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Responsible Conduct of Research Involving Animals James Hicks Associate Vice Chancellor for Research University of California, Irvine.

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Presentation on theme: "Responsible Conduct of Research Involving Animals James Hicks Associate Vice Chancellor for Research University of California, Irvine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Responsible Conduct of Research Involving Animals James Hicks Associate Vice Chancellor for Research University of California, Irvine

2 Outline Animal use definition and examples History of animal welfare regulations Ethical and humane use of animals Requirements before working with animals

3 Definition of Animal Use Any live, vertebrate animal used or intended for use in research, research training, experimentation, or biological testing or for related purposes

4 Why Use Animals in Medicine, Biology and Biomedical Research? Animals as spare parts Animals as factories Animals as models for human disease Animals as test subjects Animals to study basic physiological principles and integration of systems Evolutionary and comparative physiology Novel solutions to complex problems Bioinformatics, comparative genomics, proteomics, metabolomics Systems biology Animals for the study of animals and the environment Conservation biology Ecological interactions and community structure Veterinary medicine Animals to study basic principles in biology Evolutionary biology Experimental evolution Population genetics Population genomics Animal behavior Animals for the study of disease Virology and viral evolution

5 Benefits of Animal Research PenicillinMice Blood Transfusions Dogs Tuberculosis Medicine Guinea pigs Meningitis Vaccine Mice Kidney Transplants Dogs and Pig s Breast Cancer Treatments Mice, Rats and Dogs Asthma Inhalers Guinea Pigs and Rabbits Polio Vaccine Mice Insulin for Diabetics Dogs Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Monkeys

6 Benefits Continued… Vaccine for Smallpox Vaccine for Anthrax Rabies Vaccine Typhoid Vaccine Cholera Vaccine Treatment for Beriberi Treatment for Rickets Corneal Transplants Local Anaesthetics Discovery of Vitamin C Canine Distemper Vaccine Coronary Bypass Operation German Measles Vaccine MMR Vaccine Antidepressants and Antipsychotic CT Scanning for Improved Diagnosis Chemotherapy for Leukaemia Medicines to Treat Ulcers Inhaled Asthma Medication Combined Therapy for HIV infection Medicines for Type 2 Diabetes Cervical Caner Antibodies Bird Flu Vaccine Malaria Vaccine Modern Anaesthetics Tetanus Vaccine Diphtheria Vaccine AnticoagulantsStreptomycin Kidney Dialysis Whooping cough Vaccine Heart Lung Machine Hip replacements Cardiac Pacemakers High Blood Pressure Medicines Replacements of Heart Valves Chlorpromazine Psychiatric Medicine MRI Scanning for improved Diagnosis Prenatal Corticosteroids for Premature Babies Treatment for River Blindness Life Support for premature Babies Medicines to control Transplant Rejection Hepatitis B Vaccine Leprosy Treatment Oral and Inhaled Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes Angiogenesis Inhibitors for Cancer and Blindness Gene Therapy for Muscular Dystrophy Alzheimers Vaccine

7 US Yearly Benefits of Animal Research 450,000Prescriptions for anabolic (growth) hormones 1 520,000Heart bypass operations 2 1,500,000Prescribed for Erythropoietin (for Anaemia) 3 34,000,000Anticoagulants dispensed 4 95,000,000Prescriptions for asthma 5 150,000,000Prescriptions for antibiotics 6 1. Source: IMS Health, IMS National Prescription Audit TM, 2/ Source: IMS Health, ClinicalPlus 3. Source: IMS Health, IMS National Sales Perspectives TM, 2/ Source: IMS Health, IMS National Prescription Audit TM, 2/ Source: IMS Health, IMS National Prescription Audit TM, 2/ US Center for Disease Control and Prevention

8 Veterinary advances Vaccines developed to protect pets, farm animals, working animals and animals in the wild

9 The Numbers…

10 Numbers in Perspective

11 Pain - The Percentages Some Pain, No Anesthesia This is only the case when anaesthesia (or other pain relief) would have affected results e.g., when testing another pain relief drug

12 Examples of Animal Use at UCI development of new therapies for humans and animals pre-clinical drug/device trials classes to teach surgical and other medical techniques behavioral studies tissue harvest for in-vitro studies comparative and evolutionary studies

13 Animal Rights Animals and man share equal rights-- personhood for animals All sentient beings deserve equal moral consideration Animal-based research is never justified, nor is pet ownership, food or fiber production, etc. A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy. Theyre all animals. Ingrid Newkirk, PETA Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare

14 Animal Welfare Animals and man are not equal, animals do not have the same rights as people Stewardship: Man has an obligation to protect the welfare of animals (ie: provide food and shelter, limit pain and suffering, treat when injured, etc.) Foundation of contemporary animal welfare regulations and guidelines Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare

15 Humane Standards Milestones

16 1966



19 Life Magazine Raid of a Baltimore, MD animal dealer by Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) 29 charges of animal cruelty brought against Lester Brown Congress put forth eight bills to outlaw inhumane treatment of animals

20 Pet Protection Act 1966: Congress enacted the Pet Protection Act Precursor to todays Animal Welfare Act Protected against theft of pets by research dealers Gave authority to USDA to enforce and administer the Act Provided protection to dogs, cats, rabbits, monkeys, guinea pigs and hamsters

21 Pet Protection Act (contd) Established humane standards for treatment of animals Set licensing requirements for animal dealers Required annual USDA inspections of dealers and research institutions

22 1985 Animal Welfare Act Amendment Establishment of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Requirements for veterinary consult and oversight Requirements for canine exercise and non-human primate psychological enrichment Requirements for consideration of alternatives to animal use and painful procedures and avoidance of unnecessary duplication of already-conducted studies

23 Humane Standards Milestones

24 USDA Regulations Set requirements for committee (IACUC) composition and function Provide performance standards for: veterinary care animal husbandry animal transportation Covers all warm-blooded animals excludes rats, mice and birds

25 NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Health Research Extension Act is the legislative mandate for Public Health Service (PHS) policy Covers all vertebrate animals NIH funded institutions must adhere to the PHS Policy Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare is responsible for assuring compliance with PHS policy

26 Key Elements of the Federal Regulations Justify why animals are necessary Minimize pain and distress Personnel must be qualified to perform their duties Provide appropriate husbandry and care Use of appropriate euthanasia methods

27 Ethical Guidance 1996 NASA Principles for Ethical Care & Use of Animals: Sundowner Report Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W. M. Russell and R. L. Burch, 1959

28 NASA Principles - Sundowner Report Respect for Life All living creatures deserve respect Societal Benefit Some valuable return in exchange for the sacrifice of the animals life Non-maleficience Do no harm Pain, distress and discomfort to the animals must be minimized

29 Principles of Humane Experimental Technique The 3 Rs Replacement Use of live animals as the research model should be replaced if possible Refinement Procedures should be refined to minimize pain, distress and discomfort Reduction Number of animals should be reduced to the minimum necessary to achieve scientific significance without increasing pain and distress

30 Refinement Better living conditions for animals Minimising pain wherever possible Better training for animal technicians

31 Replacement In Vitro Testing Computer Modelling MRI Scanning Micro dosing

32 Reduction Re-evaluating minimum numbers of animals for statistical significance Methods allowing multiple procedures on single animals Better designed experiments to reduce numbers

33 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Campus committee charged with oversight of UCIs animal program Member Composition: Faculty with animal expertise Attending Veterinarian Non-scientific member Unaffiliated member Biosafety officer

34 The IACUCs Role Review and approve activities involving animals at UCI (protocol review) Review the animal program and inspect all facilities every 6 months Review concerns involving animal use Investigate issues of non-compliance Report to regulatory agencies

35 Why Do We Review Protocols? The protocol is… The written documentation of all procedures to be performed on live animals The means by which adherence to the federal animal welfare regulations is assessed The document that confirms the ethical treatment of animals used in the research

36 What Activities Require Review? Any live, vertebrate animal used or intended for use in research, research training, experimentation, or biological testing or for related purposes. -PHS Policy Definition:

37 IACUC Protocol Review Rationale for the use of animals Justification of the species and number of animals Conduct of experiments Unnecessary duplication of experiments Appropriate sedation, analgesia, anesthesia Adequate training of personnel

38 The Ethical Bottom Line The use of animals is a privilege, not a right Society grants permission to use animals with the expectation that health benefits may be derived the benefits to society outweigh the adverse effects imposed on individual animals (discovery and new knowledge)

39 Animal Welfare Regulations, Policies & Guidelines USDA AWRs-- Title 9 CFR, Chapter 1 USDA Animal Care Policies OLAW PHS Policy (1986) The Guide (NRC--8th Ed.) 2000 Report of AVMA Panel on Euthanasia AAALAC, Intl. Accreditation Standards

40 Requirements before Working with Animals Be sure the IACUC approves you to work with animals The Lead Researcher must submit a modification request to add students to their protocols Complete the animal tutorial Complete a Qualifications of Personnel Complete a Work Health History form for EH&S Occupational Health Program

41 Requirements (contd) Read the approved protocol Ensure the procedures you will perform are approved by the IACUC New procedures? LR should file a modification request and wait for IACUC approval

42 RGS On-Line Tutorial Fulfills a federal investigator education requirement Is required for all personnel working with animals Requires log-in with a UCINetID and password Covers core concepts of animal use Not sure if you taken the animal tutorial? Check the tutorial verification database

43 Lead Researcher Responsibilities Obtain all required approvals prior to commencing the research; follow IACUC approved procedures Ensure all personnel are trained to handle animals and perform procedures Make no changes to the approved protocol without first having submitted those changes for review and approval by the IACUC

44 Responsibilities (continued) Acquire or procure all animals thorough ULAR Obtain annual renewals and 3-year renewal in order to continue working with animals when protocols expire, all animal work must stop faculty & staff can access IACUC protocol information via the web Promptly report adverse events or problems to a ULAR Vet and the IACUC



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