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Presentation Objectives Present The Dirty Dozen. Provide examples from pipelines. Lead you to think of examples. Suggest some Safety Valves.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Objectives Present The Dirty Dozen. Provide examples from pipelines. Lead you to think of examples. Suggest some Safety Valves."— Presentation transcript:


2 Presentation Objectives Present The Dirty Dozen. Provide examples from pipelines. Lead you to think of examples. Suggest some Safety Valves.

3 Todays Goal for You Identify at least three of The Dirty Dozen that affect you. Write down how you can address them, so they do not affect you. Tell your manager about The Dirty Dozen and your goal for addressing the three. Tell your manager the results in one month.


5 Anxiety, nervousness, jumpiness Difficulty concentrating on task Feeling overwhelmed Fatigue Health problems Memory problems Poor judgment Stress Effects

6 Pipeline controller who normally performed well. Makes several errors where he forgot to do a task at the correct time. Part of his action plan was to work with me on improving his work planning and ways to use reminders. He told me(hadnt told others) that: – He was having financial problems, and – His wife and children had left him, and – He was not sleeping much. Stress – Pipeline Example

7 Pipeline operator who normally performed well. Was performing a valve inspection. Closed a manual mainline valve and shut the line down. Why? Was not concentrating on task, because of a personal problem. Mentally distracted. Stress – Pipeline Example

8 LowMediumHigh STRESS PERFORMANCE High Basic Living Stressors Basic Job Stressors Capacity to Cope Caution Danger Distress Yerkes-Dodson Curve (1908) Adapted by G. Dupont Danger Go Go Stress So So Stress No No Stress Stress Curve Model

9 Be aware of the effects of stress on your work. –Does your company provide educational materials? –Materials are available. Discuss what is happening with someone. Ask a co-worker to check your work. Take time off; take breaks regularly. Turn off your devices, when not on duty. Eat properly, rest adequately, exercise. Plan an appropriate course of action, when stress is evident. Stress – Safety Valves


11 Make more mistakes. Delayed reactions. Difficult to maintain attention and awareness. Not able to handle much information. Every task becomes more difficult to perform. Doesnt want to talk or interact with people Irritable or bad mood. Involuntary lapses into sleep may occur. Fatigue Effects

12 During a shutdown, a crew worked 34 hours installing a new piping system. At hour 28, a laborer was trying to get two flanges aligned. He stuck his hand in the wrong place. Two fingers were cut and smashed. Fatigue – Pipeline Example

13 Pipeline controllers – a few NTSB reports Either the controllers do not react quickly to abnormal operating conditions, OR They do not react correctly. People who work rotating shifts have the effects of fatigue. –Many examples from all over the world. –Fatigue in todays world is a human problem, a socio-technical effect of the way we live. Fatigue – Pipeline Example

14 Get adequate amounts of sleep. –8 hours each day/night for most people. Educate self on causes and cures of fatigue. –Many resources on fatigue management. Get a physical check-up annually. –Address any sleep disorders. Eat properly and drink plenty of fluids. –Use caffeine strategically. Exercise regularly. Fatigue – Safety Valves


16 Letting your mind wander. Taking shortcuts and omitting steps. Fooling around or showing off. Thinking that everything will work perfectly. Working too long without a break. Taking the attitude that safety is someone elses job. Performing a task without using the procedures or recommended personal protective equipment. Complacency Effects

17 Corrective Maintenance Performed On Wrong System –Familiarity and complacency with the work environment allowed workers to troubleshoot an electrical system that was not isolated. Opened wrong valve –Person reported that he had performed task hundreds of times. Didnt think about task. Did not refer to procedure, and performed task incorrectly. Complacency – Pipeline Example

18 Understand the human factors involved: –We have a mental bias that allows our past experiences to guide present expectations. –We dont use our brains fully in the situation since our present circumstances normally match our past circumstances –We devote our brains to more interesting parts of a task, or to a more interesting task. Recognize that It cant happen to me is a wrong belief. Expect success, but be prepared for failure. Complacency – Safety Valves

19 Always practice risk assessment. –Use the 5 Questions Use STAR with every task. Practice independent verification. Follow all policies and procedures. Train continually and review often. Create mental challenges for yourself. Sustain a questioning attitude. Complacency – Safety Valves

20 Five Questions – Simple Risk Assessment 1.Why am I doing this task at all? 2.What could go wrong? 3.How likely is it to happen? 4.What effect could it have on me or others? 5.What can I do about it? STAR Complacency – Safety Valves R EVIEW S TOP T HINK A CT


22 Interruptions –How can interruptions cause an error? Multitasking is counterproductive. ( Multitasking makes us stupid. (WSJ article) –There is a time-cost to switching tasks. –There is a switching-cost. –One must change goals. What do I want to do now? –One must change rules. What rules apply to this task? Distractions

23 Driving and Doing Other Things –Vehicle accidents –Near misses People talking on phones, surfing Internet, etc. and failing to notice that it is time to perform a task OR ignoring an alarm or other signal. Technician was interrupted during a task and did not return pressure switch to service. Caused damage to equipment, and an abnormal operation. Distractions – Pipeline Examples

24 Televisions, radio, internet surfing. Talking to others in the room or on the phone. What else? What do you do about distractions? Distractions – Control Rooms

25 Minimize or eliminate distractions. Ask people to be quiet and leave your area. Finish the task if possible. Complete tasks step by step. Flag or tag all uncompleted work. Use STAR. Use memory aids. Focus by practicing mindful attention. Distractions – Safety Valves


27 Demands are sometimes made for workers to: –Meet unrealistic deadlines. –Be multi-skilled. –Do many tasks in a workday, while multitasking. –Be as good or better than coworkers. –Perform all tasks safely and without error. Over time or anytime, these pressures can cause performance problems. Can cause accidents and injuries. Pressure

28 For instance, during the 36-month period from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2003, 18 workers were injured and approximately 86 others were involved in near miss events. –Often pressure to get the job done results in actions that can permit disastrous consequences (i.e., personal injury and/or property damage). –This is from a DOE report. Technicians were pressured by managers to work excessive hours to repair a pump. The repair took longer because the technicians, being fatigued, made some mistakes that caused rework. Pressure –Example

29 Perform tasks when a protective device is not working properly or a safety device is inhibited. Take a shortcut in a procedure. Do things that may compromise safety or quality, for the sake of profitability. Work an extra shift or extra hours, when fatigued. Do too many tasks at once, or in a short time period. Stay at the console, when you need a break. Work in a stressful environment, even when improvements can easily be made. Pressure in Control Rooms

30 Dont overwhelm yourself or others. Dont be afraid to ask for help. Communicate your concern to your manager and coworkers. Dont create a false sense of urgency. Dont take shortcuts; do the job right. Say no to pressure. Develop good planning and coping skills. Pressure – Safety Valves


32 1.Perceive(see, hear, notice) the critical elements around you. 2.Understand what those critical elements mean, particularly as they relate to the current task. 3.Forecast what is going to happen in the near future. Situation Awareness

33 Excavation damage to pipelines –Didnt know a pipeline was here. –Thought the pipeline was a few feet over. –Didnt think I would damage the line by digging with the hoe. Lack of Awareness - Pipeline Example

34 Controller has no change in display, but field equipment has changed. – Received brief explanation of change. – Is aware he cannot rely on display as accurate. –Relying on Controller to maintain awareness of change and make switch correctly. –Controller did not make switch correctly. Lack of Awareness - Pipeline Example

35 Learn the principles and practices of situation awareness. Pay attention to your surroundings. –Create a safety zone. Recognize that jobs and the requirements are complex. Understand that vigilance can deteriorate while performing a task. Learn and use human performance principles. (next slide lists them) Lack of Awareness Safety Valves

36 Human Performance Principles 1.People are fallible and even the best make mistakes. 2.Error-likely situations are predictable, manageable, and preventable. 3.Individual behavior is influenced by organizational and job factors. 4.People achieve good performance largely due to encouragement and reinforcement received from managers and co-workers. 5.Events can be avoided through an understanding of the reasons mistakes occur and application of the lessons learned from past events.


38 In group settings, some people are hesitant to express their opinions. –Affects work planning, hazard analysis, safety concerns. New employees may not ask relevant questions, even when uncertain. –Can cause accidents, rework, quality issues. Some employees will not contradict managers or experienced employees. Lack of Assertiveness

39 Younger employee knew more experienced employee was not following company requirements, BUT did not question …AND nothing happened for months, until a tank overflow. Controller did not question temporary operating directions, which led to an abnormal operating condition. Lack of Assertiveness Example

40 Practice your values and beliefs. Practice the companys values and beliefs. Refuse to compromise company and personal standards. Ask for what you need. Dont be afraid to express your opinion and ideas. Recognize your contributions matter. Learn how to be assertive on the job. Lack of Assertiveness – Safety Valves


42 Lack of communication affects performance: –Misunderstandings occur between workers. –Hurt feelings lead to petty disagreements. –Job doesnt get done or is delayed. –Anger may affect individuals or groups. –Loss of trust and respect. –Near misses or incidents may result. –Performance of individuals and groups suffers. Lack of Communication

43 Field technician did not inform controller of a communication device failure, and the controller was not receiving accurate information. Abnormal event! Scheduler did not properly inform operator of change and product was contaminated. Many, many, many other examples. Lack of Communication Example

44 Practice 3-way communication. Write down important information. Always conduct briefings before, during, and after jobs. Use the Management of Change process(even for small changes in the control room and elsewhere). Provide the right information to the right people at the right time. Dont tell someone something when they are in the middle of doing something else. Give people your full attention when listening. Expect peoples full attention when talking. Lack of Communication – Safety Valves


46 Factors contributing to lack of knowledge: –Inadequate training –New equipment –Procedures and regulations –New technology. Provide adequate training and reference materials. Use resources like the expertise of other people on shift, other people, and the manufacturers manual. Teamwork and communication help to reduce the potential error due to the lack of knowledge. Address all changes, including temporary ones. Lack of Knowledge

47 Technician did not know the procedure for maintenance on electrical equipment, BUT did the task AND was injured. Operator did not know how to locate the pipeline and marked its location incorrectly, AND line got damaged. Controller did not receive training, after a change in operating procedures, AND product was contaminated. Lack of Knowledge Example

48 Get the necessary training and practice. Use procedures and manuals. Dont do a task if you do not know how to do it safely and correctly. Ask someone who knows. Dont let pride get in the way. Be a lifelong learner. Learn from mistakes. Lack of Knowledge – Safety Valves



51 When supplies are not available, employees spend time trying to find substitutes. When parts are not available, delays are necessary while a part is ordered, made, or retrofitted. Employees are tempted to omit steps that require a missing resource. Employees may guess at a solution, if the correct resource is not available. Lack of Resources

52 Most pipeline companies are operating with fewer employees than they had a few years ago. –The result is that employees are doing more tasks, driving more miles, working more overtime. –Causes stress, pressure, fatigue. –This can lead to errors, accidents, injuries. Most pipeline companies are reducing expense budgets. –Fewer spare parts and supplies are available. –Fewer employees are available. –Fewer dollars are available for training. Lack of Resources Example

53 Have the correct people complement for the schedules required to operate the pipeline. Assess needs for new parts before beginning a job. Purchase and maintain critical parts inventory. Dont compromise standards if the correct resources are lacking. Dont use work arounds if you dont have the proper parts or supplies. Lack of Resources – Safety Valves


55 Roles and responsibilities, if not clear, cause confusion and frustration. Teamwork problems lead to performance issues. Decisions are made by one or two people in the group, without the teams knowledge. Problems and underlying issues may not be addressed. Trust and respect are compromised. Cynicism and sarcasm are present. Lack of Teamwork

56 Lack of Teamwork Example Tank Volume Record Keeping – Employee purposely recorded wrong volume to cover up his mistake. He got fired for lying.

57 Good Teamwork Example Tank Fire – When lightning caused a tank fire, the regular drills with employees and local fire departments proved that teamwork and preparation was worthwhile.

58 Is teamwork necessary? –On shift –Between shifts –With field operations –With support functions –With management Does teamwork exist, in your control room? What makes your team successful? What About Control Rooms?

59 Clarify the team goals. Have an effective team plan. Clearly define the roles. Clear communication. Reward good team behavior. Punish poor team behavior. Use well-defined decision procedures. Balanced participation. Establish ground rules. Be aware of the group interactions. Lack of Teamwork – Safety Valves


61 Norms can be positive or negative. –Use procedures or not. –Completing checklists or pencil whipping. –Naps encouraged or punished. Norms exist for a reason –Restaurants have signs requiring employees to wash their hands. Why? –Sign in Nashville restaurant says wash hands twice. Why? Norms are set by the employees –Pipeline example on next slide Norms

62 Do not shut the pipeline down for any reason. OR Every employee has the authority to shut the pipeline down if he or she suspects a problem. –Which one of those is closer to the norm for your company? Norms Example

63 Recognize norms where we work and live. Work on removing bad habits and behaviors. Accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative. Dont use shortcuts. Abide by standards and requirements. Be a good example for others. Follow policies and procedures. Keep in mind the old way may not be the correct way. Norms – Safety Valves

64 The Dirty Dozen Stress Fatigue Complacency Distractions Pressure Lack of Awareness

65 The Dirty Dozen Lack of Assertiveness Lack of Communication Lack of Knowledge Lack of Resources Lack of Teamwork Norms

66 Todays Goal for You Identify at least three of The Dirty Dozen that affect you. Write down how you can address them, so they do not affect you. Tell your manager about The Dirty Dozen and your goal. Tell your manager the results in one month.

67 Presentation Objectives Suggest a goal for you. Provide an introduction to human factors. Present The Dirty Dozen. Provide examples from pipelines. Lead you to think of examples. Suggest some Safety Valves.

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