2PORT MANAGEMENT and DEELOPMENT MST 354FIRST SEMESTERDr. Akram Elentably
3An old manual crane with a pivoted boom An old manual crane with a pivoted boom. The incline of the boom is controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears
4Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, wastewater, power grids, flood management systems, communications (internet, phone lines, broadcasting), and so forth. In the past, these systems have typically been owned and managed by local or central governments
8SCOPE OF CONTENTESChapter 1: The Management of Port Development1-1 The Need For National Ports Plan1-2 The National Ports Authority1-3 Port Development1-4 Long Term Planning1-5 The Sequence Of Investment1-6 The Analyses Needed1-7 Development Of The Port Organization1- 8 Port Development Finance1-9 Contents Of an Investment Proposal1-10 Procedure For Implementation Of Port ProjectYachts, Fishing Vessels, supply Vessels < 1,000 GRT not processedsent to both Marad and USACE weeklyArmy Corps has a contract with the Maritime Administration to edit the Vessel Name Flag, Owner, Operator informationArmy Corps has expertise in precise dock, and foreign port locationsMarad has expertise in vessel operator, passenger and characteristic informationVMS data is a product in itself, but is also a key component in the manifest and trade based data sets. Currently the only government source for cargo activity at the dock levelInformation is not confidential. However, Marad and the Army Corps perform extensive editing of the information, and supply information back to CBP for their use in analysis and decision making.Vessel Entrance and clearance data products are available on our website
91-1 The Need For National Ports Plan A- Technological Improvements in Recent Years Have Made it Essential To plan The Transportation System Of A developing Country as a whole, In Order to Achieve A balance between the Capacities of the various Parts Such As Maritime Transport.B- Within the ports sector, a balanced plan is needed for each class of maritime traffic. The number of ports, their specialization and their location have to be considered.C- Although some countries still permit free competition between their ports, this is no longer seen as acceptable where national resources are limited.D- For all classes of freight, there is a growing need to avoid the over- investment which can result from competition in a context of increasingly expensive cargo- handling technology , this technology changes in transportation methods require such specilalized cargo- handling facilities.Files available in any formatPort, Dock, and Draft information edited by the Army CorpsSome of these fields are available in the entrance and clearance files on the webDescription of fields available on Green handout sheet
10Trade Based Product Monthly Production Import and Export Cargo Data From CensusVessel MovementManifest and In-transit InformationPre-ProcessingPre-ProcessingPre-ProcessingData Sets Matched, Merged, and Further ProcessedFinal Vessel Movement Products Available for Corps and PublicPre Processing is editing each individual data source before it is linked with the othersManifest and in-transit information done on an annual basis, sometimes monthly for manifest if time permitsBureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and Maritime Administration currently receive detail trade-based informationFinal summary files such as the waterborne databanks are available for public use.Final Detail Products for Federal UseFinal Summary Products for External Corps Use
11(EXAMPL)Trade Based Cargo Data Main Import Data SourcesElectronic systemPaper .Foreign Trade ZonesLouisiana Offshore Oil Platform (LOOP)Main Export Data SourcesElectronic – AESPaper - Form (Phased out with New Censusregulations)Available to Corps from Census 60 Days after the End of theData MonthProcessing Programs and Procedures Redeveloped in 2004Public Products Distributed .Corps has an automated 60 day lag in processing monthly trade data. Census will not release any data prior to press releaseRedesigned programs should allow for quicker release of data in the future. Main benefits of redesign were internal.
12E- The factors which should be taken into consideration in the preparation of a national ports plan are illustrated in figure (1). It would be advisable to use this figure as a check- list to determine which aspects require further study before any major port investment decision is taken.F- The Maine activities indicated in figure (1) are the forecasting of the national demand for maritime traffic transport.G- A number of related plans will result from this examination; a maritime traffic assignment plan; a national port investment plan; an inland routing plan and a coastal shipping plan. All of these will be conceived at a broad strategic level only.H- Port master planning; this gives the long- term pattern of development for a port.These sources used on an annual basis, or during some monthly processing if time permits
13Procedure for National Ports Master Planning Task OneTask TwoTask ThreeDefine national Economic in so far as they affect portsDefine The Financial Responsibilities of the portTask FourTask fiveDefine The Planning Responsibilities of the portPrepare a broad national Traffic surveyAssign Traffic toindiviual ports
14Procedure for National Ports Master Planning Task sixTask sevenPrepare a preliminary investment planTask eightCo- Ordinate and obtain approval of individual port master planPrepare and publish the national ports master plan
15Procedure for individual Ports Master Planning Task OneProcedure for individual Ports MasterPlanningTask TwoTask ThreeSet up an ongoing traffic analysis per portPrepare a broad long- term traffic forecast per portTask FourTask fiveInitiate any abroad engineering surveys needed of the portAnalysis the port's role as laid down by the national authorityDetermine the long- term phased area requirements
16Procedure for individual Ports Master Planning Task sixProcedure for individual Ports MasterPlanningTask sevenTask eightDetermine the long- term water – channel requirementsAssign traffic to major port zones of portTask nineTask tenCalculate the rough cost of each terminal/berth group in each phasePrepare the draft master plan and submit for national approval to authorityRevise and publish the port master plan and obtain local approval
17Install a control system for Initiating a project at the right time Task elevenInstall a control system forInitiating a project at the right time
18A typical port planning sequence Time not to scaleMaster PlanningUnit of time(1)Set up ongoing traffic analysisBroad Traffic ForecastDefine Role Of portBroad Engineering SurveysTraffic Allocation PlanPlans for:Lands UseWater AreasApproach Channels
19A typical port planning sequence Time not to scaleMaster PlanningUnit of time(1)Unit of time(2)Unit of time(3)Land Transport Policy Co-ordinationResult Of this PhaseMaster Plan AgreedProject Planning(Phase Two)Re- Examine and update the master planTraffic ForecastingEngineering alternatives and cost estimatesSpecific site surveys
20A typical port planning sequence Time not to scaleProject Planning(Phase Two)Unit of time(4)Unit of time(5)Unit of time(6)Operational PlanPerformance CalculationsCost- Benefit analysisFinancial AnalysisReportingShort-term improvement Planning(Phase Three)
21A typical port planning sequence Time not to scaleFol.Short –term improvement PlanningUnit of time(7)Unit of time(8)Unit of time(9)Berth Throughput analysisRemoval of bottle- necks( Putting several Solutions against difficulties
22Planning Principles A- Port Planning Objectives: 1- Many changes have occurred in the technology of ships and cargo handling.2- The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use them.3- In such cases, the planner should consider the port problem entirely in context of the larger transport system of which the port is a part.4- More often, such all- embracing plans will be very difficult to draw up and implement since they involve many different interests.5- To plan for such an objective demands a good knowledge of the future customers and their probable cargoes, and is the traditional form of port planning. It aims to produce the best plan for whatever traffic demand is placed on it without trying directly to influence the form of that demand.Planning PrinciplesA- Port Planning Objectives:1- Many changes have occurred in the technonlogy of ships and cargo handling.2- The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use them.3- In such cases, the planner should consider the port problem entirely in context of the larger transport system of which the port is a part.4- More often, such all- embracing plans will be very difficult to draw up and implement since they involve many different interests.5- To plan for such an objective demands a good knoledge of the future cousomers and their probable cargoes, and is the traditional form of port planning. It aims to produce the best plan for whatever traffic demand is placed on it without trying directly to influence the form of that demand.
232-1 Port Planning Objectives 2-2 The Investment Plan Chapter two:2-1 Port Planning Objectives2-2 The Investment Plan2-3 Terminal Design principles2-4 The Problem of planning Berthing capacity2-5 Cost Considerations2-6 Berth Occupancy2-6 Waiting – time/ service-time ratio2-7 Planning for variations in traffic2-8 Co-Ordinated contingency planning2-9 The Economic optimum2-10 Scheduled traffic2-11 Seasonal Variations2-12 Capacity traffic specializationChapter two:2-1 Port Planning Objectives2-2 The Investement Plan2-3 Terminal Design principles2-4 The Problem of planning Berthing capacity2-5 Vost Condrations2-6 Berth Occupancy2-6 Wating – time/ service-time ratio2-7 Planning for variations in traffic2-8 Co-ordinated contingency planning2-9 The Economic optimum2-10 Secheduled traffic2-11 Seasonal Variations2-12 Capacity traffic specialization
242-1 Port Planning Objectives Should including The Following: Development plans should be as flexible as possible to allow a prompt response to changing demand.The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use them.This Plans always has several units to contain the products which resulted from the present technology and its results in the future.The Planner should consider that the port consider one of several units from same system.This plans should be integrated with the general transport plans.To plan for such an objective demands a good knowledge of the future customers and their probable cargoes.2-1 Port Planning Objectives Should inculding The Following:Development plans should be as flexible as possible to allow a prompt response to changing demand.The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use themThis Plans allways has several units to containe the productes which resluted from the present tchonolgy and its resultes in the futuerThe Planner should consider that the port consider one of several units from same system.This plans should be integrated with the general transport plans.To plan for such an objective demands a good knowledge of the futuer customers and their probable cargoes.
25Improving existing facilities instead of building new one. 2- 2 The Investment Plan:There will be technological and social developments that necessitate the use of new types of facilities or different locations.In many cases the build-up of demand will be continuous, and the adoption of the new technology will be gradual during a sequence of investment.The master plan for each port should set the long-term development strategy, and this in itself should indicate likely investment sequences.The investing authority should call for comparative economic analyses of several variations in the sequence of which it forms part, the major variations which should be studied should include The following Parts:Delaying capital investments by investing instead in improved productivity(equipment, special installations and associated training programmes).Improving existing facilities instead of building new one.2- 2 The Investment Plan:There will be technological and social developments that necessitate the use of new types of facilties or different locations.In many cases the build-up of demand will be continuous, and the adoption of the new technology will be gradual during a sequence of investment.The master plan for each port should set the long-term development starategy, and this in itself should indicate likely investment sequences.The investing authority should call for comparative economic analyses of several variations in the sequence of which it forms part, the major variations which should be studied should include The following Parts:
26Combining the first and second stages of a development programme into a single large project in order to economize in construction costs and to avoid the interference in port operations which would result from a second period of construction activity.The simple economic policy of investing in facilities one by one as the demand for them builds up.The most appropriate plan will usually comprise a mixtiure of all four of these possibilities, and therefore mathematical methods of optimizing the development policy are not often likely to be of assistance.A major advantage of having studies an alternative investment sequence is that at any time during the period after the initial investment has been committed, it will be relatively easy to change the plan as circumstances change.To re- assess the development programme. Steps which could be considered are:The setting up of small permanent planning and market research sections.
28The organization of publication planning meetings at which any new development are reported and possible action is discussed. The integration in each development project whetether supported by national resources or by external funds, of the possibility of modifying it, if necessary, at any suitable stage of its progress.
29Ensuring that the economic, operational and financial calculations of each of the alternative proposals are properly documented and stored for easy reference.C- Terminal designed principles: -For conventional break- bulk cargo, it is necessary first to determine the number of berthing- points needed in order to keep ship waiting time down to an economic level. - For container cargo, it is necessary first to determine the area needed to handle the annual through put without delay the operation.
30National Port Planning Figure 1Industrial sector plans:Refineries-Other processing plants-Mines- Agriculture- Major stockholding pointsSurvey of special trafficEstimated General Cargo DemandNational Pattern Of:Consumption- General Manufactures- International Transit Traffic- National coastal geology survey- National hydrographical survey- Regional development policyEstimated General Cargo DemandEstimated basic DemandNational Port PlanningCensus data is considered confidential and my not be released unless the Secretary of Commerce determines that not releasing the information is contrary to national interest. This authority has been delegated to the chief of the Foreign Trade division.National Interest Determination is integral to the acceptance or refusal of confidential dataOMB Policy Directive number 3 Foreign Trade Statistics are used as an economic indicator. Therefore the information can not be released until a press release on the monthly economic indicator is releasedBurden of safeguarding data placed on agency that is granted accessData elements required must be specified in the requestArmy Corps data is considered commingled because of its integration with VMS and manifest data
31Procedure for national ports planning The Development of a port consists of a combination of medium- term and long- term planning of a new facilities plus- in case of an existing port- a programme of short- term action to improve the management, the present facilities and their use.1- For Each investment there must be, first, a planning phase, which ends in a recommendation , such as: Vessel Type of Service (Liner, Tanker, Tramp), and Foreign Port of load/unloadCountry of Origin and DestinationCommodity DescriptionsValue in U.S. Dollars and Weight in KilogramsInsurance and Freight Costs – (Imports Only)Containerized Value and Weight2- this recommendation due to the treatment of each technical aspect.3- Decision phase which including securing of fundsLag time is after the end of the data month (Includes 60 day Census lag)Annual data sets readily available back to 1990, monthlies back to Use annual reference files for monthly data filesFields Described in more detail in data sheetAvailable in any format
32Preliminary Monthly Products and Examples of Special Reports Some of the information that can be obtained from use of the public data sets.
33The waterborne databanks are the only public data sets offering US to foreign port pair information
34Container imports are in value and weight measures, not TEU’s Container imports are in value and weight measures, not TEU’s. however, when doing analysis of container traffic, these measures hav a high coorelation with TEU’sValue is a strength of the trade-based data sets
35- For specialized bulk cargo, it is necessary first to find the place rate of discharge or loading that is needed in order to handle the ships in an acceptable period of time. - Although the first point for each control is unusual, the full method requires the joint study of productivity, the number and size of facilities needed and the level of service to be provided.
36D- The problem of planning berthing capacity: - If ships arrived in port with complete regularity, and if the time taken to discharge and load ships were constant, it would be a simple matter to determine the berthing capacity that would warranty both the full utilization of berths and the avoidance of get in line by ships. Unfortunately, such as an ideal situation can never exist. Liners, and more particularly tramp vessels, arrive in port as if at random.
37In addition, the time taken to discharge and load ships vary noticeably owing to difference in the quantities and types of cargo handled, the way cargo is stowed and the cargo handling rate. - This combination of a changeable ship arrival rate and a changeable ship working time means that a 100 percent berth occupancy could be guaranteed only at the expense of a nonstop queue of ships.
38E- Cost considerations: - Port costs are made up of tow parts: 1- A fixed component which is independent of the tonnage throughput( including the capital costs of docks, sheds, cranes. 2-A variable component which depends on tonnage throughput( including labour and staff costs, fuel, maintenance costs.
393- In addition there is the cost of ship's time in port 3- In addition there is the cost of ship's time in port. This time is also made up of tow parts: - The time the ship spends at the berth. - The time the ship spends waiting for a berth to become empty.( looking page no., 29)
40Types of ports costs Fixed component 1- Fixed component Capital cost of quays+sheds + cranesVariable component2- Variable componentLabour+ Staff+ Fuel + maintenancePorts costs3- Ports costs(1+2)
41F- Berth occupancy: - care is needed in deducting records on berth occupancy, if this is to be used as a measure for future plans, or for comparing the relationship between berth occupancy and throughput at different terminals. Berth occupancy is a measure of facility utilization and should not be used as a measure of traffic demand unless the other main factors- resources used, productivity, berthing policy- remain constant, which is rarely the case. - For Example, a certain container terminal was keeping monthly statistics both of berth occupancy and of the quantity of cargo handled
427- The considerations of long term planning:(important): 4- Design phase, which turns the chosen plan into detailed engineering designs and the construction or implementation and final cost estimates are predominantly dependent on the engineering difficulty and magnitude of the project.5- The Long- term plan:The master plan as it often called- consists of a view of the future situation.6- the programme of immediate practical improvements for use of existing facilities .7- The considerations of long term planning:(important):7-1 The role of the port, which may include some or all of the following tasks:A- To serve the international trading needs of its hinterland as reflected by traffic forecasts .B- To assist in generating trade and regional industrial development.4- Design phase, which turns the chosen plan into detailed engineering designs and the construction or implementation and final cost estimates are predominantly dependent on the engineering difficulty and magnitude of the project
43Berth occupancy and Waiting- time service/ time ratio This Ratio is widely used as a measure of the level of service provided by a terminal, as would seem logical. For ships that have less cargo to discharge can afford to wait as long as ships that have more.Care is needed in interpreting records on berth occupancy, if this to be used as a measure for future plans, or for comparing the relationship between berth occupancy and throughput at different terminals.Berth occupancy is a measure of facility utilization and should not be used as a measure of traffic demand unless the other main factors- resources used.
44Report based on vessel movement file, purely transportation based
45Preliminary waterborne cargo summaries are posted to our website each month. Summaries are available back to January at
46C- To capture an increased share of international traffic either by trans- shipment or by inland routing.D- To provide transit facilities for distant hinterlands not traditionally served or for neighboring land- locked countries.E- the extent of the port's responsibility for infrastructure needs as following:F- Marine responsibility , which may be total from landfall to berthing, or may exclude estuarial river or canal approaches or the financing of major marine worksG- Landward responsibility which may be total including road/ rail links between port and inland depots.H- The land use policy for the port, which may have freedom within fixed boundaries or freedom to acquire or dispose of adjoining land either on the open market or with compulsory purchase.I - The financial policy as regards the port which may be either fully commercial, self supporting and with freedom to set traffic as necessary.C- To capture an increased share of international traffic either by trans- shipment or by inland routing.D- To provide transit fascilities for distant hinterlands not traditionally served or for neighbouring land- locked countries.E- the extent of the port.s responsibility for infrastructure needs as following:
47Co- ordinated contingency planning It is strongly recommended that each port should have at its disposal a contingency plan for bringing additional reserve capacity of various kinds into use in a systematic, co-ordinated fashion.The Major facility needed to provide additional berthing space. Investing in excess modern berths and then delaying their commissioning is one option.The characteristics of such overflow arrangements- low capital cost and high operating cost-
48The Factors that are involved in the measurement of Ports capacity : A- The productivity in tons gang- hour.B- The number of gangs allocated per ship.C- The number of days the berth is in commission.D- The number of hours worked per day.
49The main actions of preparation of the co- ordinated port contingency plan: A-Providing equal reserve capacity in all parts of the port system.B- obtain previous approval for the use of these capacities when certain situations that happen or are about to happenC- Setting up an information system to report automatically when such situations arise or are about to arise.
50In Addition to the use of additional mooring berths should include the following: 1- Increasing handling facilities by hiring movable cranes from outside the port. Estmante Increasing the average number of gangs per ship by hiring additional contract labour. 3- Speeding up the fix of equipment by buying spare parts manufactured locally. 5- Opening up additional storage areas under customs bond either within or outside the port. 6- Hiring additional trucks and trailers for transport to storage areas.
51The importance of ports: 1- for most trading nations the port consider the main transport link with their trading partners.2- A major economic multiplier for nation's prosperity not only is a port a gateway for trade but most ports attract commercial infrastructure in the form of banks, agencies, as well as industrial activity.3- port is expected as it is a central point, usually in low water, where ships converge for prevent maritime accidents.4- Ports supply both of safety and protection for the several types of cargos .5- Ports consider as a whole services which necessary for goods such as examination health and customs.6- Where repairs are carried out. Although a port is obviously the only place where many repairs can be attempted the more modern practice of planned maintenance means that ship owners can plan at which port the repairs or maintenance will be done.7- Where most costs are incurred. Although some of these costs and delays form part of the essential and inevitable activities of a port, others, such as documentary costs and delays, are simply part of an historical tradition which could and should be changed.The importance of ports:1- for most trading nations the port consider the main transport link with their trading parteners.2- A major economic multiplier for nation,s prosperity not only is a port a gateway for trade but most ports attract commerical infrastructure in the form of banks, agencies, as well as industrial activity.3- port is inevtiable as it is a focal point, usually in shallow water, where ships converge for prevent maritime accidents.4-
528- Where delays are most likely to happen. 9- Where surveys take place.10- Where most shipping services are located such as agents, brokers. This still seems to be the case in spite of modern communication system.11- Where industries are located. This has greatly accelerated since World war II.8- Where delays are most likely to occur.9- Where surveys take place.10- Where most shipping services are located such as agents, brokers. This still seems to be the case in spite of modern communication system.11- Where industries are situated. This has greatly accelerated since World war II
53Services and facilities for Ships Services and facilities for Cargo Main Facilities and services provided by a port:Services and facilities for ShipsServices and facilities for CargoArrival and departureCargo handling on ships and on harborNavigation aids .Transport to/ from StorageApproach channelStorage/ WarehousingPilotage tugs and mooring gangsDangerous cargo segregationBerthsCustoms and documentary controlAdministrative formalities( paperwork)Additional “added value” servicesPolice, immigration and healthSetting up a logistic networkSupplies water and bunkersSetting up A marketing packagePort state controlCargo TransferMain Facilities and services provided by a port:
56Legal Definition of port: Port Means an area within which ships are loaded and/ or discharged of cargo and includes the usual places where ships wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn no matter the distance from that area.Types of Port:Port can be classified in two large groups:First: By Function:A- A cargo interface:Hub or center port, also sometimes referred to as a mega port, direct- call port, hub and load center port, mega hub( greater than 4mn TEUs per annum,superhub greater than 1 million TEUs.B- Maritime industrial Development Area:A MIDAS can be one or more of the following:1- Large industrial zone with its own marine transport terminal.2- Custom free port.3- Oil port.Second: by geographic:Legal Definition of port:Port Means an area witin which ships are loaded with and/ or discharged of cargo and includes the usual places where ships wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn ni matter the distance from that area.
571- Coastal submergence such as ( New York and Southampton) 2-Artifical harbors'( Dover)3- Rivers( Montreal)Factors constraining port development:1- Changes in the inland transport infrastructure( such as extend railways from eastern region to western region( Jeddah and Damam).2- Changes in trade Patterns.3- Changes in Financial and logistic thinking.4- Growth in world trade.1- Coastal submergence such as ( New York and Southampton)2-Artifical harbours( Dover)3- Rivers( Montereal)
58The essence of port traffic forecasting is to find out: 1- What kinds and tonnages of commodities will move through the port?2- How will these cargo be packaged and carried as maritime cargo?3- What kind of ship, tonnages and frequency of calls with this result in?Traffic Forecasting:The essence of port traffic forecasting is to find out:1- What kinds and tonnages of commodities will move through the port?2- How will these commodities be packaged and carried as maritime cargo?3- What ship types, tonnages and frequency of calls with this result in?
60The following concrete actions are proposed: - maximum retention of maritime shipping and port functions inand around the city centre;- mitigation of nuisance caused by road traffic to and from the cityterminals;- safeguarding of the characteristic seaport atmosphere in the redevelopmentof old port areas;- introduction of port information panels in the city;- port-related dressing of redeveloped port zones;- identification of port as the North European Port Icon in touristinformation and commercial promotion of the city and itsport;
61- organisation of an annual port festival; - establishment of a port education centre;- establishment of a port museum;- publication of a port-themed travel guide to port;- publications on port culture;- exploitation of the attractiveness of the Vuosaari port area;- initiatives towards port-themed boat tours;- cooperation with domestic and foreign ports;- deepening of the port authority’s mission;- integration of the principles of soft values management in port;policymaking and administration;- introduction of a port heritage policy;- cooperation by the port authority in cultural activities;- greater focus on soft values management on the port authority’swebsite;- recruitment of a soft-values officer by the port authority.
64The closure of many ofport’s cargo terminalsat the West and North Harbours(top and middle left)and their transfer to thenew state-of-the-art portat Vuosaari , followed by the decommissioningof the oil terminal,is in implementationof the 2002 Master Plan(middle right). This reshuffleof urban and port functionswill have a dramaticimpact on port’s identityas a seaport city.
65port, one of the most important seaports in Northern Europe today, is due to undergo a metamorphosis in Freight handling is to be transferred to a brand-new, state-of-the-art port area at Vuosaari, approximately 15 kilometres from the city centre.Existing terminals near the centre are to be closed to freight traffic and to be redeveloped for various non-port-related functions, including housing for 20,000 to 30,000 individuals and offices. This conversion is in implementation of the port master plans from 1992 and The disappearance of the port terminals will create space for the city to expand within its current perimeter, and it will also allow the gradual decommissioning of the railway station in Central Pasila, to the north of the city centre.
66Residential areas will be rid of the hustle and bustle of trains and trucks, many of which are, for that matter, loaded with hazardous materials. In addition to the relocation to Vuosaari in 2008, the Laajasalo oil terminal at Kruunuvuorenranta is due to be closed down in 2010, after which this area too will be transformed into a new city district. In 2012,
68part of the shipyard at Munkkisaari will be dismantled part of the shipyard at Munkkisaari will be dismantled. In the more distant future, the opening of an undersea railway tunnel between port and Tallinn by around 2025 may impact on port activities as well.The interventions outlined above suggest that port is about to say a dramatic farewell to its port. These measures are so abrupt,structural and fundamental that one cannot but wonder what impact they will have on the relationship between the port and the city in all its dimensions. The banishment of the port from the citywill fundamentally alter the economic structure, the living environment, the townscape, the tourist image, and ultimately the very identity of port. In the medium to long term, the transfer may affect public support for port activities, the psychological ties between residents and the port, and the level of political backing for the port and its expansion.
69We shall consecutively discuss the following points: - the general issue of declining public support for port activities and the management of soft values of seaports;- the current status of port as a North European port icon;- possible courses of action to enhance port’s image and identity as a port city.The ideas presented here are based on two brief fact-finding visits to port, a literature survey, similar studies relating to other ports, and the perspective on public support for seaports outlined in the book Soft Values of Seaports, published in 2006 for the purpose of providing input for the new European policy on ports and maritime affairs.
70The societal rejection of port activities and expansion 2 PORT, CITY AND SOCIETY:SOME EUROPEAN TRENDSThe societal rejection of port activities and expansionprojects is noticeable across Europe and beyond.Under the slogan Stop the Madness, representedhere in a watercolour by Rudi Van Buel, campaignershave been protesting against new containerdocks in the port of Antwerp and the threat theypose to the village of Doel.2.1 The negative image of seaports andthe erosion of their public supportPort activities and expansion projects are viewed increasinglynegatively by the public and policymakers alike. Seaports are associatedwith all kinds of societal harm, including the destruction ofpicturesque villages for the sake of port expansion, the squanderingof public resources amidst irrational squabbling between portcities, the pollution of the environment through shipping disasters,industry and hinterland transportation, and trafficking in counterfeitgoods, drugs and illegal immigrants. Moreover, spatially andpsychologically, seaports are drifting ever further away from citiesand their populations, and they are becoming dehumanisedthrough growing automation of goods handling and increasinglystrict security measures. In this negative climate, it is far from uncommonfor seaports and their expansion plans to be caricaturedor demonised by outsiders.
71This trend is noticeable across Europe and beyond This trend is noticeable across Europe and beyond. The societal rejection of port activities and expansion projects is often so acute that local residents and environmental campaigners join forces to combat them vehemently in the media as well as in the political and legal arenas. Many projects suffer delays or cancellation because their detrimental impact on the natural environment or on living conditions in nearby residential areas is deemed to be excessive, or insufficiently mitigated or compensated for, or procedurally inadequately handled3. Even if such objections are ultimately declared unfounded, or the protest is instigated by just a tiny minority or certain individuals, or environmental concerns are blatantly misused for private gain,
72such almost systematic resistance against port projects is extremely harmful, a source of legal insecurity for investors, and often a cause of additional environmental damage in other areas. More than anything else, though, the contestation of port projects contributes to the generalisation of the negative image of seaports. The continuous negativism of the public is undermining political support for seaport projects, which ultimately is compromising those seaports’ functioning. In other words, growing societal antagonism is becoming a life-threatening, existential problem to seaports.
732.2 The policy response: is the remedy aggravating the condition?Port authorities and operators are today making great efforts toturn the tide, with varying degrees of success.Expansion projects are, for example, increasingly substantiatedwith thorough economic studies. Still, any argumentation on thepart of the port community, however sound its scientific underpinning,that focuses exclusively on the (undeniable) socioeconomicimportance of seaports is doomed to fall on deaf ears or to bedismissed off-hand by fanatical opponents. A monomaniacal discourse on volumes of traffic and employment figures will, in other words, do very little to win over large portions of the public. The attention that port authorities are paying to effective communications policies, to the staging of port-related events, to environmentally responsible management, and to prior deliberation with all parties through so-called stakeholder management is helpful in overcoming the worst negativism, but it will not lead to a restoration of seaports’ unequivocally positive societal status. For that matter, a very noticeable, at once understandable and rather worrying, development is unfolding in the relationship be
74between seaports and cities between seaports and cities. Increasingly commonly, entire port areas are being relocated as terminals in or near urban centres are closed down and activities transferred to new port installations outsidethe city perimeter. port is very much a case in point. Other,comparable projects are the construction of a large container terminal on a new artificial island near Salerno (Italy), the creation of a new port area in Bremore (Ireland) which some believe could lead to the closure of Dublin City Port, plans for a new commercial port near Nice (France), so that the existing Port Lympia could be reserved for pleasure craft, and the closure of the urban port areas in Stockholm (Sweden) after the transfer of activities to Nynäshamn, some 60 km south of the city.
75The reasons why urban port zones are closed down or why designated port expansion areas are located far from existing urban ports are manifold. In many cases, it is policymakers’ intention to prevent or remedy the nuisance caused to residents or the negative impact on nature; in other instances, the potential yield ofdeveloping waterfront locations into homes and offices comes into play. Often, moving to a new port area will also enhance the efficiency and competitive strength of a port. Whatever the rationale, though, all these relocation projects have in common that they bear witness to a broad public scepticism towards the proximityof seaports. However beneficial moving may be to the local port community, what such measures boil down to is the banishment of seaports from cities, if not from society as a whole.
76This new movement is of an entirely different nature than the various phases in the development of ports as described in Bird’sAnyport model. Bird explains how ports, in a series of evolutionary steps, tend to move away from the cities where they emerged to expand towards river estuaries or open sea4. The impulse for this evolution is the need for specialised terminals and space to accommodate larger vessels. While Bird’s successive phases unfold as a result of changing needs in port development, the current trend for port areas to be relocated is inspired by very different concerns:today, ports are succumbing to societal objections against theirenvironmental impact and even against their presence as such.This relocation is abrupt, drastic, all-embracing and revolutionary;it represents a break with the gradual, all in all much more organic developmental model proposed by Bird. Hence, Anyport’s evolution would appear to end in a Banished-Port type: a port that has not distanced itself spontaneously from the city, but that has rather been exiled by society.
77The deliberate, sometimes imposed, removal of a port from the urban fabric is almost like surgery to cut a malignancy out of an otherwise supposedly healthy body. However, a surgical intervenPort, city and society: some European trends
78Bird’s Anyport model (left) explains how ports gradually and more or less spontaneously moved away from city centres towards river estuaries or the open sea. Today, a Banished Port model emerges, where ports are simply exiled by society and need to be rebuilt somewhere out of sight. This artist’s impression of a possible new container terminal near Salerno is a perfect example of such a radical removal of ports from the urban and societal fabric.
792.3 Managing the soft values of seaports According to the aforementioned theory of the Soft Values of Seaports, public support for seaports can only be restored if one proceeds, on the basis of a carefully considered plan, with exploiting all their non-socioeconomic values, assets, interests and functions. These non-socioeconomic or soft values constitute the dormant capital of port authorities.A distinction can be made between material and immaterial softvalues of seaports. The immaterial soft values include the significance of the port as an object of veneration, the subject of myth or legend, a place of refuge, a gateway between historical eras, a channel for goods and free trade, a catalyst for the development of the human intellect, the abode of a cosmopolitan community, and a source of artistic inspiration and civic pride. The material soft values relate to the port’s function as a sensory stimulant, a collection of architectural heritage, a unique human landscape, an arena for experimentation in urban planning and architecture, a tourist attraction and recreational area.
80Soft Values Management for Seaports, or SVMS, fits perfectly into the more general striving towards policy integration and may leadto a new balance with environmental interests, which are so oftenoveremphasised in debates concerning the port industry. Moreover,SVMS is not an irrational concept, since it yields an economicreturn: not only can it improve the chances of development for theentire port apparatus, but certain initiatives, including in relation toport tourism and waterfront redevelopment, can also generate neweconomic activity. Ultimately, SVMS ties in closely with the increasingly prominent notion that all enterprises — including seaports — must assume greater Corporate Social Responsibility.An SVMS plan may incorporate the following elements:- drawing up an inventory of the soft values of seaports;- public relations development and the organisation of events;