2Presentation Objectives Present “The Dirty Dozen.”Provide examples from pipelines.Lead you to think of examples.Suggest some “Safety Valves.”
3Today’s Goal for YouIdentify at least three of “The Dirty Dozen” that affect you.Write down how you can address them, so they do not affect you.Tell your manager about “The Dirty Dozen” and your goal for addressing the three.Tell your manager the results in one month.
5Stress Effects Anxiety, nervousness, jumpiness Difficulty concentrating on taskFeeling overwhelmedFatigueHealth problemsMemory problemsPoor judgmentAsk if anyone has ever experienced any of these effects. The correct answer is that everyone has experienced at least one of these effects. The key part of this discussion is help people become aware of what they did as a healthy response to the stressor.
6Stress – Pipeline Example Pipeline controller who normally performed well.Makes several errors where he forgot to do a task at the correct time.Part of his “action plan” was to work with me on improving his work planning and ways to use reminders.He told me(hadn’t told others) that:He was having financial problems, andHis wife and children had left him, andHe was not sleeping much.If you have a better example for your employees, insert it here.
7Stress – Pipeline Example Pipeline operator who normally performed well.Was performing a valve inspection.Closed a manual mainline valve and shut the line down.Why?Was not concentrating on task, because of a personal problem.Mentally distracted.
8Stress Curve Model PERFORMANCE STRESS Danger High Go Go Stress So So StressPERFORMANCEDangerNo No StressCautionDangerDistressCapacityto CopeBasicJobStressorsBasicLivingStressorsLowMediumHighSTRESSYerkes-Dodson Curve (1908)Adapted by G. Dupont
9Stress – Safety Valves Be aware of the effects of stress on your work. Does your company provide educational materials?Materials are available.Discuss what is happening with someone.Ask a co-worker to check your work.Take time off; take breaks regularly.Turn off your devices, when not on duty.Eat properly, rest adequately, exercise.Plan an appropriate course of action, when stress is evident.
11Fatigue Effects Make more mistakes. Delayed reactions. Difficult to maintain attention and awareness.Not able to handle much information.Every task becomes more difficult to perform.Doesn’t want to talk or interact with peopleIrritable or bad mood.Involuntary lapses into sleep may occur.
12Fatigue – Pipeline Example During a shutdown, a crew worked 34 hours installing a new piping system.At hour 28, a laborer was trying to get two flanges aligned.He stuck his hand in the wrong place.Two fingers were cut and smashed.
13Fatigue – Pipeline Example Pipeline controllers – a few NTSB reportsEither the controllers do not react quickly to abnormal operating conditions, ORThey do not react correctly.People who work rotating shifts have the effects of fatigue.Many examples from all over the world.Fatigue in today’s world is a human problem, a socio-technical effect of the way we live.
14Fatigue – Safety Valves Get adequate amounts of sleep.8 hours each day/night for most people.Educate self on causes and cures of fatigue.Many resources on fatigue management.Get a physical check-up annually.Address any sleep disorders.Eat properly and drink plenty of fluids.Use caffeine strategically.Exercise regularly.
15Complacency occurs when people are doing routine tasks over and over again, and they do not have any problems. Remember that the risks always exist, and do not be lulled into complacency.
16Complacency Effects Letting your mind wander. Taking shortcuts and omitting steps.Fooling around or showing off.Thinking that everything will work perfectly.Working too long without a break.Taking the attitude that safety is someone else’s job.Performing a task without using the procedures or recommended personal protective equipment.Ask people if any of these effects might happen to them. Why?
17Complacency – Pipeline Example Corrective Maintenance Performed On Wrong SystemFamiliarity and complacency with the work environment allowed workers to troubleshoot an electrical system that was not isolated.Opened wrong valvePerson reported that he had performed task hundreds of times. Didn’t think about task.Did not refer to procedure, and performed task incorrectly.
18Complacency – Safety Valves Understand the human factors involved:We have a mental bias that allows our past experiences to guide present expectations.We don’t use our brains fully in the situation since our present circumstances normally match our past circumstancesWe devote our brains to more interesting parts of a task, or to a more interesting task.Recognize that “It can’t happen to me” is a wrong belief.Expect success, but be prepared for failure.Discuss the slide content.
19Complacency – Safety Valves Always practice risk assessment.Use the 5 QuestionsUse STAR with every task.Practice independent verification.Follow all policies and procedures.Train continually and review often.Create mental challenges for yourself.Sustain a questioning attitude.
20Complacency – Safety Valves Five Questions – Simple Risk AssessmentWhy am I doing this task at all?What could go wrong?How likely is it to happen?What effect could it have on me or others?What can I do about it?STARACTSTOPTHINKREVIEW
22Distractions Interruptions How can interruptions cause an error?“Multitasking is counterproductive.” (CNN.com)“Multitasking makes us stupid.” (WSJ article)There is a ‘time-cost’ to switching tasks.There is a ‘switching-cost’.One must change goals.What do I want to do now?One must change rules.What rules apply to this task?
23Distractions – Pipeline Examples Driving and Doing Other ThingsVehicle accidentsNear missesPeople talking on phones, surfing Internet, etc. and failing to notice that it is time to perform a task OR ignoring an alarm or other signal.Technician was interrupted during a task and did not return pressure switch to service. Caused damage to equipment, and an abnormal operation.
24Distractions – Control Rooms Televisions, radio, internet surfing.Talking to others in the room or on the phone.What else?What do you do about distractions?
25Distractions – Safety Valves Minimize or eliminate distractions.Ask people to be quiet and leave your area.Finish the task if possible.Complete tasks step by step.Flag or tag all uncompleted work.Use STAR.Use memory aids.Focus by practicing mindful attention.
27Pressure Demands are sometimes made for workers to: Meet unrealistic deadlines.Be multi-skilled.Do many tasks in a workday, while multitasking.Be as good or better than coworkers.Perform all tasks safely and without error.Over time or anytime, these pressures can cause performance problems.Can cause accidents and injuries.
28Pressure –ExampleFor instance, during the 36-month period from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2003, 18 workers were injured and approximately 86 others were involved in near miss events.Often pressure to “get the job done” results in actions that can permit disastrous consequences (i.e., personal injury and/or property damage).This is from a DOE report.Technicians were pressured by managers to work excessive hours to repair a pump. The repair took longer because the technicians, being fatigued, made some mistakes that caused rework.
29Pressure in Control Rooms Perform tasks when a protective device is not working properly or a safety device is inhibited.Take a shortcut in a procedure.Do things that may compromise safety or quality, for the sake of profitability.Work an extra shift or extra hours, when fatigued.Do too many tasks at once, or in a short time period.Stay at the console, when you need a break.Work in a stressful environment, even when improvements can easily be made.See if the examples given match any of these.
30Pressure – Safety Valves Don’t overwhelm yourself or others.Don’t be afraid to ask for help.Communicate your concern to your manager and coworkers.Don’t create a false sense of urgency.Don’t take shortcuts; do the job right.Say no to pressure.Develop good planning and coping skills.
32Situation AwarenessPerceive(see, hear, notice) the critical elements around you.Understand what those critical elements mean, particularly as they relate to the current task.Forecast what is going to happen in the near future.
33Lack of Awareness - Pipeline Example Excavation damage to pipelines“Didn’t know a pipeline was here.”“Thought the pipeline was a few feet over.”“Didn’t think I would damage the line by digging with the hoe.”
34Lack of Awareness - Pipeline Example Controller has no change in display, but field equipment has changed.Received brief explanation of change.Is “aware” he cannot rely on display as “accurate.”Relying on Controller to maintain “awareness of change” and make switch correctly.Controller did not make switch correctly.
35Lack of Awareness Safety Valves Learn the principles and practices of situation awareness.Pay attention to your surroundings.Create a “safety zone.”Recognize that jobs and the requirements are complex.Understand that vigilance can deteriorate while performing a task.Learn and use human performance principles. (next slide lists them)
36Human Performance Principles People are fallible and even the best make mistakes.Error-likely situations are predictable, manageable, and preventable.Individual behavior is influenced by organizational and job factors.People achieve good performance largely due to encouragement and reinforcement received from managers and co-workers.Events can be avoided through an understanding of the reasons mistakes occur and application of the lessons learned from past events.
38Lack of AssertivenessIn group settings, some people are hesitant to express their opinions.Affects work planning, hazard analysis, safety concerns.New employees may not ask relevant questions, even when uncertain.Can cause accidents, rework, quality issues.Some employees will not contradict managers or experienced employees.
39Lack of Assertiveness Example Younger employee knew more experienced employee was not following company requirements, BUT did not question …AND nothing happened for months, until a tank overflow.Controller did not question temporary operating directions, which led to an abnormal operating condition.
40Lack of Assertiveness – Safety Valves Practice your values and beliefs.Practice the company’s values and beliefs.Refuse to compromise company and personal standards.Ask for what you need.Don’t be afraid to express your opinion and ideas.Recognize your contributions matter.Learn how to be assertive on the job.
42Lack of Communication Lack of communication affects performance: Misunderstandings occur between workers.Hurt feelings lead to petty disagreements.Job doesn’t get done or is delayed.Anger may affect individuals or groups.Loss of trust and respect.Near misses or incidents may result.Performance of individuals and groups suffers.
43Lack of Communication Example Field technician did not inform controller of a communication device failure, and the controller was not receiving accurate information. Abnormal event!Scheduler did not properly inform operator of change and product was contaminated.Many, many, many other examples.
44Lack of Communication – Safety Valves Practice 3-way communication.Write down important information.Always conduct briefings before, during, and after jobs.Use the Management of Change process(even for small changes in the control room and elsewhere).Provide the right information to the right people at the right time.Don’t tell someone something when they are in the middle of doing something else.Give people your full attention when listening.Expect people’s full attention when talking.
46Lack of Knowledge Factors contributing to lack of knowledge: Inadequate trainingNew equipmentProcedures and regulationsNew technology.Provide adequate training and reference materials.Use resources like the expertise of other people on shift, other people, and the manufacturer’s manual.Teamwork and communication help to reduce the potential error due to the lack of knowledge.Address all changes, including temporary ones.
47Lack of Knowledge Example Technician did not know the procedure for maintenance on electrical equipment, BUT did the task AND was injured.Operator did not know how to locate the pipeline and marked its location incorrectly, AND line got damaged.Controller did not receive training, after a change in operating procedures, AND product was contaminated.
48Lack of Knowledge – Safety Valves Get the necessary training and practice.Use procedures and manuals.Don’t do a task if you do not know how to do it safely and correctly.Ask someone who knows.Don’t let pride get in the way.Be a lifelong learner.Learn from mistakes.
51Lack of ResourcesWhen supplies are not available, employees spend time trying to find substitutes.When parts are not available, delays are necessary while a part is ordered, made, or retrofitted.Employees are tempted to omit steps that require a missing resource.Employees may “guess” at a solution, if the correct resource is not available.
52Lack of Resources Example Most pipeline companies are operating with fewer employees than they had a few years ago.The result is that employees are doing more tasks, driving more miles, working more overtime.Causes stress, pressure, fatigue.This can lead to errors, accidents, injuries.Most pipeline companies are reducing expense budgets.Fewer spare parts and supplies are available.Fewer employees are available.Fewer dollars are available for training.
53Lack of Resources – Safety Valves Have the correct people complement for the schedules required to operate the pipeline.Assess needs for new parts before beginning a job.Purchase and maintain critical parts inventory.Don’t compromise standards if the correct resources are lacking.Don’t use work arounds if you don’t have the proper parts or supplies.
55Lack of TeamworkRoles and responsibilities, if not clear, cause confusion and frustration.Teamwork problems lead to performance issues.Decisions are made by one or two people in the group, without the team’s knowledge.Problems and underlying issues may not be addressed.Trust and respect are compromised.Cynicism and sarcasm are present.
56Lack of Teamwork Example Tank Volume Record Keeping – Employee purposely recorded wrong volume to cover up his mistake. He got fired for lying.
57Good Teamwork ExampleTank Fire – When lightning caused a tank fire, the regular drills with employees and local fire departments proved that teamwork and preparation was worthwhile.
58What About Control Rooms? Is teamwork necessary?On shiftBetween shiftsWith field operationsWith support functionsWith managementDoes teamwork exist, in your control room?What makes your team successful?
59Lack of Teamwork – Safety Valves Clarify the team goals.Have an effective team plan.Clearly define the roles.Clear communication.Reward good team behavior.Punish poor team behavior.Use well-defined decision procedures.Balanced participation.Establish ground rules.Be aware of the group interactions.
61Norms Norms can be positive or negative. Norms exist for a reason Use procedures or not.Completing checklists or pencil whipping.Naps encouraged or punished.Norms exist for a reasonRestaurants have signs requiring employees to wash their hands. Why?Sign in Nashville restaurant says “wash hands twice.” Why?Norms are set by the employeesPipeline example on next slide
62Norms Example “Do not shut the pipeline down for any reason.” OR “Every employee has the authority to shut the pipeline down if he or she suspects a problem.”Which one of those is closer to the norm for your company?
63Norms – Safety Valves Recognize norms where we work and live. Work on removing bad habits and behaviors.Accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative.Don’t use shortcuts.Abide by standards and requirements.Be a good example for others.Follow policies and procedures.Keep in mind the “old way” may not be the correct way.
65The Dirty Dozen Lack of Assertiveness Lack of Communication Lack of KnowledgeLack of ResourcesLack of TeamworkNorms
66Today’s Goal for YouIdentify at least three of “The Dirty Dozen” that affect you.Write down how you can address them, so they do not affect you.Tell your manager about “The Dirty Dozen” and your goal.Tell your manager the results in one month.
67Presentation Objectives Suggest a goal for you.Provide an introduction to human factors.Present “The Dirty Dozen.”Provide examples from pipelines.Lead you to think of examples.Suggest some “Safety Valves.”