6 What Is a Project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique ( non-repetitive) product or service Attributes of projects: – unique purpose – temporary – require resources, often from various areas – should have a primary sponsor and/or customer – involve uncertainty
7 Defining the Project Statement of Work – Project Purpose – Project Scope – Deliverables – Cost & Time Schedule Estimates – Ownership and Authority
8 What are the Resources to Manage? Equipment MaterialsPeople Money Time
Contract Types 1.Fixed prices or lump sum contract 2.Reimbursable type Fixed Price Contract : Defined scope The type used for supply of materials & equipment The red-book model Reimbursable type : Applicable when scope is not clearly defined Contractor to be reimbursed for both direct and indirect costs
Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. Processes include: – Activity definition – Activity sequencing – Activity duration estimating – Schedule development – Schedule control Project Time Management Processes
Project schedules grow out of the basic document that initiates a project: 1.Project data includes start and end dates and 2.Budget information 3.Scope statement and WBS help define what will be done Activity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic duration estimates Activity Definition
Gantt or bar charts Network analysis – The arrow diagram – The precedence diagram – Critical path analysis – Techniques for shortening a project schedule TOOLS
Simple example (Project Planning…Gilland Chart): W10W9W8W7W6W5W4W3W2W1Activity A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A series of activities plotted on a time-scale Each activity has an assumed definite start, duration and end Activities could be either related or independent All activities must be complete before the total project is complete. The level of detail could be enlarged or reduced. The completion date could move backwards or forwards depending upon intermediate results Progress could be shown against each activity. The plan could be reviewed from time to time to suit changed conditions.
Float MayAprMarFebJanActivity Review designs MayAprMarFebJanActivity Review designs The term float implies that the activities have certain freedoms. Float time is not free time Responsibility (a) (b) This activity: -Can not start before mid-Feb. -Must be completed by mid-April. -It will take about 4 weeks to complete.
1.An activity (successor) requires its (pre decessor) to be complete before it can start 2.Two activities must be complete before a successor can start. The two activities run in parallel Basic types of time relationships: A finish – to – start relationship A finish – to – finish relationship A start – to – start relationship
Resources on a bar chart Week 4 Week 3 Week 2 Week 1 Activity Excavate Foundation Prepare driveway Concrete found Erect fencing 2644Labour, total Resources required: Manpower (different types) Equipment Cash Subcontractors (different types) 22 22 4 22
The plant-site relationship: Variability in basic requirements : Area requirements, m 2 Water requirements, m3 /hr Utility requirements Electrical power Telephone Natural gas Waste disposal( gas, liquid, solid ) Special Labor requirements N.B: Mention Clusters & 14 Factors (not constant)
Global Manufacturing Location Decision Country Factors Favorable economic, political, cultural conditions Technological Factors Fixed costs relatively low Minimum efficient scale Scale of output a plant needs to realize scale-economies Market demand must be sufficient to reach this scale Flexible manufacturing-lean production-mass customization Product features Value-to-weight ratio Universal needs
1. Information required to select a site 1.1Maps and surveys MapsSurveys sourcesurveying contractor scalebenchmark datecontours The Egyptian Survey Authority
1. Information required to select a site 1.2Topography, Terrain and soil properties Topographical maps Site terrain ( sand, rock, march) will influence cost of construction Soil investigations – Soil investigation contractors – Soil investigation reporting
Magnitude of the problem (2) Industry-Environment P-S-R Model Pressures on the Environment Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Pressures on the Environment Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution State of the environment and natural resources: Local Regional National Global State of the environment and natural resources: Local Regional National Global Responses: Government Society Industry Responses: Government Society Industry Regarding: Existing plants New plants Regarding: Existing plants New plants
Statement of the problem Siting of chemical process plants 1. Two risk domains2. Three layers of interaction Industry internal risk Industry external risk IndustrySociety Environment The field of technological risk assessment The field of land-use planning GAP
Definitions of Risk The Seveso II Directive defines risk as follows: Risk: the likelihood of a specific effect occurring within a specified period or in specified circumstances The definition according to ISO/IEC 51 reads: Risk: the combination of the frequency or probability of occurrence and the consequence of a specified hazardous event. Risk Assessment: Risk Assessment: the overall process comprising a risk analysis (the systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk) and risk evaluation (procedure whether the desirable level of risk has been achieved) Risk Management: Risk Management: Systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of analyzing, evaluating and controlling risks
Land use planning Land Use Planning can be defined as a systematic assessment of alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting a land-use option which is most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment.. Land Use Planning has to be understood as an aspect of spatial planning
Individual risk: --- Risk Contours ISO-risk contours represent the geographical variation of the risk for a hypothetical individual who is positioned at a pacticular location for 24 hrs/day, 365 days / year. LSIR: Location specific individual risk
General Factors in Planning Layouts: 1.New site development vs. addition to a previously developed site. 2.Future expansion. 3.Economic distribution of services – water, steam, power, gas. 4.Weather conditions, outdoor vs. indoor construction. 5.Safety considerations – possible hazard of fire, explosion or fumes. 6.Building code requirements. 7.Waste Disposal Problems. 8.Sensible use of Floor & Elevation Space.
Data Requirements for the preparation of a conceptual layout: 1.Equipment list with approximate dimensions. 2.Process flow sheets or preliminary P & IDs showing relative elevations. 3.Off-site requirements – buildings, tank farms, diked areas,railroads, cooling towers, storage areas, 4.Hazard considerations. 5.Process buildings and/or structure requirements (open/closed). 6.Future expansion considerations.
Atmospheric Tankage 300 x 600 ft. Low Hazard Process Areas 600 x 500 ft. Parking Maintenance Warehouse 200 x 600 ft. Utilities 200 x 300 ft. Flare 200 x 300 ft. Offices 200 x 200 ft. 200 ft. NM 200 ft. 100 ft. Spacing around flare based on radiant heat calculations Spacing based on local building codes Property Line Total Land Area = 45 acres 1300 ft. 1500 ft. NM 100 ft.
Economic & Technical Factors in Chemical Plant Layout %Cost brake down of major plants: 25Major plant items, material cost 21Buildings and structures 15Pipework and valves 12Development and design 5Electrics 5Instruments 5Start-up 5Construction charges 2Land and site clearance 2Auxiliaries 3Miscellaneous (under 1% each) 100%
%where the Money Goes in Piping: 30Fabrication 27Valves 18Hangers 9Design 7Erection 5Tube 4Flanges, bolts and joints 100%
Important Equipments Mentioned Drum Pumps Reactors Towers Pipe Racks N.B : Installation and Precautions
Why reliability? Operational Excellence is biggest profit contributor Company Profit Operational Excellence Reliability Excellence Operational Excellence is biggest controllable contributor to sustainable profit. Operational Excellence needs a reliable foundation: People Processes Tools Metrics Mention KPI ABB Confidential and Proprietary Information
Aberdeens Methodology End-User Investigation: PACE Framework P A C E P ressures: External and internal forces that impact an organizations market position, competitiveness, or business operations. A ctions: The strategic approaches that an organization takes in response to industry pressures. C apabilities: The business competencies (organization, process, etc…) required to execute corporate strategy. E nablers: The key technology solutions required to support the organizations business practices.
Decisions for Asset Lifecycle Management 32% 36% 41% 47% 52% 60% 64% 65% 81% 0%25%50%75%100% Environment and energy management Safety - Employee and Asset Asset decommissioning Asset commissioning Training and certification Asset repair / refurbish / overhaul Spare parts management New asset procurement Asset reliability and maintenance Survey Question: Please describe which of the following decisions you influence?