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The Sentence. Identifying Simple Subjects and Verbs A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing a complete thought.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sentence. Identifying Simple Subjects and Verbs A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing a complete thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sentence

2 Identifying Simple Subjects and Verbs A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing a complete thought. A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing a complete thought. A sentence consist of two parts: the subject and the predicate. A sentence consist of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject of the sentence is the part about which something is being said. The subject of the sentence is the part about which something is being said. The predicate is the part that says something about the subject. The predicate is the part that says something about the subject.

3 Identifying Subject & Predicate Some residents of the desert have ingenious ways of evading the life-threatening effects of a drought. Some residents of the desert have ingenious ways of evading the life-threatening effects of a drought. Bizarre and unbelievable is the method of the Australian fog. Bizarre and unbelievable is the method of the Australian fog. These water-holding frogs can lie in a trance for as long as three years between rainfalls. These water-holding frogs can lie in a trance for as long as three years between rainfalls.

4 Identifying Subjects and Predicates (your turn!) pg. 359 1) The discovery of platinum has been credited to a variety of countries. 1) The discovery of platinum has been credited to a variety of countries. 2) Spanish explorers in search of gold supposedly found the metal in the rivers of South America. 2) Spanish explorers in search of gold supposedly found the metal in the rivers of South America. 3) They considered it a worthless, inferior form of silver. 3) They considered it a worthless, inferior form of silver. 4) Their name for platinum was platina, or little silver. 4) Their name for platinum was platina, or little silver. 5) Back into the river went the little balls of platinum! 5) Back into the river went the little balls of platinum!

5 The Verb Phrase The simple predicate, or verb may consist of more than one word. It may be a verb phrase: are walking, will walk, might have walked. Look for all parts of the verb phrase when you are asked to pick it out. The simple predicate, or verb may consist of more than one word. It may be a verb phrase: are walking, will walk, might have walked. Look for all parts of the verb phrase when you are asked to pick it out. Example: Has Sally helped you (Simple predicate; has helped) the new theater will not have permanent seats. (simple predicate; will have). Example: Has Sally helped you (Simple predicate; has helped) the new theater will not have permanent seats. (simple predicate; will have).

6 Verb Phrase Examples The verb is underscored; the complete predicate is boldfaced type. The verb is underscored; the complete predicate is boldfaced type. 1) The fisherman steered the oat toward the middle of the lake. 1) The fisherman steered the oat toward the middle of the lake. 2) They had heard about this popular sport. 2) They had heard about this popular sport. 3) They switched off the motor. 3) They switched off the motor. 4) Paul is using his best lures. 4) Paul is using his best lures. 5)Everyone is optimistically looking forward to a winning season. 5)Everyone is optimistically looking forward to a winning season.

7 Verb Phrases (your turn) 1) Scientists throughout the world have expressed concern about the fate of the giant panda in China. 1) Scientists throughout the world have expressed concern about the fate of the giant panda in China. 2) The animals natural habitat has slowly become smaller. 2) The animals natural habitat has slowly become smaller. 3) Many forests of bamboo have died. 3) Many forests of bamboo have died. 4) A panda may devour as much as forty pounds of bamboo daily. 4) A panda may devour as much as forty pounds of bamboo daily. 5) Each tender, green shoot of bamboo contains only a small amount of nutrients. 5) Each tender, green shoot of bamboo contains only a small amount of nutrients.

8 How to find the subject of a sentence? You will find it easier to locate a subject if you pick out the verb first. You will find it easier to locate a subject if you pick out the verb first. Example: Example: The shutters on that house are painted green. The shutters on that house are painted green. The verb is are painted. Now ask yourself: Who or what are painted? The answer is shutters, so shutters is the subject.

9 Identifying Subjects and Verbs Write the subject and verb of each sentence, subject first. Write the subject and verb of each sentence, subject first. 1) Despite their fragile appearance, butterflies often fly over a thousand miles during migration. 1) Despite their fragile appearance, butterflies often fly over a thousand miles during migration. 2) The painted lady, for example, has been seen in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. 2) The painted lady, for example, has been seen in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. 3) In northern Europe, this species was once spotted over the Artic Circle. 3) In northern Europe, this species was once spotted over the Artic Circle. 4) During the spring, millions of painted ladies flutter across North America. 4) During the spring, millions of painted ladies flutter across North America. 5) This huge flock of colorful butterflies leaves its warm winder home in New Mexico. 5) This huge flock of colorful butterflies leaves its warm winder home in New Mexico.

10 For the Mid-Term… On the exam they will provide sentences with portions underlined 1 time for the subject and 2 for the verbs. You will have to choose if these items are correctly or incorrectly identified in each sentence. On the exam they will provide sentences with portions underlined 1 time for the subject and 2 for the verbs. You will have to choose if these items are correctly or incorrectly identified in each sentence.

11 Complements A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning begun by the subject and verb. A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning begun by the subject and verb. Example: Example: Snow (S) covered (V) the hillside (C). Snow (S) covered (V) the hillside (C). That book (S) is (V) an autobiography (C). That book (S) is (V) an autobiography (C). Mark Twain (S) wrote (V) novels (C) about his boyhood. Mark Twain (S) wrote (V) novels (C) about his boyhood. Both Eric (S) and Bob (S) felt (V) rather gloomy (C). Both Eric (S) and Bob (S) felt (V) rather gloomy (C).

12 Complements Cont.

13 Your try….. Write the subject, verb, and compliment for each sentence. Write the subject, verb, and compliment for each sentence. 1.A hurricane is actually a tropical cyclone 2.These large, revolving storms are accompanied by destructive winds. 3.The rains of a hurricane are almost always heavy 4.A hurricane has not fronts but has a strange central area. 5.This area is the eye of the hurricane.

14 Linking Verbs Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. The most commonly used liking verbs are the form of the verb be. The most commonly used liking verbs are the form of the verb be. Be, being, am, is, shall be, will be, has been, have been, should be, would be can be, could be, are, was, were, had been, shall have been, will have been, should have been, would have been, could have been, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn. Be, being, am, is, shall be, will be, has been, have been, should be, would be can be, could be, are, was, were, had been, shall have been, will have been, should have been, would have been, could have been, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn.

15 Subject Complement:* A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb. A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb. It identifies, describes or explains the subject. It identifies, describes or explains the subject. Example: Example: Ben is a policeman. (is - linking verb) Ben is a policeman. (is - linking verb) I am fine. (am - linking verb) T I am fine. (am - linking verb) T That pie smells delicious. (smells - linking verb) That pie smells delicious. (smells - linking verb) In the first example, a player identifies the subject, Jerry. In the second, confident describes the subject, Susan.

16 Subject Complement: Predicate nominative All complements follow a linking verb. All complements follow a linking verb. If the subject complement is a noun or a pronoun, it is a predicate nominative. If the subject complement is a noun or a pronoun, it is a predicate nominative. Explain the subject or give another name for the subject. Explain the subject or give another name for the subject. The caterpillar becomes a butterfly. The caterpillar becomes a butterfly. Ms. Hayes is our teacher Ms. Hayes is our teacher A sentence may contain a compound predicate nominative. P.N.Ex. Our teacher is Ms. Hayes or Ms. Rose..

17 Subject Complement: Predicate Adjective If the subject complement is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective. If the subject complement is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective. A predicate adjective is an adjective (a describing word) that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. In order for a word to be a predicate adjective, it must have a linking verb and describe the subject of the sentence. A predicate adjective is an adjective (a describing word) that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. In order for a word to be a predicate adjective, it must have a linking verb and describe the subject of the sentence. The idea seems great. (great idea) The idea seems great. (great idea) The idea is great. (great idea) The idea is great. (great idea) There may be more than one predicate adjective in a sentence. There may be more than one predicate adjective in a sentence. The idea seems great and sensible. (great idea; sensible idea) The idea seems great and sensible. (great idea; sensible idea)

18 Predicate Nominatives or Adjective? 1) The last scene of the play is very tense. 1) The last scene of the play is very tense. 2 ) The two small birds are finches. 2 ) The two small birds are finches. 3) The music sounded lively 3) The music sounded lively 4) This costume looks elegant. 4) This costume looks elegant. My goldfish is growing larger everyday. My goldfish is growing larger everyday. Andreas report on digital recording is a detailed one. Andreas report on digital recording is a detailed one.

19 Distinguishing Between Subject and Complement When the subject is not in the normal position it is sometimes hard to tell the subject from the complement. When the subject is not in the normal position it is sometimes hard to tell the subject from the complement. Example: Example: Martin Luther King jr. (S) is (v) a national hero ©. Martin Luther King jr. (S) is (v) a national hero ©. Was (v) he (s) a recipient © of the Nobel Peace Prize? Was (v) he (s) a recipient © of the Nobel Peace Prize? How elusive © is (v) victory (s)! How elusive © is (v) victory (s)! What a fine speaker © the Reverend King(S) was (V)! What a fine speaker © the Reverend King(S) was (V)!

20 Direct Objects Another kind of complement. Another kind of complement. The direct object: is a word or group of words that directly receives that action expressed by the verb (must be an action verb not a linking verb) or shows the result of the action. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/directobject.htm

21 Indirect Objects An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer. There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer. An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase. Example: She gave me the report. (Who received the report? Me.) An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase. Example: She gave me the report. (Who received the report? Me.)

22 Indirect Objects: Continued Here are some more examples of sentences containing two objects: Here are some more examples of sentences containing two objects: Indirect ObjectDirect Object Indirect ObjectDirect Object Tell mea story Tell mea story He showed ushis war medals He showed ushis war medals We bought Davida birthday cake We bought Davida birthday cake Can you lend your colleaguea pen? Can you lend your colleaguea pen?

23 Dont Mistake A Direct Object for a Subject Complement: Only action verbs can have direct objects. If the verb is linking, then the word that answers the what? or who? Question is a subject complement. Only action verbs can have direct objects. If the verb is linking, then the word that answers the what? or who? Question is a subject complement. The space alien from the planet Zortek accidentally locked his keys in his space ship.Alien = subject; locked = action verb. The space alien locked what? His keys = direct object. The space alien from the planet Zortek accidentally locked his keys in his space ship.Alien = subject; locked = action verb. The space alien locked what? His keys = direct object. The space alien was happy to find a spare key taped under the wing.Alien = subject; was = linking verb. The space alien was what? Happy = subject complement. The space alien was happy to find a spare key taped under the wing.Alien = subject; was = linking verb. The space alien was what? Happy = subject complement.

24 Direct objects and indirect objects… Examples: Examples: The mechanic (S) fixed (V) our car (DO). The mechanic (S) fixed (V) our car (DO). She (S) replaced (V) the broken muffler (DO). She (S) replaced (V) the broken muffler (DO). You Try: 1) I borrowed my parents new camera recently. 2) First I loaded the film into the camera. 3) Then I sent the opening of the shutter. 4) I focused the camera on a distant object 5) I could read the shutter speed in the viewfinder. 6) A flashing red light means an incorrect setting.

25 For the Mid-Term…. It will give you a sentence that underlines the compliment and will ask you to choose if the underlined word is … It will give you a sentence that underlines the compliment and will ask you to choose if the underlined word is … DO (direct object) DO (direct object) IO (indirect object) IO (indirect object) PN (Predicate Nominative) PN (Predicate Nominative) PA (Predicate Adjective) PA (Predicate Adjective) Not a Compliment Not a Compliment.

26 Sentences Classified by Purpose Sentences may be classified according to their purpose. Sentences may be classified according to their purpose. There are four kinds of sentences. There are four kinds of sentences. Declarative Declarative Imperative Imperative Interrogative Interrogative Exclamatory Exclamatory

27 Declarative A sentence that makes a statement is a declarative sentence. A sentence that makes a statement is a declarative sentence. Its purpose is to declare something. Most of the sentences you use are declarative. Its purpose is to declare something. Most of the sentences you use are declarative. Example: Example: As a matter of fact, this yard needs more shade trees. As a matter of fact, this yard needs more shade trees. An oak would thrive in the west corner. An oak would thrive in the west corner.

28 Imperative A sentence that gives a command or makes a request is an imperative sentence A sentence that gives a command or makes a request is an imperative sentence Examples: Examples: Pass the salt, please. Pass the salt, please. Speak softly. Speak softly.

29 Interrogative An interrogative sentence is followed by an question mark… An interrogative sentence is followed by an question mark… Examples: Examples: Can you speak Spanish? Can you speak Spanish? What did you say? What did you say?

30 Exclamatory An exclamatory sentence is followed by an exclamation point. An exclamatory sentence is followed by an exclamation point. Examples: Examples: What a beautiful day it is! What a beautiful day it is! How we love cool, sunny weather! How we love cool, sunny weather!

31 Tricky, Tricky… CAUTION! CAUTION! A Declarative, an imperative, or an interrogative sentence may be spoken in such a way that it is exclamatory. In this case it should be followed by an exclamation point. A Declarative, an imperative, or an interrogative sentence may be spoken in such a way that it is exclamatory. In this case it should be followed by an exclamation point. This is inexcusable! (Declarative becomes exclamatory) This is inexcusable! (Declarative becomes exclamatory) Stop the car! (Imperative becomes exclamatory) Stop the car! (Imperative becomes exclamatory) How could you say that ! (Interrogative becomes exclamatory. How could you say that ! (Interrogative becomes exclamatory.

32 Your Turn! Identify each sentence as Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative, or Exclamatory. Identify each sentence as Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative, or Exclamatory. 1) The loudspeakers in our living room are small yet powerful. 1) The loudspeakers in our living room are small yet powerful. 2)Turn down the sound! 2)Turn down the sound! 3) Is that music or noise, Shirley? 3) Is that music or noise, Shirley? 4) Listening to loud music every day can damage ones hearing. 4) Listening to loud music every day can damage ones hearing. 5) How many watts does your amplifier produce? 5) How many watts does your amplifier produce? 6) Sound levels are measured in units called decibels. 6) Sound levels are measured in units called decibels. 7) Do you know that an increase of ten decibels represents a doubling in the sound level? 7) Do you know that an increase of ten decibels represents a doubling in the sound level? 8) Do not blast your sound system. 8) Do not blast your sound system. 9) Quiet! 9) Quiet! 10) Music played softly is relaxing. 10) Music played softly is relaxing.

33 For the Mid-Term… Sentences will be given. You will be asked to identify each sentences as 1 of the 4 types. Sentences will be given. You will be asked to identify each sentences as 1 of the 4 types.

34 Clauses A clause is a group of words within a sentence that has a subject and a predicate. A clause is a group of words within a sentence that has a subject and a predicate. To tell the difference between a phrase and a clause, decide it the group of words has both a subject and a predicate within it. To tell the difference between a phrase and a clause, decide it the group of words has both a subject and a predicate within it. Examples: phrase or clause? Examples: phrase or clause? I love to eat bagels. I love to eat bagels. The big bad wolf The big bad wolf Rode the bus to Halifax Rode the bus to Halifax

35 Independent Clause/Think Conjunction! An independent clause (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself. An independent clause (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself. The following two sentences are the same as an independent clause. The following two sentences are the same as an independent clause. The outfielders were missing easy fly balls. The outfielders were missing easy fly balls. The infielders were throwing wildly. The infielders were throwing wildly. To show the relationship between these two ideas, we can combine them as independent clauses in a single sentence: The outfielders were missing easy fly balls, and the infielders were throwing wildly.

36 Independent Clauses cont. Independent clauses may also be joined by the conjunctions, but, or, nor, for, and yet. Independent clauses may also be joined by the conjunctions, but, or, nor, for, and yet. Should we go for a walk, or is it too hot outside? Gladys was not tired, but her tennis partner was.

37 Subordinate/Dependent Clause A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself. A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself. Subordinate means lesser in rank or importance. Subordinate clauses are so called because they need and independent clause to complete their meaning. Subordinate means lesser in rank or importance. Subordinate clauses are so called because they need and independent clause to complete their meaning.Example: who spoke to our class yesterday that many students are eligible for scholarships because no student shave applied for them.

38 Subordinate/Dependent Clause…. Notice that each of these subordinate clauses has an incomplete sound when read by itself. Notice that each of these subordinate clauses has an incomplete sound when read by itself. Each one leaves you expecting more to be said. Each one leaves you expecting more to be said. Words like if, when, although, since, and because always make the clause they introduce sound unfinished. Words like if, when, although, since, and because always make the clause they introduce sound unfinished. Example: Example: The woman who spoke to our class yesterday informed us of financial aid for college applications. The woman who spoke to our class yesterday informed us of financial aid for college applications. She said that many students are eligible for scholarships. She said that many students are eligible for scholarships. Some scholarships are still available because no student have applied for them. Some scholarships are still available because no student have applied for them.

39 Indentifying Independent/Subordinate or Dependent Clauses 2) The burglar easily picked the lock ; next, he carefully cut the wires to the alarm system. 2) The burglar easily picked the lock ; next, he carefully cut the wires to the alarm system. 3) Mr. Wilson always waves to us whenever we drive past his house. 3) Mr. Wilson always waves to us whenever we drive past his house. 4) As soon as the move begins, you should stop talking. 4) As soon as the move begins, you should stop talking. 5) We played croquet in the back yard until the mosquitoes began to attack us. 5) We played croquet in the back yard until the mosquitoes began to attack us. 6) The cat that jumped through my bedroom window is a stray. 6) The cat that jumped through my bedroom window is a stray.

40 The Uses of Subordinate Clauses The Adjective Clause The Adjective Clause The Adverb Clause The Adverb Clause The Noun Clause The Noun Clause

41 The Adjective Clause An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Example: Example: The novel that I borrowed from the library is about the Irish revolt of 1979. The novel that I borrowed from the library is about the Irish revolt of 1979. Our towns civic center, which was renovated last year, has just been declared a landmark. Our towns civic center, which was renovated last year, has just been declared a landmark. An adjective clause always follows the noun or pronoun it modified. Sometimes set off by commas (not always).

42 The Adjective Clause: YOUR TURN! 1) A speech community is a group of people who speak the same language. 1) A speech community is a group of people who speak the same language. 2) There are speech communities that consist of millions of people and some that contain only a few hundred. 2) There are speech communities that consist of millions of people and some that contain only a few hundred. 3) The language that we use during our childhood is called our native language. 3) The language that we use during our childhood is called our native language. 4) A person who has mastered a second language is bilingual. 4) A person who has mastered a second language is bilingual. 5) People who conduct business internationally should know more than one language. 5) People who conduct business internationally should know more than one language.

43 The Adverb Clause An adverb clause is a clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, and adverb. An adverb clause is a clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, and adverb. Like adverbs, adverbial clauses modify words by telling how, when, where, or under what condition. Like adverbs, adverbial clauses modify words by telling how, when, where, or under what condition. Example: Example: Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold (As if she caught a cold tells how Donna sounds.) Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold (As if she caught a cold tells how Donna sounds.) Before we left, we turned off the lights. (Before we left tells when we turned off the lights.) Before we left, we turned off the lights. (Before we left tells when we turned off the lights.) You will see our house where the road turns right. (Where the road turns right tells where you will see our house_. You will see our house where the road turns right. (Where the road turns right tells where you will see our house_.

44 The Adverb Clause: Subordinating Conjunction Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. As its name suggests, a subordinating conjunction makes its clause a subordinate part of the sentence. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. As its name suggests, a subordinating conjunction makes its clause a subordinate part of the sentence. A part that cannot stand alone. A part that cannot stand alone. Common Subordinate Conjunctions: after, although, as as if, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while.

45 Identifying Adverb Clauses : YOUR TURN! Ruth mowed the lawn while we weeded the flower beds. Ruth mowed the lawn while we weeded the flower beds. The grass looked as if it had not been cut in months The grass looked as if it had not been cut in months Because the house had been empty for so long, the lawn and gardens were choked with weeds. Because the house had been empty for so long, the lawn and gardens were choked with weeds. We borrowed tools so that we could weed more efficiently. We borrowed tools so that we could weed more efficiently. Until we had pulled out the weeds, we could not see the roses. Until we had pulled out the weeds, we could not see the roses. When we cut through the heavy undergrowth, we used a scythe. When we cut through the heavy undergrowth, we used a scythe. In one corner we stacked a mound of debris so that it could be hauled away. In one corner we stacked a mound of debris so that it could be hauled away.

46 The Noun Clause A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. A noun clause contains a subject and a verb. Like adjective clause and the adverbial clause, it can not stand by itself as a sentence. It must be a part of a complete sentence taking the place a noun. A noun clause contains a subject and a verb. Like adjective clause and the adverbial clause, it can not stand by itself as a sentence. It must be a part of a complete sentence taking the place a noun. Since noun clauses take the place of nouns in sentences, a noun clause can perform any of the four functions a single noun can perform. A noun clause can be the subject of a sentence, a direct object, a predicate noun, or the object of a preposition. Since noun clauses take the place of nouns in sentences, a noun clause can perform any of the four functions a single noun can perform. A noun clause can be the subject of a sentence, a direct object, a predicate noun, or the object of a preposition.

47 The Noun Clause… Noun clauses are usually introduced by such connective as that, whether, what who, whoever, whose, where, and why. Sometimes the introductory word does not have any function in the clause. Noun clauses are usually introduced by such connective as that, whether, what who, whoever, whose, where, and why. Sometimes the introductory word does not have any function in the clause. Example: Example: I know that she is worried. (the connective that has no function in the clause). I know that she is worried. (the connective that has no function in the clause).

48 Noun Clause Examples Their destination is unknown Their destination is unknown Where they are going is unknown. Where they are going is unknown. The question "Where are they going?," with a slight change in word order, becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger unit -- like the noun "destination," the clause is the subject of the verb "is." The question "Where are they going?," with a slight change in word order, becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger unit -- like the noun "destination," the clause is the subject of the verb "is."

49 Noun Clause Example Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it. Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it. This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay," and answers the question " who will have to pay?" This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay," and answers the question " who will have to pay?"

50 The Noun Clause: YOUR TURN! 1) Mr. Perkins told us what we would play at half time. 1) Mr. Perkins told us what we would play at half time. 2) We can never predict what he will choose. 2) We can never predict what he will choose. 3) We never know whether he will choose a march or a show tune. 3) We never know whether he will choose a march or a show tune. 4) The drummer told Mr. Perkins she did not like Sousa marches. 4) The drummer told Mr. Perkins she did not like Sousa marches. 5) How she could say that was a mystery to me. 5) How she could say that was a mystery to me.

51 For the Mid-Term They will underline a subordinate clause in a sentence for you and you will have to identify if it is an adjective, adverb or noun clause. They will underline a subordinate clause in a sentence for you and you will have to identify if it is an adjective, adverb or noun clause.

52 Kinds of Sentences Sentences can be classified by structure. Sentences can be classified by structure. When classified according to structures, there are four kinds of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. When classified according to structures, there are four kinds of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.

53 Simple Sentence Structure A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and no subordinate clause. A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and no subordinate clause. Example: The Hudson(S) is (V) a historic waterway. Example: The Hudson(S) is (V) a historic waterway. Although we often think of simple sentences as short, this is not necessarily so. Although we often think of simple sentences as short, this is not necessarily so. Example: In the stands(S) at half time, we bragged (V) to friends from another school about our teams prospects for the season. (notice that there are several phrases but only one subject and one verb). Example: In the stands(S) at half time, we bragged (V) to friends from another school about our teams prospects for the season. (notice that there are several phrases but only one subject and one verb).

54 Compound Sentence A compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses. A compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses. Example: Example: A strange dog (S) chased (V) us, but the owner(S) came (V) to our rescue. (two independent clauses). A strange dog (S) chased (V) us, but the owner(S) came (V) to our rescue. (two independent clauses). The film (s) is (v) long, but it (s) is (v) suspenseful, and the time (s) passes (v) quickly. (three independent clauses). The film (s) is (v) long, but it (s) is (v) suspenseful, and the time (s) passes (v) quickly. (three independent clauses).

55 Complex Sentence A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. Example: As night fell, the storm reached its climax. Example: As night fell, the storm reached its climax.

56 Compound/Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. Example: The room that Carried painted had been white, but she changed the color. (two independent clauses and one subordinate clause.) Example: The room that Carried painted had been white, but she changed the color. (two independent clauses and one subordinate clause.)

57 Sentence Structure: YOUR TURN! 1) The key club sponsored a rummage sale and accepted donations from everyone. 1) The key club sponsored a rummage sale and accepted donations from everyone. 2) The principal donated a bird cage, and the coach made lemonade for the volunteers. 2) The principal donated a bird cage, and the coach made lemonade for the volunteers. 3) We used whatever had been donated, but we welcomed house wares most. 3) We used whatever had been donated, but we welcomed house wares most. 4) One customer bought a set of encyclopedias, which shed long wanted, and her husband purchased and antique wood bookcase with a brass trim. 4) One customer bought a set of encyclopedias, which shed long wanted, and her husband purchased and antique wood bookcase with a brass trim.

58 For the Mid-Term… They will give you a sentence and as you to identify its structure as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex. They will give you a sentence and as you to identify its structure as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex.

59 Verbal Phrases Participial Phrase: Participial Phrase: Gerund Phrase: Gerund Phrase: Infinitive Phrase: Infinitive Phrase:

60 The participle A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Since the participle can function as a verb or an adjective, it might be called a verbal adjective. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Since the participle can function as a verb or an adjective, it might be called a verbal adjective. Example: Example: The simmering soup smelled delicious. The simmering soup smelled delicious. A chipped fingernail can be annoying. A chipped fingernail can be annoying. Simmering is part verb because it carries the action of the verb simmer. It is part adjective because it modifies the noun soup: simmering soup. Chipped is part verb because it carries the action of the verb chip.

61 Participle Phrase A participle phrase consists of a participle and its related words, such as modifiers and complements, all of which act together as an adjective. A participle phrase consists of a participle and its related words, such as modifiers and complements, all of which act together as an adjective. Example: Example: Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches. Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches. I heard him whispering to his friend. I heard him whispering to his friend. We watched the storm blowing eastward. We watched the storm blowing eastward.

62 Participle Phrase: YOUR TURN! Hoping to be the first to reach the South Pole, the British explorer Robert Scott, taking four men with him, began his final dash to the pole on January 4, 1912. Hoping to be the first to reach the South Pole, the British explorer Robert Scott, taking four men with him, began his final dash to the pole on January 4, 1912. Leading Scott by sixty miles, however, a Norwegian expedition commanded by Roald Amundsen, was moving swiftly. Leading Scott by sixty miles, however, a Norwegian expedition commanded by Roald Amundsen, was moving swiftly. Having learned about Amundsen, Scott realized a race to the behind Amundsen. Having learned about Amundsen, Scott realized a race to the behind Amundsen. Reaching the pole on January 17, the British found the Norwegians had already been there. Reaching the pole on January 17, the British found the Norwegians had already been there.

63 The Gerund Gerunds and present participles are formed exactly alike. Both are formed by adding –ing to the plain form of the verb. Gerunds and present participles are formed exactly alike. Both are formed by adding –ing to the plain form of the verb. A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Example: Example: Reading will increase your vocabulary. Reading will increase your vocabulary. Tobogganing is a winter sport Tobogganing is a winter sport I enjoyed seeing you again. I enjoyed seeing you again. Peppering the soup improved its flavor. Peppering the soup improved its flavor.

64 The Gerund Phrase A gerund phrase consists of a gerund together with its complements and modifiers, all of which act together as a noun. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund together with its complements and modifiers, all of which act together as a noun. Example: Example: Jaywalking in heavy traffic is especially risky. Jaywalking in heavy traffic is especially risky. Gerund phrase is the subject of the sentence. The gerund jaywalking is modified by the prepositional phrase in heavy traffic. Gerund phrase is the subject of the sentence. The gerund jaywalking is modified by the prepositional phrase in heavy traffic. She enjoys hiking in the mountains. (The gerund phrase is the direct object of the verb enjoys. The gerund hiking is modified by the prepositional phrase in the mountains. ) http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/gerundphrase.htm

65 Infinitives An infinitive is a verb form, usually preceded by to, that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive is a verb form, usually preceded by to, that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive consists of the plain form of the verb, usually preceded by to. It can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. An infinitive consists of the plain form of the verb, usually preceded by to. It can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: Examples: To err is human (the infinitive to err is the subject). To err is human (the infinitive to err is the subject). Betty wants to act (the infinitive to act is the direct obejct of the verb wants.) Betty wants to act (the infinitive to act is the direct obejct of the verb wants.) The candidate to believe is Villegas (the infinitive to believe modifies the noun candidate). The candidate to believe is Villegas (the infinitive to believe modifies the noun candidate). The favored team was slow to score. (the infinitive to score modifies the adjective slow. The favored team was slow to score. (the infinitive to score modifies the adjective slow.

66 Note: Infinitives To plus a noun or a pronoun (to bed, to the movies, to her) is a prepositional phrase. To is the sign of the infinitive only when it is followed by a verb (to go, to see, to have finished). To plus a noun or a pronoun (to bed, to the movies, to her) is a prepositional phrase. To is the sign of the infinitive only when it is followed by a verb (to go, to see, to have finished). www.chompchomp.com/terms/infinitive.htm www.chompchomp.com/terms/infinitive.htm

67 Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive together with its complements and modifiers. An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive together with its complements and modifiers. Like infinitives alone, infinitive phrases can be used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Like infinitives alone, infinitive phrases can be used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Examples: Examples: To hit a curve ball solidly is very difficult (the infinitive phrase is used as a noun and is the subject of the sentence. The infinitive has and object, ball, and is modified by the adverb solidly). To hit a curve ball solidly is very difficult (the infinitive phrase is used as a noun and is the subject of the sentence. The infinitive has and object, ball, and is modified by the adverb solidly). It is sometimes difficult to listen attentively (the infinitive phrase is used as an adverb and modifies the adjective difficult. The adverb attentively modifies the infinitive. ) It is sometimes difficult to listen attentively (the infinitive phrase is used as an adverb and modifies the adjective difficult. The adverb attentively modifies the infinitive. )

68 Infinitive Phrases: YOUR TURN 1) Our assignment was to read I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. 1) Our assignment was to read I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. 2) We were asked to examine Maya Angelous descriptions of her childhood. 2) We were asked to examine Maya Angelous descriptions of her childhood. 3) To grow up in Stamps, Alabama, in the 1930s was to know great hardships. 3) To grow up in Stamps, Alabama, in the 1930s was to know great hardships. 4) Maya Angelou tried to show the everyday lives of black families during the Great Depression. 4) Maya Angelou tried to show the everyday lives of black families during the Great Depression.

69 For the Mid-Term… You will be given a sentence with the verbal phrase underlined. The underlined phrase you will be asked to identify as a participial phrase, gerund phrase, or an infinitive phrase. You will be given a sentence with the verbal phrase underlined. The underlined phrase you will be asked to identify as a participial phrase, gerund phrase, or an infinitive phrase.


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