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Seaport, IN, 1638. PORT MANAGEMENT and DEELOPMENT MST 354 FIRST SEMESTER Dr. Akram Elentably.

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Presentation on theme: "Seaport, IN, 1638. PORT MANAGEMENT and DEELOPMENT MST 354 FIRST SEMESTER Dr. Akram Elentably."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seaport, IN, 1638


3 An old manual crane with a pivoted boom. The incline of the boom is controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears chainssprocketsgears

4 Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, wastewater, power grids, flood management systems, communications (internet, phone lines, broadcasting), and so forth. In the past, these systems have typically been owned and managed by local or central governments roadswater supplywastewaterpower grids floodcommunications




8 SCOPE OF CONTENTES Chapter 1: The Management of Port Development 1-1 The Need For National Ports Plan 1-2 The National Ports Authority 1-3 Port Development 1-4 Long Term Planning 1-5 The Sequence Of Investment 1-6 The Analyses Needed 1-7 Development Of The Port Organization 1- 8 Port Development Finance 1-9 Contents Of an Investment Proposal 1-10 Procedure For Implementation Of Port Project

9 1-1 The Need For National Ports Plan A- Technological Improvements in Recent Years Have Made it Essential To plan The Transportation System Of A developing Country as a whole, In Order to Achieve A balance between the Capacities of the various Parts Such As Maritime Transport. B- Within the ports sector, a balanced plan is needed for each class of maritime traffic. The number of ports, their specialization and their location have to be considered. C- Although some countries still permit free competition between their ports, this is no longer seen as acceptable where national resources are limited. D- For all classes of freight, there is a growing need to avoid the over- investment which can result from competition in a context of increasingly expensive cargo- handling technology, this technology changes in transportation methods require such specilalized cargo- handling facilities.

10 Trade Based Product Monthly Production Vessel Movement Manifest and In- transit Information Import and Export Cargo Data From Census Pre-Processing Data Sets Matched, Merged, and Further Processed Final Detail Products for Federal Use Final Summary Products for External Corps Use Final Vessel Movement Products Available for Corps and Public

11 (EXAMPL)Trade Based Cargo Data Main Import Data Sources – Electronic system – Paper. – Foreign Trade Zones – Louisiana Offshore Oil Platform (LOOP) Main Export Data Sources – Electronic – AES – Paper - Form (Phased out with New Census regulations) Available to Corps from Census 60 Days after the End of the Data Month Processing Programs and Procedures Redeveloped in 2004 Public Products Distributed.

12 E- The factors which should be taken into consideration in the preparation of a national ports plan are illustrated in figure (1). It would be advisable to use this figure as a check- list to determine which aspects require further study before any major port investment decision is taken. F- The Maine activities indicated in figure (1) are the forecasting of the national demand for maritime traffic transport. G- A number of related plans will result from this examination; a maritime traffic assignment plan; a national port investment plan; an inland routing plan and a coastal shipping plan. All of these will be conceived at a broad strategic level only. H- Port master planning; this gives the long- term pattern of development for a port.

13 Procedure for National Ports Master Planning Task One Task Two Task Three Task Four Task five Define The Planning Responsibilities of the port Define The Financial Responsibilities of the port Define national Economic in so far as they affect ports Prepare a broad national Traffic survey Assign Traffic toindiviual ports

14 Procedure for National Ports Master Planning Planning Task six Task seven Task eight Prepare a preliminary investment plan Co- Ordinate and obtain approval of individual port master plan Prepare and publish the national ports master plan

15 Procedure for individual Ports Master Planning Planning Task One Task Two Task Three Task Four Task five Initiate any abroad engineering surveys needed of the port Prepare a broad long- term traffic forecast per port Set up an ongoing traffic analysis per port Analysis the port's role as laid down by the national authority Determine the long- term phased area requirements

16 Procedure for individual Ports Master Planning Planning Task six Task seven Task eight Task nine Task ten Calculate the rough cost of each terminal/berth group in each phase Assign traffic to major port zones of port Determine the long- term water – channel requirements Prepare the draft master plan and submit for national approval to authority Revise and publish the port master plan and obtain local approval

17 Task eleven Install a control system for Initiating a project at the right time

18 A typical port planning sequence Time not to scale Master Planning Unit of time(1) Set up ongoing traffic analysis Broad Traffic Forecast Define Role Of port Broad Engineering Surveys Traffic Allocation Plan Plans for: Lands Use Water Areas Approach Channels

19 A typical port planning sequence Time not to scale Master Planning Unit of time(1)Unit of time(2)Unit of time(3) Land Transport Policy Co-ordination Result Of this Phase Master Plan Agreed Project Planning(Phase Two) Re- Examine and update the master plan Traffic Forecasting Engineering alternatives and cost estimates Specific site surveys

20 A typical port planning sequence Time not to scale Project Planning(Phase Two) Unit of time(4)Unit of time(5)Unit of time(6) Operational Plan Performance Calculations Cost- Benefit analysis Financial Analysis Reporting Short-term improvement Planning(Phase Three)

21 A typical port planning sequence Time not to scale Fol.Short –term improvement Planning Unit of time(7)Unit of time(8)Unit of time(9) Berth Throughput analysis Removal of bottle- necks( Putting several Solutions against difficulties

22 Planning Principles A- Port Planning Objectives: 1- Many changes have occurred in the technology of ships and cargo handling. 2- The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use them. 3- In such cases, the planner should consider the port problem entirely in context of the larger transport system of which the port is a part. 4- More often, such all- embracing plans will be very difficult to draw up and implement since they involve many different interests. 5- To plan for such an objective demands a good knowledge of the future customers and their probable cargoes, and is the traditional form of port planning. It aims to produce the best plan for whatever traffic demand is placed on it without trying directly to influence the form of that demand.

23 Chapter two: 2-1 Port Planning Objectives 2-2 The Investment Plan 2-3 Terminal Design principles 2-4 The Problem of planning Berthing capacity 2-5 Cost Considerations 2-6 Berth Occupancy 2-6 Waiting – time/ service-time ratio 2-7 Planning for variations in traffic 2-8 Co-Ordinated contingency planning 2-9 The Economic optimum 2-10 Scheduled traffic 2-11 Seasonal Variations 2-12 Capacity traffic specialization

24 2-1 Port Planning Objectives Should including The Following: Development plans should be as flexible as possible to allow a prompt response to changing demand. The facilities which a port provides should be designed jointly with the ships which will use them. This Plans always has several units to contain the products which resulted from the present technology and its results in the future. The Planner should consider that the port consider one of several units from same system. This plans should be integrated with the general transport plans. To plan for such an objective demands a good knowledge of the future customers and their probable cargoes.

25 2- 2 The Investment Plan: There will be technological and social developments that necessitate the use of new types of facilities or different locations. In many cases the build-up of demand will be continuous, and the adoption of the new technology will be gradual during a sequence of investment. The master plan for each port should set the long-term development strategy, and this in itself should indicate likely investment sequences. The investing authority should call for comparative economic analyses of several variations in the sequence of which it forms part, the major variations which should be studied should include The following Parts: Delaying capital investments by investing instead in improved productivity(equipment, special installations and associated training programmes). Improving existing facilities instead of building new one.

26 Combining the first and second stages of a development programme into a single large project in order to economize in construction costs and to avoid the interference in port operations which would result from a second period of construction activity. The simple economic policy of investing in facilities one by one as the demand for them builds up. The most appropriate plan will usually comprise a mixtiure of all four of these possibilities, and therefore mathematical methods of optimizing the development policy are not often likely to be of assistance. A major advantage of having studies an alternative investment sequence is that at any time during the period after the initial investment has been committed, it will be relatively easy to change the plan as circumstances change. To re- assess the development programme. Steps which could be considered are: The setting up of small permanent planning and market research sections.

27 Example of A bad Planning


29 C- Terminal designed principles: -For conventional break- bulk cargo, it is necessary first to determine the number of berthing- points needed in order to keep ship waiting time down to an economic level. - For container cargo, it is necessary first to determine the area needed to handle the annual through put without delay the operation. Ensuring that the economic, operational and financial calculations of each of the alternative proposals are properly documented and stored for easy reference.

30 National Port Planning Figure 1 Industrial sector plans: -Refineries --Other processing plants --Mines -- Agriculture -- Major stockholding points National Pattern Of: -Consumption -- General Manufactures -- International Transit Traffic -- National coastal geology survey -- National hydrographical survey -- Regional development policy Survey of special traffic Estimated General Cargo Demand Estimated basic Demand

31 Procedure for national ports planning The Development of a port consists of a combination of medium- term and long- term planning of a new facilities plus- in case of an existing port- a programme of short- term action to improve the management, the present facilities and their use. 1- For Each investment there must be, first, a planning phase, which ends in a recommendation, such as: Vessel Type of Service (Liner, Tanker, Tramp), and Foreign Port of load/unload – Country of Origin and Destination – Commodity Descriptions – Value in U.S. Dollars and Weight in Kilograms – Insurance and Freight Costs – (Imports Only) – Containerized Value and Weight 2- this recommendation due to the treatment of each technical aspect. 3- Decision phase which including securing of funds

32 Preliminary Monthly Products and Examples of Special Reports




36 D- The problem of planning berthing capacity: - If ships arrived in port with complete regularity, and if the time taken to discharge and load ships were constant, it would be a simple matter to determine the berthing capacity that would warranty both the full utilization of berths and the avoidance of get in line by ships. Unfortunately, such as an ideal situation can never exist. Liners, and more particularly tramp vessels, arrive in port as if at random.

37 In addition, the time taken to discharge and load ships vary noticeably owing to difference in the quantities and types of cargo handled, the way cargo is stowed and the cargo handling rate. - This combination of a changeable ship arrival rate and a changeable ship working time means that a 100 percent berth occupancy could be guaranteed only at the expense of a nonstop queue of ships.

38 E- Cost considerations: - Port costs are made up of tow parts: 1- A fixed component which is independent of the tonnage throughput( including the capital costs of docks, sheds, cranes. 2-A variable component which depends on tonnage throughput( including labour and staff costs, fuel, maintenance costs.

39 3- In addition there is the cost of ship's time in port. This time is also made up of tow parts: - The time the ship spends at the berth. - The time the ship spends waiting for a berth to become empty.( looking page no., 29)

40 Types of ports costs Fixed component 1- Fixed component Capital cost of quays+sheds + cranes Variable component 2- Variable component Labour+ Staff+ Fuel + maintenance Ports costs 3- Ports costs (1+2)

41 F- Berth occupancy: - care is needed in deducting records on berth occupancy, if this is to be used as a measure for future plans, or for comparing the relationship between berth occupancy and throughput at different terminals. Berth occupancy is a measure of facility utilization and should not be used as a measure of traffic demand unless the other main factors- resources used, productivity, berthing policy- remain constant, which is rarely the case. - For Example, a certain container terminal was keeping monthly statistics both of berth occupancy and of the quantity of cargo handled

42 4- Design phase, which turns the chosen plan into detailed engineering designs and the construction or implementation and final cost estimates are predominantly dependent on the engineering difficulty and magnitude of the project. 5- The Long- term plan: The master plan as it often called- consists of a view of the future situation. 6- the programme of immediate practical improvements for use of existing facilities. 7- The considerations of long term planning:(important): 7-1 The role of the port, which may include some or all of the following tasks: A- To serve the international trading needs of its hinterland as reflected by traffic forecasts. B- To assist in generating trade and regional industrial development.

43 Berth occupancy and Waiting- time service/ time ratio This Ratio is widely used as a measure of the level of service provided by a terminal, as would seem logical. For ships that have less cargo to discharge can afford to wait as long as ships that have more. Care is needed in interpreting records on berth occupancy, if this to be used as a measure for future plans, or for comparing the relationship between berth occupancy and throughput at different terminals. Berth occupancy is a measure of facility utilization and should not be used as a measure of traffic demand unless the other main factors- resources used.



46 C- To capture an increased share of international traffic either by trans- shipment or by inland routing. D- To provide transit facilities for distant hinterlands not traditionally served or for neighboring land- locked countries. E- the extent of the port's responsibility for infrastructure needs as following: F- Marine responsibility, which may be total from landfall to berthing, or may exclude estuarial river or canal approaches or the financing of major marine works G- Landward responsibility which may be total including road/ rail links between port and inland depots. H- The land use policy for the port, which may have freedom within fixed boundaries or freedom to acquire or dispose of adjoining land either on the open market or with compulsory purchase. I - The financial policy as regards the port which may be either fully commercial, self supporting and with freedom to set traffic as necessary.

47 Co- ordinated contingency planning It is strongly recommended that each port should have at its disposal a contingency plan for bringing additional reserve capacity of various kinds into use in a systematic, co- ordinated fashion. The Major facility needed to provide additional berthing space. Investing in excess modern berths and then delaying their commissioning is one option. The characteristics of such overflow arrangements- low capital cost and high operating cost-

48 The Factors that are involved in the measurement of Ports capacity : The Factors that are involved in the measurement of Ports capacity:- A- The productivity in tons gang- hour. B- The number of gangs allocated per ship. C- The number of days the berth is in commission. D- The number of hours worked per day.

49 The main actions of preparation of the co- ordinated port contingency plan: A-Providing equal reserve capacity in all parts of the port system. B- obtain previous approval for the use of these capacities when certain situations that happen or are about to happen C- Setting up an information system to report automatically when such situations arise or are about to arise.

50 In Addition to the use of additional mooring berths should include the following: 1- Increasing handling facilities by hiring movable cranes from outside the port. Estmante 2- Increasing the average number of gangs per ship by hiring additional contract labour. 3- Speeding up the fix of equipment by buying spare parts manufactured locally. 5- Opening up additional storage areas under customs bond either within or outside the port. 6- Hiring additional trucks and trailers for transport to storage areas.

51 The importance of ports: 1- for most trading nations the port consider the main transport link with their trading partners. 2- A major economic multiplier for nation's prosperity not only is a port a gateway for trade but most ports attract commercial infrastructure in the form of banks, agencies, as well as industrial activity. 3- port is expected as it is a central point, usually in low water, where ships converge for prevent maritime accidents. 4- Ports supply both of safety and protection for the several types of cargos. 5- Ports consider as a whole services which necessary for goods such as examination health and customs. 6- Where repairs are carried out. Although a port is obviously the only place where many repairs can be attempted the more modern practice of planned maintenance means that ship owners can plan at which port the repairs or maintenance will be done. 7- Where most costs are incurred. Although some of these costs and delays form part of the essential and inevitable activities of a port, others, such as documentary costs and delays, are simply part of an historical tradition which could and should be changed.

52 8- Where delays are most likely to happen. 9- Where surveys take place. 10- Where most shipping services are located such as agents, brokers. This still seems to be the case in spite of modern communication system. 11- Where industries are located. This has greatly accelerated since World war II.

53 Main Facilities and services provided by a port: Services and facilities for ShipsServices and facilities for Cargo Arrival and departureCargo handling on ships and on harbor Navigation aids.Transport to/ from Storage Approach channelStorage/ Warehousing Pilotage tugs and mooring gangsDangerous cargo segregation BerthsCustoms and documentary control Administrative formalities( paperwork)Additional added value services Police, immigration and healthSetting up a logistic network Supplies water and bunkersSetting up A marketing package Port state control Cargo Transfer



56 Legal Definition of port: Port Means an area within which ships are loaded and/ or discharged of cargo and includes the usual places where ships wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn no matter the distance from that area. Types of Port: Port can be classified in two large groups: First: By Function: A- A cargo interface: Hub or center port, also sometimes referred to as a mega port, direct- call port, hub and load center port, mega hub( greater than 4mn TEUs per annum,superhub greater than 1 million TEUs. B- Maritime industrial Development Area: A MIDAS can be one or more of the following: 1- Large industrial zone with its own marine transport terminal. 2- Custom free port. 3- Oil port. Second: by geographic:

57 1- Coastal submergence such as ( New York and Southampton) 2-Artifical harbors'( Dover) 3- Rivers( Montreal) Factors constraining port development: 1- Changes in the inland transport infrastructure( such as extend railways from eastern region to western region( Jeddah and Damam). 2- Changes in trade Patterns. 3- Changes in Financial and logistic thinking. 4- Growth in world trade.

58 Traffic Forecasting: The essence of port traffic forecasting is to find out: 1- What kinds and tonnages of commodities will move through the port? 2- How will these cargo be packaged and carried as maritime cargo? 3- What kind of ship, tonnages and frequency of calls with this result in?


60 The following concrete actions are proposed: - maximum retention of maritime shipping and port functions in and around the city centre; - mitigation of nuisance caused by road traffic to and from the city terminals; - safeguarding of the characteristic seaport atmosphere in the redevelopment of old port areas; - introduction of port information panels in the city; - port-related dressing of redeveloped port zones; - identification of port as the North European Port Icon in tourist information and commercial promotion of the city and its port;

61 - organisation of an annual port festival; - establishment of a port education centre; - establishment of a port museum; - publication of a port-themed travel guide to port; - publications on port culture; - exploitation of the attractiveness of the Vuosaari port area; - initiatives towards port-themed boat tours; - cooperation with domestic and foreign ports; - deepening of the port authoritys mission; - integration of the principles of soft values management in port; policymaking and administration; - introduction of a port heritage policy; - cooperation by the port authority in cultural activities; - greater focus on soft values management on the port authoritys website; - recruitment of a soft-values officer by the port authority.



64 The closure of many of ports cargo terminals at the West and North Harbours (top and middle left) and their transfer to the new state-of-the-art port at Vuosaari, followed by the decommissioning of the oil terminal,is in implementation of the 2002 Master Plan (middle right). This reshuffle of urban and port functions will have a dramatic impact on ports identity as a seaport city.

65 port, one of the most important seaports in Northern Europe today, is due to undergo a metamorphosis in Freight handling is to be transferred to a brand-new, state-of-the- art port area at Vuosaari, approximately 15 kilometres from the city centre. Existing terminals near the centre are to be closed to freight traffic and to be redeveloped for various non-port- related functions, including housing for 20,000 to 30,000 individuals and offices. This conversion is in implementation of the port master plans from 1992 and The disappearance of the port terminals will create space for the city to expand within its current perimeter, and it will also allow the gradual decommissioning of the railway station in Central Pasila, to the north of the city centre.

66 Residential areas will be rid of the hustle and bustle of trains and trucks, many of which are, for that matter, loaded with hazardous materials. In addition to the relocation to Vuosaari in 2008, the Laajasalo oil terminal at Kruunuvuorenranta is due to be closed down in 2010, after which this area too will be transformed into a new city district. In 2012,


68 part of the shipyard at Munkkisaari will be dismantled. In the more distant future, the opening of an undersea railway tunnel between port and Tallinn by around 2025 may impact on port activities as well. The interventions outlined above suggest that port is about to say a dramatic farewell to its port. These measures are so abrupt,structural and fundamental that one cannot but wonder what impact they will have on the relationship between the port and the city in all its dimensions. The banishment of the port from the city will fundamentally alter the economic structure, the living environment, the townscape, the tourist image, and ultimately the very identity of port. In the medium to long term, the transfer may affect public support for port activities, the psychological ties between residents and the port, and the level of political backing for the port and its expansion.

69 We shall consecutively discuss the following points: - the general issue of declining public support for port activities and the management of soft values of seaports; - the current status of port as a North European port icon; - possible courses of action to enhance ports image and identity as a port city. The ideas presented here are based on two brief fact- finding visits to port, a literature survey, similar studies relating to other ports, and the perspective on public support for seaports outlined in the book Soft Values of Seaports, published in 2006 for the purpose of providing input for the new European policy on ports and maritime affairs.

70 2 PORT, CITY AND SOCIETY: SOME EUROPEAN TRENDS The societal rejection of port activities and expansion projects is noticeable across Europe and beyond. Under the slogan Stop the Madness, represented here in a watercolour by Rudi Van Buel, campaigners have been protesting against new container docks in the port of Antwerp and the threat they pose to the village of Doel. 2.1 The negative image of seaports and the erosion of their public support Port activities and expansion projects are viewed increasingly negatively by the public and policymakers alike. Seaports are associated with all kinds of societal harm, including the destruction of picturesque villages for the sake of port expansion, the squandering of public resources amidst irrational squabbling between port cities, the pollution of the environment through shipping disasters, industry and hinterland transportation, and trafficking in counterfeit goods, drugs and illegal immigrants. Moreover, spatially and psychologically, seaports are drifting ever further away from cities and their populations, and they are becoming dehumanised through growing automation of goods handling and increasingly strict security measures. In this negative climate, it is far from uncommon for seaports and their expansion plans to be caricatured or demonised by outsiders.

71 This trend is noticeable across Europe and beyond. The societal rejection of port activities and expansion projects is often so acute that local residents and environmental campaigners join forces to combat them vehemently in the media as well as in the political and legal arenas. Many projects suffer delays or cancellation because their detrimental impact on the natural environment or on living conditions in nearby residential areas is deemed to be excessive, or insufficiently mitigated or compensated for, or procedurally inadequately handled3. Even if such objections are ultimately declared unfounded, or the protest is instigated by just a tiny minority or certain individuals, or environmental concerns are blatantly misused for private gain,

72 such almost systematic resistance against port projects is extremely harmful, a source of legal insecurity for investors, and often a cause of additional environmental damage in other areas. More than anything else, though, the contestation of port projects contributes to the generalisation of the negative image of seaports. The continuous negativism of the public is undermining political support for seaport projects, which ultimately is compromising those seaports functioning. In other words, growing societal antagonism is becoming a life- threatening, existential problem to seaports.

73 2.2 The policy response: is the remedy aggravating the condition? Port authorities and operators are today making great efforts to turn the tide, with varying degrees of success. Expansion projects are, for example, increasingly substantiated with thorough economic studies. Still, any argumentation on the part of the port community, however sound its scientific underpinning, that focuses exclusively on the (undeniable) socioeconomic importance of seaports is doomed to fall on deaf ears or to be dismissed off-hand by fanatical opponents. A monomaniacal discourse on volumes of traffic and employment figures will, in other words, do very little to win over large portions of the public. The attention that port authorities are paying to effective communications policies, to the staging of port-related events, to environmentally responsible management, and to prior deliberation with all parties through so-called stakeholder management is helpful in overcoming the worst negativism, but it will not lead to a restoration of seaports unequivocally positive societal status. For that matter, a very noticeable, at once understandable and rather worrying, development is unfolding in the relationship be

74 between seaports and cities. Increasingly commonly, entire port areas are being relocated as terminals in or near urban centres are closed down and activities transferred to new port installations outside the city perimeter. port is very much a case in point. Other, comparable projects are the construction of a large container terminal on a new artificial island near Salerno (Italy), the creation of a new port area in Bremore (Ireland) which some believe could lead to the closure of Dublin City Port, plans for a new commercial port near Nice (France), so that the existing Port Lympia could be reserved for pleasure craft, and the closure of the urban port areas in Stockholm (Sweden) after the transfer of activities to Nynäshamn, some 60 km south of the city.

75 The reasons why urban port zones are closed down or why designated port expansion areas are located far from existing urban ports are manifold. In many cases, it is policymakers intention to prevent or remedy the nuisance caused to residents or the negative impact on nature; in other instances, the potential yield of developing waterfront locations into homes and offices comes into play. Often, moving to a new port area will also enhance the efficiency and competitive strength of a port. Whatever the rationale, though, all these relocation projects have in common that they bear witness to a broad public scepticism towards the proximity of seaports. However beneficial moving may be to the local port community, what such measures boil down to is the banishment of seaports from cities, if not from society as a whole.

76 This new movement is of an entirely different nature than the various phases in the development of ports as described in Birds Anyport model. Bird explains how ports, in a series of evolutionary steps, tend to move away from the cities where they emerged to expand towards river estuaries or open sea4. The impulse for this evolution is the need for specialised terminals and space to accommodate larger vessels. While Birds successive phases unfold as a result of changing needs in port development, the current trend for port areas to be relocated is inspired by very different concerns: today, ports are succumbing to societal objections against their environmental impact and even against their presence as such. This relocation is abrupt, drastic, all-embracing and revolutionary; it represents a break with the gradual, all in all much more organic developmental model proposed by Bird. Hence, Anyports evolution would appear to end in a Banished-Port type: a port that has not distanced itself spontaneously from the city, but that has rather been exiled by society.

77 The deliberate, sometimes imposed, removal of a port from the urban fabric is almost like surgery to cut a malignancy out of an otherwise supposedly healthy body. However, a surgical interven Port, city and society: some European trends

78 Birds Anyport model (left) explains how ports gradually and more or less spontaneously moved away from city centres towards river estuaries or the open sea. Today, a Banished Port model emerges, where ports are simply exiled by society and need to be rebuilt somewhere out of sight. This artists impression of a possible new container terminal near Salerno is a perfect example of such a radical removal of ports from the urban and societal fabric.

79 2.3 Managing the soft values of seaports According to the aforementioned theory of the Soft Values of Seaports, public support for seaports can only be restored if one proceeds, on the basis of a carefully considered plan, with exploiting all their non-socioeconomic values, assets, interests and functions. These non-socioeconomic or soft values constitute the dormant capital of port authorities. A distinction can be made between material and immaterial soft values of seaports. The immaterial soft values include the significance of the port as an object of veneration, the subject of myth or legend, a place of refuge, a gateway between historical eras, a channel for goods and free trade, a catalyst for the development of the human intellect, the abode of a cosmopolitan community, and a source of artistic inspiration and civic pride. The material soft values relate to the ports function as a sensory stimulant, a collection of architectural heritage, a unique human landscape, an arena for experimentation in urban planning and architecture, a tourist attraction and recreational area.

80 Soft Values Management for Seaports, or SVMS, fits perfectly into the more general striving towards policy integration and may lead to a new balance with environmental interests, which are so often overemphasised in debates concerning the port industry. Moreover, SVMS is not an irrational concept, since it yields an economic return: not only can it improve the chances of development for the entire port apparatus, but certain initiatives, including in relation to port tourism and waterfront redevelopment, can also generate new economic activity. Ultimately, SVMS ties in closely with the increasingly prominent notion that all enterprises including seaports must assume greater Corporate Social Responsibility. An SVMS plan may incorporate the following elements: - drawing up an inventory of the soft values of seaports; - public relations development and the organisation of events;

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