10Propellers How propellers work Thrust Rotation [right-screw most popular]Side force (prop walk)More noticeable in reverse – esp. on fixed propellerDiameterPitchDistance propeller would move in one revolution if turning in solid materialie 17” pitch propeller would move 17” inchesPropeller size = diameter + pitchSmaller diameter + higher pitch used on high-speed boatsLarger diameter + lower pitch used on slow-speed boatsStainless steel vs. Aluminum
11Maneuvering Concepts Uncontrollable forces affecting a boat Wind Windage causes bow to fall off and boat to drift sidewaysIncreased freeboard = increase windage effectCurrentWill move boat along as if on a conveyor beltSize, shape, etc. do not matter – current effects all things equallyYay for Lake Michigan! (mostly)
12Maneuvering Concepts How boats turn Directed Thrust Rudder Pivot Point Outboards, stern drives and jet drivesWhen a propeller is turned at an angle, its thrust is directed at an angle, which turns the boatIf propeller is not rotating then no thrust, so no steerageRudderBoats with a fixed propeller use a rudder to direct the flow of waterWater flowing over the rudder creates lift (sideways force) and turns the boatNo water flowing over the rudder = no steeragePivot PointBoats pivot point is located 25% to 40% aft from the bowAlways steer the pivot point along the path you want to steer!
13Safety Equipment PFDs Five types of PFDs Type I – Offshore Life jacket 22 lbs of buoyancy for adults / 11 lbs for childrenWill turn unconscious person face-upType II – Near-Shore Life VestMin. of 15.5 lbs for adults / 11 lbs for childrenWill turn some unconscious people face-upType III – Flotation AidBuoyancy the same as Type IIWill not turn unconscious person face-upMost commonType IV – Throwable DeviceType V – Special use DevicesInflatable vests, etc.No inherent buoyancy
14Safety Equipment PFDs Proper use of PFDs is integral! Should fit snugly but still allow movementIf you can pull it up around your head on land, the same thing will happen in the waterAny PFD with a tear or hole in it is no longer Coast Guard approved
15Safety Equipment Federal Requirements One life jacket for each person on boardChildren under 13 MUST wear a lifejacket while underway (on any size vessel) unless below decks or in an enclosed cabinOver 16ft – one Type IV throwable deviceSound producing deviceAir horn, whistle, manual horn, etc.Fire extinguisher (p.71)Under 26ft – one B-IA – combustible material (wood)B – flammable liquids (gas)C – electrical (wiring)D – combustible metals (magnesium)Under 16ft - Visual distress signals if used at night (p.70)***In US Coastal waters, all boats must carry visual distress signals***16ft up – MUST carry approved day/night visual distress signals
16Safety Equipment CYC Boats PFDs Fire Extinguisher Anchor VHF One per person on boardFire ExtinguisherAnchorVHF
17Safety Equipment Recommended Requirements Anchor + rode VHF Radio KnifeFirst Aid KitSpare parts / tool kitOarsHand bilge pumpTow line / spare line
18Safety Equipment Rescue Gear Boat hook Throw line Bridle for towing + tow lineSpare boat partsLine, shackles, pins, blocks, sail tape, etc.
19Registration Information Hull Identification NumberRegistration numbers and formBoat must be registered in its state of principal use or federally documented‘IL’ numbers must be displayed on each side of the bow in letters at least 3” highRegistration must be aboard vessel at all timesMax capacity plateDisplays maximum weight and # of passengers (# of passengers takes precedence)Displays maximum horsepower engine (on outboard)Displays maximum weight capacity of all passengers, engine and gearCapacity equation: L x B / 15
20Engine Information Outboards Engine mounted on transom of boat 2hp – 300 hp2-stroke or 4-stroke2-strokes fire once every revolution of the crankshaftIntake / power ; compression / exhaust4-strokes fire once every 2 revolutions of the crankshaftIntake – compression – power - exhaust2-strokes use a gas/oil mixture4-strokes use straight gas (oil is in the crankcase)Traditional 2-strokes are becoming obsoleteBad for the environmentLess fuel efficient
21Engine Information Outboards Variable shaft lengths Can be tilted all the way up or removed for storage
22Engine Information Inboards Engine mounted inside boat Gasoline or dieselDiesel is safer than gas – less risk for fireGas inboards MUST have a backfire flame arrestor3 types of drive options:Fixed propeller drivesProp shaft passes through bottom of boatSteered by a rudderStern drive (I/O)Engine mounted inside and the power train goes through transom to the stern driveStern drive has tilt and trim similar to an outboardJet driveImpeller accelerates water through a nozzle to produce propulsive thrust
23Engine InformationParts of an engine (SPBR p.12)
24Engine Information Proper fueling procedures (SPBR p. 27) Common fueling mistakesForget to vent the jerry canNozzle not tightly attached to jerry canOverfillingPouring one tank straight into another without a funnel or nozzle (my personal favorite)
25Engine Information Proper start-up procedures (SPBR 13-14, 17-18) Inspect all hoses and wiresCheck fuel, oil and transmission fluid levelsRun blower for 3-5 min (inboards)Lower engine into water (outboards and I/Os)Pump fuel primer bulb until firm, open ventEnsure that gear shift is in neutralAttach stop switch (kill switch)Pull cord / turn key to startUse choke and adjust idle as needed until running smoothlyOnce running, MAKE SURE THERE IS A STREAM OF WATER FLOWING FROM THE INSPECTION OUTLETCheck gauges
26Engine Information – CYC Proper Start-up Procedure – CYC BoatsTurn blower on for approximately 2-3minCheck fuel (both tanks)Check bilges and pumps
27Engine Information - CYC Gauge GuidelinesHour MeterVolt Meter –12+ voltsOil Pressure –MINIMUM of 20 PSIRPM –MAX Idle RPM of 800Temperature –is normal; 180+ is overheating
28Engine Information Troubleshooting Fuel – Spark – Compression! Nothing happens when you turn the keySpark – is the battery dead? Are you in neutral?Engine turns over but won’t catchFuel – is the engine getting gas? Is there water in the gas? Is the fuel line attached backwards?STOP SWITCH!Engine runs fine at idle but kills when at higher RPMSpark – bad spark plug? Loose spark plug lead?
30Pre-Boarding Preparation Understand local weather patternsHot city + cool water = onshore breeze (only extends a few miles out)Cool city + warm water = offshore breezeWhere direction does weather usually come from?What weather issues will most likely affect you?Northeastern = cold and wavyNortherly breeze on hot day = fogSouthwestern = flat and puffy*what is fetch?What was the weather yesterday?Residual waves?What is a seiche?
31Pre-Boarding Preparation Check tides and currentsNot an issue on Lake MichiganOccasional current in mouths of harbors depending on wave/swell directionTo check current, use a current stick or observe motion of water around a fixed object
35Boat Operation Departing and returning to a dock Lynn’s rules of docking:Approach a dock as fast as you want to hit it.You will hit a dock eventually. Try to do it when no one else is around.Feel free to laugh at other’s docking mishaps after you have rendered assistence.Don’t forget – docking is a spectator sport!
36Boat Operation Departing and returning to a dock (for real) Factor in wind conditions.Try to dock on the leeward side.Have lines and fenders ready BEFORE getting to the dock.Approach at a 45 degree angle to dock.You should be able to bring boat to stop at dock without using lines to stop you.
37Boat OperationDeparting and returning to a dock (video)
38Boat Operation Departing and returning to a dock Things to avoid: NEVER try to stop a boat without using a cleatNEVER put your body between a boat and a dock - bones are harder to repair than fiberglass!NEVER do the leap of faith onto the dockNEVER jump off the bow and pull it in as fast and tightly as you can
39Boat OperationDeparting and returning to a dockProper line usage:
40Boat Operation Proper boat storage – At the dock Engine raised and flushed (well….maybe)Steering wheel turned so steering arm is enclosedLines checked and flemishedFenders hung at proper heightBattery switched off (if appropriate)Any gear that was used stowed appropriatelyBilge checkedGarbage emptied
41Boat Operation Proper boat storage – Ashore Trailer guidelines (SPBR p.124)Be diligent with checking all aspects of trailer and connectionDon’t settle – if boat isn’t seated properly, redo itAlways remember to raise your engine before driving up the ramp!Check your tie downs multiple times.
42Person in the Water Proper Recovery Technique (SPBR p.117) Yell ‘man overboard’!Driver immediately turns towards person swinging his propeller away from themAssign spotterMOST IMPORTANT PERSONThrow flotation devices towards PIWCircle around until able to approach from a DOWNWIND positionApproach PIW on driver’s side and glide to a stop next to him/her [MUST BE IN NEUTRAL GEAR]Throw a looped rope and attach person to boat*****turn engine off*****Assist person into boat and care for
43Person in the WaterProper Recovery Technique (video)
44Boat Manuevering Slow speed maneuvering Start, stop, reverse Minimum control speed (video)Pivot turn (video)Holding position (video)Downwind / upwindApproaching a mooring (video)
45Boat Manuevering High speed maneuvering High speed turns High speed slalom (avoidance turns)High speed stop (video)