Presentation on theme: "1 IS6600 - 11 Green IT. 2 Introduction What kind of image does green IT bring to mind? –Minimise negative environmental impact? –Maximise energy and algorithmic."— Presentation transcript:
2 Introduction What kind of image does green IT bring to mind? –Minimise negative environmental impact? –Maximise energy and algorithmic efficiency? –Maximise product lifetime? –Promote recyclability / biodegradability? –Minimise CO 2 emissions? –Carbon calculators, emissions, footprints?
3 Motives Why are organisations bothering to do this? –Economic incentives? –Moral incentives? Who cares? –Shareholders? –Customers / Consumers? –Governments? Are there hidden agendas here? –Or simply preparations for future legislation?
4 Positive Consequences of Green IT Practices Murugesan, 2008
5 Existing Green Work Practices Telecommuting (work from home) Virtual teams (work across space and time) Videoconferencing (not travelling to meetings) Email (not sending letters) Paper-less or free offices! (no printers) Reduced electrical power consumption in new PCs, servers, data centres Use of low energy peripherals –LCDs use less power than CRT monitors Cloud computing (share resources)
6 Telecommuting Working at home –AT&T increased the number of sales people working from home; 15-20% more time with customers, saving US$550M. –IBM saved US$100M in one US unit through telecommuting. –Perkin-Elmer encouraged telecommuting and shut 35 branch offices altogether. –Air conditioning (hot and cold) and lighting account for 70% of a buildings energy consumption. But, it only makes a major difference if corporate offices get smaller or disappear. If the office is unused/empty, there is less effect.
7 Virtual Teams Are characterised by –Distributed members (city, region, country) –Longitudinal tasks (days to months) –A strong need for Collaboration, Cooperation & Control But not all people like to work like this – and not all organisations permit such work Further, there can be serious barriers to effective virtual team work
8 Humans Prefer Proximity… Biologically we are coded for it Food tastes better when eaten with others Our blood pressure rises and heart beat quickens when close to others We conform more when with others than when alone Social habits are often group related – cohesive groups sit together, socialise, …
9 MROs Regional Software Sales Sales Managers & Executives spread around the SE Asia / Greater China Region Living in one place, but responsible for a broad area (e.g. TW+HK+MO+HI or SG+MY or GD) No office space provided – work from home, road, i-café, hotel, airport, … Boss is in Shanghai – see him once a year, or less. Colleagues, data, information are virtually there with Lotus SameTime or MS Groove.
10 MRO – It Works, but… Success depends on –The right technology, people, attitude Success involves –A new style of work, thinking, sense of responsibility Success is measured with –Results, sales … not hours or seniority A successful culture has to be created and maintained So, it can be green, but green may not be for everyone
11 Boeing-Rocketdyne Task: To build rockets 100 times cheaper and get them to market 10 times faster. The experts: It cannot be done! The team: 8 people who had never worked together; 10 months; max 15% of each members time on this task. Outcome: success on all accounts
12 How? By managing their knowledge virtually via a set of protocols By restructuring their work to fit the virtual environment without reducing their ability to be creative –Shared understanding of the problem –Frequent (virtual) interaction & discussion –Rapid creation (and discarding) of information All info shared online with all members all the time
13 And the Realisation that… Collaborative Technologies are Knowledge Management Technologies But They can also be Knowledge Overload Technologies!
14 So, the role of IT was to bring order to the chaos & overload 89 Virtual Meetings using Internet Notebook – a custom designed collaborative technology to support discussions – 651 entries – supplemented with audio+tele-conferencing –Anytime, anywhere access –Create, comment, reference-link, search, sort all entries Sketches, snapshots, hyperlinks, text, templates, e- whiteboard –Coordination protocols to govern CT use Project Vault – file repository, with shared access for team members
15 Technology Support Globally accessible web-based resources –eRoom, SameTime, Groove, GSS, Wiki, IM,… Audio & Video Conferencing Email; EDI: Electronic Data Interchange IOS: Interorganisational Systems e.g. TradeLink connecting trading clients with: –Banks, insurance, govt depts, trade agents, port authorities, customs & excise, shipping companies, etc
16 Technology CSFs Speed of connection (inc. bandwidth) Freedom of access to information –Internet censorship of key public resources Functionality and Ease of Use Security, Privacy and Integrity Adapting the technology to fit the teams needs –Are we using the technology as planned by its designers, or are we adapting it, and how effective is it in consequence?
17 What Plans are in the Pipeline? IBM reports that leading companies are beginning to capture & report energy, water, waste and GHG emissions information so as to: –Discover what information is needed, at what frequency, and in whose hands – so as to drive change. –Ensure that the right investments are being made to meet long-term commitments IBM suggests that smarter companies will track this kind of information on a daily, real-time basis and send it to "smarter" people who are trained and rewarded to drive continuous improvement.
18 Green Sigma TM : IBMs Own Strategy GreenSigma.org –the adaption of Lean Six Sigma to environmental and climate protection –The Green Sigma Dashboard for Energy proactively monitors KPI data, alerts and trends, and enables drill-down analysis… –The Green Sigma Dashboard for Water monitors KPI data, alerts and trends to drive Water related benefits
20 IBM – Water Reduction Challenge Reduce water consumption to reduce operating cost and minimize environmental impact Leverage end-to-end data acquisition, storage and visualization techniques to monitor water usage and improve efficiency Approach Water usage broken down by process and managed through key process indicators Implement data collection and storage infrastructure: sensors, IT network and servers Statistical process control techniques used to continually analyze vast amounts of operational data and present information in efficient, concise interface
21 Power Consumption Power to run applications –Day to day use in the office Power to create computer components –Electricity used in the manufacturing process Power to run office systems –Air-conditioning, lighting, lifts, etc.
22 Algorithmic Efficiency An efficient computer programme will get the work done quicker and with less power consumption than an inefficient programme When you run a search on Google, you are instructing Googles servers to process some code – which requires power and generates CO 2. –One estimate from Harvard put this at 7g of CO 2 per search –Google thinks only 0.2g CO 2 per search. –Whatever, but think how many searches there are per day!!! 1 tonne = 1 million grammes
23 Product Longevity The power needed to manufacture all of the components in a computer is considerable Gartner estimates that it can be 70% of the total power use in a products lifetime! So, extending the life of a product means that the same power lasts longer Upgrading a component consumes much less power than buying a new product
24 Product Disposal & Recyclability New, more efficient products are nice, but what about the cost of disposing the old product? About 65% of all computers made worldwide in the next five years will be disposed in landfills. The UN Environment Program (www.unep.org) estimates that 20-50 million tons of e-waste are generated worldwide each year. This e-waste is often exported –to less developed countries (e.g. China) where environmental legislation is less strict
25 End-of-life Product Management Keep old electronic products out of the domestic/municipal waste sector Encourage reuse of components while there is still value –This constitutes a reverse supply chain (RSC) –But it is complex to determine the value of the bits and pieces in this RSC Refurbishment and reuse? Dismantle and recycle as spare parts? Dispose?
26 RSC Take back Programme Collection Centre Reutilisation Centre Collection Centre Take back programme Products at end of lease or life, or never used Remanufacture Products Dismantle for Service Parts Recycle Components Disposal Demand for parts
27 Xerox Many green initiatives –Reduce, reuse, recycle When an old photocopier is replaced, all reusable parts are reused in the same customers new photocopier Toner cartridges always reused –Did you notice that CityU encourages recycling of toner cartridges? In future, no toner cartridges at all – solid ink sticks instead!
28 Carbon: Emissions, Calculators, Footprints Power consumption is the primary source of CO 2 from IT use. However, IT-supported communications, meetings, etc. mean that people dont need to travel – so IT use can contribute to CO 2 emission reduction from cars, trains, planes. Zero CO 2 is impossible – after all, we breathe it out! But CO 2 can be reduced.
29 Carbon Footprint The total amount/weight of CO 2 caused by an organization, event, product or person There are various ways to calculate a carbon footprint – and there are standard metrics for specific fuels and products The greenest power sources are: nuclear, hydroelectric and wind –But they are not zero – CO 2 is still needed to create the power sources in the first place. –And all three have their own hazards.
30 Calculating a Carbon Footprint There are many tools that you can use to calculate carbon footprints Here are a few examples of tools – and reports about carbon footprint data –http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/Carbon_footprint.pdfhttp://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/Carbon_footprint.pdf –http://co2list.org/files/calculators.htmhttp://co2list.org/files/calculators.htm –http://www.wwf.org.hk/en/news/press_release/?2560/W WF-Reveals-the-Latest-Carbon-Footprint-Datahttp://www.wwf.org.hk/en/news/press_release/?2560/W WF-Reveals-the-Latest-Carbon-Footprint-Data –http://www.climateers.org/eng/contents/climateer_calcul ator.phphttp://www.climateers.org/eng/contents/climateer_calcul ator.php
31 Frequency of Information Collection (2009 IBM CSR Survey of 224 global business leaders)
32 Green Politics & GreenWash There are hundreds of business and government initiatives Few have been implemented, and few have measurable targets This is called Greenwash (think of brainwash)
33 Green Initiatives EnergyStar is one initiative in the US –Products can be labelled if they are certified as low power consuming devices In the EU, the Ecolabel is found Others include the FSC (for paper), MSC for seafood In Hong Kong, the Energy Label from the EMSD of HK Govt
34 Industry Initiatives The Climate Savers Computing Initiative (WWF) aims to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool to assist in the purchase of "greener" computing systems. The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centres and business computing ecosystems.
35 Climate Savers Computing Initiative (http://www.climatesaverscomputing.org/)http://www.climatesaverscomputing.org/ Typically PCs waste up to 50% of power used – as heat; 30-40% for servers. Better power management can dramatically reduce electricity bills – and reduce carbon emissions 90% efficiency is targetted by CSCI and Energy Star
36 Your Green Future? Enabling a low carbon economy Reducing CO2 emissions Environmentally friendly (or less unfriendly) applications –Domestic, industrial, government Look at pages 80-84 (Section 7) in Green Technology Strategies (Tom Worthington) Propose a Green Technology Strategy for Hong Kong (5 slides max) –Be creative, bold and set strict (but achievable) targets) –Focus on technology please!!!