.The space alien from the planet Zortek accidentally locked his keys in his space ship.Alien = subject; locked = action verb. The space alien locked what? His keys = direct object.The space alien was happy to find a spare key taped under the wing.Alien = subject; was = linking verb. The space alien was what? Happy = subject complement.
24Direct objects and indirect objects… Examples:The mechanic (S) fixed (V) our car (DO).She (S) replaced (V) the broken muffler (DO).You Try:1) I borrowed my parent’s new camera recently.2) First I loaded the film into the camera.3) Then I sent the opening of the shutter.4) I focused the camera on a distant object5) I could read the shutter speed in the viewfinder.6) A flashing red light means an incorrect setting.
25For the Mid-Term….It will give you a sentence that underlines the compliment and will ask you to choose if the underlined word is …DO (direct object)IO (indirect object)PN (Predicate Nominative)PA (Predicate Adjective)Not a Compliment.
26Sentences Classified by Purpose Sentences may be classified according to their purpose.There are four kinds of sentences.DeclarativeImperativeInterrogativeExclamatory
27DeclarativeA sentence that makes a statement is a declarative sentence.Its purpose is to declare something. Most of the sentences you use are declarative.Example:As a matter of fact, this yard needs more shade trees.An oak would thrive in the west corner.
28ImperativeA sentence that gives a command or makes a request is an imperative sentenceExamples:Pass the salt, please.Speak softly.
29InterrogativeAn interrogative sentence is followed by an question mark…Examples:Can you speak Spanish?What did you say?
30ExclamatoryAn exclamatory sentence is followed by an exclamation point.Examples:What a beautiful day it is!How we love cool, sunny weather!
31Tricky, Tricky… CAUTION! A Declarative, an imperative, or an interrogative sentence may be spoken in such a way that it is exclamatory. In this case it should be followed by an exclamation point.This is inexcusable! (Declarative becomes exclamatory)Stop the car! (Imperative becomes exclamatory)How could you say that ! (Interrogative becomes exclamatory.
32Your Turn!Identify each sentence as Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative, or Exclamatory.1) The loudspeakers in our living room are small yet powerful.2)Turn down the sound!3) Is that music or noise, Shirley?4) Listening to loud music every day can damage one’s hearing.5) How many watts does your amplifier produce?6) Sound levels are measured in units called decibels.7) Do you know that an increase of ten decibels represents a doubling in the sound level?8) Do not blast your sound system.9) Quiet!10) Music played softly is relaxing.
33For the Mid-Term…Sentences will be given. You will be asked to identify each sentences as 1 of the 4 types.
34ClausesA clause is a group of words within a sentence that has a subject and a predicate.To tell the difference between a phrase and a clause, decide it the group of words has both a subject and a predicate within it.Examples: phrase or clause?I love to eat bagels.The big bad wolfRode the bus to Halifax
35Independent Clause/Think Conjunction! An independent clause (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself.The following two sentences are the same as an independent clause.The outfielders were missing easy fly balls.The infielders were throwing wildly.To show the relationship between these two ideas, we can combine them as independent clauses in a single sentence:The outfielders were missing easy fly balls, and the infielders were throwing wildly.
36Independent Clauses cont. Independent clauses may also be joined by the conjunctions, but, or, nor, for, and yet.Should we go for a walk, or is it too hot outside?Gladys was not tired, but her tennis partner was.
37Subordinate/Dependent Clause A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself.Subordinate means “lesser in rank or importance”. Subordinate clauses are so called because they need and independent clause to complete their meaning.Example:who spoke to our class yesterdaythat many students are eligible for scholarshipsbecause no student shave applied for them.
38Subordinate/Dependent Clause…. Notice that each of these subordinate clauses has an incomplete sound when read by itself.Each one leaves you expecting more to be said.Words like if, when, although, since, and because always make the clause they introduce sound unfinished.Example:The woman who spoke to our class yesterday informed us of financial aid for college applications.She said that many students are eligible for scholarships.Some scholarships are still available because no student have applied for them.
39Indentifying Independent/Subordinate or Dependent Clauses 2) The burglar easily picked the lock; next, he carefully cut the wires to the alarm system.3) Mr. Wilson always waves to us whenever we drive past his house.4) As soon as the move begins, you should stop talking.5) We played croquet in the back yard until the mosquitoes began to attack us.6) The cat that jumped through my bedroom window is a stray.
40The Uses of Subordinate Clauses The Adjective ClauseThe Adverb ClauseThe Noun Clause
41The Adjective ClauseAn adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun.Example:The novel that I borrowed from the library is about the Irish revolt of 1979.Our town’s civic center, which was renovated last year, has just been declared a landmark.An adjective clause always follows the noun or pronoun it modified. Sometimes set off by comma’s (not always).
42The Adjective Clause: YOUR TURN! 1) A speech community is a group of people who speak the same language.2) There are speech communities that consist of millions of people and some that contain only a few hundred.3) The language that we use during our childhood is called our native language.4) A person who has mastered a second language is bilingual.5) People who conduct business internationally should know more than one language.
43The Adverb ClauseAn adverb clause is a clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, and adverb.Like adverbs, adverbial clauses modify words by telling how, when, where, or under what condition.Example:Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold (As if she caught a cold tells how Donna sounds.)Before we left, we turned off the lights. (Before we left tells when we turned off the lights.)You will see our house where the road turns right. (Where the road turns right tells where you will see our house_.
44The Adverb Clause: Subordinating Conjunction Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. As its name suggests, a subordinating conjunction makes its clause a subordinate part of the sentence.A part that cannot stand alone.Common Subordinate Conjunctions: after, although, as as if, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while.
45Identifying Adverb Clauses : YOUR TURN! Ruth mowed the lawn while we weeded the flower beds.The grass looked as if it had not been cut in monthsBecause the house had been empty for so long, the lawn and gardens were choked with weeds.We borrowed tools so that we could weed more efficiently.Until we had pulled out the weeds, we could not see the roses.When we cut through the heavy undergrowth, we used a scythe.In one corner we stacked a mound of debris so that it could be hauled away.
46The Noun Clause A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. A noun clause contains a subject and a verb. Like adjective clause and the adverbial clause, it can not stand by itself as a sentence. It must be a part of a complete sentence taking the place a noun.Since noun clauses take the place of nouns in sentences, a noun clause can perform any of the four functions a single noun can perform. A noun clause can be the subject of a sentence, a direct object, a predicate noun, or the object of a preposition.
47The Noun Clause…Noun clauses are usually introduced by such connective as that, whether, what who, whoever, whose, where, and why. Sometimes the introductory word does not have any function in the clause.Example:I know that she is worried. (the connective that has no function in the clause).
48Noun Clause Examples Their destination is unknown Where they are going is unknown.The question "Where are they going?," with a slight change in word order, becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger unit -- like the noun "destination," the clause is the subject of the verb "is."
49Noun Clause Example Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it. This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay," and answers the question "who will have to pay?"
50The Noun Clause: YOUR TURN! 1) Mr. Perkins told us what we would play at half time.2) We can never predict what he will choose.3) We never know whether he will choose a march or a show tune.4) The drummer told Mr. Perkins she did not like Sousa marches.5) How she could say that was a mystery to me.
51For the Mid-TermThey will underline a subordinate clause in a sentence for you and you will have to identify if it is an adjective, adverb or noun clause.
52Kinds of Sentences Sentences can be classified by structure. When classified according to structures, there are four kinds of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.
53Simple Sentence Structure A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and no subordinate clause.Example: The Hudson(S) is (V) a historic waterway.Although we often think of simple sentences as short, this is not necessarily so.Example: In the stands(S) at half time, we bragged (V) to friends from another school about our team’s prospects for the season. (notice that there are several phrases but only one subject and one verb).
54Compound SentenceA compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses.Example:A strange dog (S) chased (V) us, but the owner(S) came (V) to our rescue. (two independent clauses).The film (s) is (v) long, but it (s) is (v) suspenseful, and the time (s) passes (v) quickly. (three independent clauses).
55Complex SentenceA complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.Example: As night fell, the storm reached its climax.
56Compound/Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.Example: The room that Carried painted had been white, but she changed the color. (two independent clauses and one subordinate clause.)
57Sentence Structure: YOUR TURN! 1) The key club sponsored a rummage sale and accepted donations from everyone.2) The principal donated a bird cage, and the coach made lemonade for the volunteers.3) We used whatever had been donated, but we welcomed house wares most.4) One customer bought a set of encyclopedias, which she’d long wanted, and her husband purchased and antique wood bookcase with a brass trim.
58For the Mid-Term…They will give you a sentence and as you to identify it’s structure as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex .
60The participleA participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Since the participle can function as a verb or an adjective, it might be called a “verbal adjective”.Example:The simmering soup smelled delicious.A chipped fingernail can be annoying.Simmering is part verb because it carries the action of the verb simmer. It is part adjective because it modifies the noun soup: simmering soup.Chipped is part verb because it carries the action of the verb chip.
61Participle PhraseA participle phrase consists of a participle and its related words, such as modifiers and complements, all of which act together as an adjective.Example:Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches.I heard him whispering to his friend.We watched the storm blowing eastward.
62Participle Phrase: YOUR TURN! Hoping to be the first to reach the South Pole, the British explorer Robert Scott, taking four men with him, began his final dash to the pole on January 4, 1912.Leading Scott by sixty miles, however, a Norwegian expedition commanded by Roald Amundsen, was moving swiftly.Having learned about Amundsen, Scott realized a race to the behind Amundsen.Reaching the pole on January 17, the British found the Norwegians had already been there.
63The GerundGerunds and present participles are formed exactly alike. Both are formed by adding –ing to the plain form of the verb.A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun.Example:Reading will increase your vocabulary.Tobogganing is a winter sportI enjoyed seeing you again.Peppering the soup improved its flavor.
64The Gerund PhraseA gerund phrase consists of a gerund together with it’s complements and modifiers, all of which act together as a noun.Example:Jaywalking in heavy traffic is especially risky.Gerund phrase is the subject of the sentence. The gerund jaywalking is modified by the prepositional phrase in heavy traffic.She enjoys hiking in the mountains. (The gerund phrase is the direct object of the verb enjoys. The gerund hiking is modified by the prepositional phrase in the mountains. )
65InfinitivesAn infinitive is a verb form, usually preceded by to, that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.An infinitive consists of the plain form of the verb, usually preceded by to. It can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.Examples:To err is human (the infinitive to err is the subject).Betty wants to act (the infinitive to act is the direct obejct of the verb wants.)The candidate to believe is Villegas (the infinitive to believe modifies the noun candidate).The favored team was slow to score. (the infinitive to score modifies the adjective slow.
66Note: InfinitivesTo plus a noun or a pronoun (to bed, to the movies, to her) is a prepositional phrase. To is the sign of the infinitive only when it is followed by a verb (to go, to see, to have finished).
67Infinitive PhraseAn infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive together with its complements and modifiers.Like infinitives alone, infinitive phrases can be used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns.Examples:To hit a curve ball solidly is very difficult (the infinitive phrase is used as a noun and is the subject of the sentence. The infinitive has and object, ball, and is modified by the adverb solidly).It is sometimes difficult to listen attentively (the infinitive phrase is used as an adverb and modifies the adjective difficult. The adverb attentively modifies the infinitive. )
68Infinitive Phrases: YOUR TURN 1) Our assignment was to read “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings”.2) We were asked to examine Maya Angelou’s descriptions of her childhood.3) To grow up in Stamps, Alabama, in the 1930’s was to know great hardships.4) Maya Angelou tried to show the everyday lives of black families during the Great Depression.
69For the Mid-Term…You will be given a sentence with the verbal phrase underlined. The underlined phrase you will be asked to identify as a participial phrase, gerund phrase, or an infinitive phrase.