2Ritualistic ScienceFrazer proponed that scientific inquiry [e.g. Astronomy] sprung from elements of rituals, religious doctrine/or philosophy, i.e. human sacrifice (Messianic Monotheism) and dying gods (Pagan Polytheism) as well as many other symbolisms and ritualistic practices resulting in the formation constituting the cognitive rationalization of the human psyche thus later culminating to scientific thought.Rituals (Sympathetic magic/ imitation) + Religion (Philosophy) = ScienceSimply:Experiment + Results = Scientific Thought
3Ancient Babylonian, Greco-Roman Culture Ammisaduqa tabletThe Babylonians were the first civilization known to possess a functional theory of the planets called, “Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa” [7th-century BC]. It is the earliest evidence that planetary phenomena were recognized as ‘periodic.’Pythagoras, [6th and 5th centuries BC] appeared to have developed his own independent planetary theory, which consisted of the Sun, Earth, and Venus (all planets) revolving around a "Central Fire" at the center of the Universe.In Philolaus's system (Counter-Earth) [6th and 5th centuries BC], “Moving the earth from the center of the cosmos and making it a planet". First coherent system in which celestial bodies move in circles non-geocentric and non-heliocentric system.Antichthon (Venus): Counter-EarthPythagoras (Greek)
4Maya: Ancient Astronomical Wanderers Venus DeityAn important calendar for the Maya was the Venus cycle: A 584-day Venus, which tracked the heliacal risings of Venus as the “Morning Star” and “Evening Star”.Dresden Codex: It is a detailed account of the astronomical observations of the MayasDresden Codex
5QuestionWho contributed/or stimulated the astronomical pursuits in science?A) Ancient Maya CivilizationB) Greco-Roman SocietyC) Babylonian CivilizationD) All of the Above[Correct Answer]:D
6Misc. Facts Name: Venus Aka Morning/Evening Star Minimum Distance to the Sun: 108 million kmMaximum Distance to the Sun: 109 million kmDiscovery – UnknownObserved before recorded historyHottest planet in the solar systemGalileo’s discovery of Venus’ phases helped disprove the geocentric modelSatellites: ZeroPeriod of Rotation About Axis: 243 daysRetrograde (clockwise)Period of Revolution About Sun: 0.62 years
7Venusian atmosphereVenus’ atmosphere consists mostly of Carbon Dioxide with thick clouds of Sulfuric AcidThe atmosphere is so thick that it traps the small amounts of the sun’s energy that reaches the surfaceGreenhouse EffectThe atmospheric pressure on Venus is about 90 times greater than that of Earth’sEquivalent to 3,000ft below Earth’s sea level
8“Bi”-polar VenusSIMILAR to Earth, Venus has two poles: North Pole, South PoleVortex – a visible, whirling mass of airThink tornado!Plural: VorticesVortices have been discovered in both polar regionsNorth Pole – NASA in 1978South Pole – ESA in 2006For some odd and undiscovered reason, these vortices circle about two pointsLike an eye of a storm, but two…
9“Bi”-polar VenusUNLIKE Earth, whose axis of rotation is tilted at about 23o , Venus’ axis of rotation is tilted only at about 3oLack of seasonsAverage surface and lower atmosphere temperature stays nearly the same throughout the yearStays consistent even throughout day and nightAverage Surface Temp: 730 KThat’s 457o C or 855o F all the time
10Venusian Volcanoes Space probes have found over 1600 major volcanoes Very limited data to prove whether the volcanoes are active/extinctVery young surface age, due to lack of “wear and tear” from water or windNo long, linear volcanic chainsNo evidence for plate tectonics or subduction zones like EarthNo evidence for violent eruptionsFluid-like lava flowIshtar Terra – continent near North Pole containing four main mountain rangesAbout the size of mainland USAVolcanoes: Sacajawea, Collete, CleopatraTessera – a shortening of crust created folding, breaking, clumping of crustShows signs that the surface of Venus may be in motion
13The Magellan MissionBuilt partially with spare parts from other missions, the Magellan spacecraft was 15.4 feet long, topped with a 12-foot high-gain antenna.The spacecraft weighed a total of 7,612 pounds at launch.The high-gain antenna, used for both communication and radar imaging, was a spare from the NASA/JPL Voyager mission to the outer planets, as were Magellan's 10-sided main structure and a set of thrusters.The command data computer system, attitude control computer and power distribution units are spares from the Galileo mission to Jupiter. Magellan's medium-gain antenna is from the NASA/JPL Mariner 9 project.Magellan was powered by two square solar panels, each measuring 8.2 feet on a side; together they supplied 1,200 watts of power.Over the course of the mission the solar panels gradually degraded, as expected.
14The Magellan MissionMagellan was the first planetary spacecraft to be launched by a space shuttle when it was carried by the shuttle Atlantis from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on May 4, 1989.Atlantis took Magellan into low Earth orbit, where it was released from the shuttle's cargo bay.A solid-fuel motor called the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) then fired, sending Magellan on a 15-month cruise looping around the sun 1-1/2 times before it arrived at Venus on August 10, 1990.A solid-fuel motor on Magellan then fired, placing the spacecraft in orbit around Venus.
15The Magellan MissionMagellan's initial orbit was highly elliptical, taking it as close as 182 miles from Venus and as far away as 5,296 miles.Magellan was in a polar orbit, meaning that the spacecraft moved from south to north or vice versa during each looping pass, flying over Venus's north and south poles.Magellan completed one orbit every 3 hours, 15 minutes.
16The Magellan MissionDuring the part of its orbit closest to Venus, Magellan's radar mapper imaged a small section of the planet's surface approximately 10 to 17 miles wide.At the end of each orbit, the spacecraft radioed back to Earth a map of a long ribbon-like strip of the planet's surface captured on that orbit.Because of the images taken from Magellan, scientists were able to determine that Venus itself rotates once every 243 Earth days.As the planet rotated under the spacecraft, Magellan collected strip after strip of radar image data, eventually covering the entire globe at the end of the 243-day orbital cycle.
17The Magellan MissionBy the end of its first such eight-month orbital cycle between September 1990 and May 1991, Magellan had sent to Earth detailed images of 84 percent of Venus's surface.The spacecraft then conducted radar mapping on two more eight- months cycles from May 1991 to September This allowed it to capture detailed maps of 98 percent of the planet's surface.The follow-on cycles also allowed scientists to look for any changes in the surface from one year to the next. In addition, because the "look angle" of the radar was slightly different from one cycle to the next, scientists could construct three-dimensional views of Venus's surface. As pictured in the next slide.
18Venus Centered at the North Pole Maxwell Montes, the planet's highest mountain at 6.6 miles above the averageelevation, is the bright feature in the lower center of the image.
19The Magellan MissionDuring Magellan's fourth eight-month orbital cycle at Venus from September 1992 to May 1993, the spacecraft collected data on the planet's gravity field.During this cycle, Magellan did not use its radar mapper but instead transmitted a constant radio signal to Earth.If it passed over an area of Venus with higher than normal gravity, the spacecraft would slightly speed up in its orbit.This would cause the frequency of Magellan's radio signal to change very slightly due to the Doppler effect, and example would be that the pitch of a siren changes as an ambulance passes.Thanks to the ability of radio receivers in the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network to measure frequencies extremely accurately, scientists could build up a detailed gravity map of Venus.
20The Magellan MissionAt the end of Magellan's fourth orbital cycle in May 1993, flight controllers lowered the spacecraft's orbit using a technique called aerobraking.This maneuver sent Magellan dipping into Venus's atmosphere once every orbit; the atmospheric drag on the spacecraft slowed down Magellan and lowered its orbit.After the aerobraking was completed between May 25 and August 3, 1993, Magellan's orbit then took it as close as 112 miles from Venus and as far away as 336 miles.Magellan also circled Venus more quickly, completing an orbit once every 94 minutes.This new, more circularized orbit allowed Magellan to collect better gravity data in the higher northern and southern latitudes near Venus's poles.
21The Magellan MissionAfter the end of that fifth orbital cycle in April 1994, Magellan began a sixth and final orbital cycle, collecting more gravity data and conducting radar and radio science experiments.By the end of the mission, Magellan will have captured high-resolution gravity data for an estimated 95 percent of the planet's surface.In September 1994, Magellan's orbit was lowered once more in another test called a "windmill experiment." In this test, the spacecraft's solar panels were turned to a configuration resembling the blades of a windmill, and Magellan's orbit was lowered into the thin outer reaches of Venus's dense atmosphere.Flight controllers then measured the amount of torque control required to maintain Magellan's orientation and keep it from spinning.This experiment gave scientists data on the behavior of molecules in Venus's upper atmosphere, and lent engineers new information useful in designing spacecraft.
22The End of The Magellan Mission On October 11, 1994, Magellan's orbit is scheduled to be lowered a final time.This experiment was to test the spacecraft to see how much torque will be needed to keep the spacecraft from spinning on its axis.Within two days after that maneuver, the spacecraft is expected to become caught in the atmosphere and plunge to the surface.Although much of Magellan would be vaporized, some sections are expected to hit the planet's surface intact.Magellan was the first planetary spacecraft to be terminated intentionally.
23Works CitedDe Silva, Shan. "Venus | Volcano World." Large Shield Volcanoes | Volcano World. Oregon Space Grant Consortium, Web. 30 JanFrazer, James George. The Golden Bough. 198 Madison Avenue: Oxford University Press, Paperback 1998.Huffman, Carl, "Philolaus", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/philola us/>.Miles, Susanna W, "An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation." In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, pp. 273–84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.Nelson, John. Space, Stars, Mars, Earth, Planets and More - NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d. Web. 30 JanRussel, Randy. "Venus." Windows to the Universe. National Earth Science Teachers Association, n.d. Web. 28 Jan