3 By definition, a disaster is, "an occurrence causing widespread destruction and distress, a grave misfortune, a total failure..." A disaster is often further defined as being either a man-made or natural event that results in death, injury, and property damage which cannot be managed through normal, routine channels.(Source: Google…Author not indicated).
15 Regulatory Requirements Green / Sustainable / LEED / Energy Star / ASHRAE 90.1 =“SAVE THE PLANET”Building codes / GUIDE / BMBL / WHO / NIH DRM / AALAC / USDA =Safety for building occupants as well as “the public”Minimum exhaust stack velocities (vs energy savings)Redundant equipment (increased electrical load)Spare capacity (effects on operation energy use)“Safety”Combined equals your Project
16 The Guide – Basic HVAC Requirements Performance Based ApproachTemperature and humidity control to minimize variations.Pressurization Control – Directional AirflowHVAC system to be designed for reliability, ease of maintenance and energy conservation.Temperature: deg F, maintain +\- 2 degrees F (varies based on species)Maintain Humidity 30-70% year round.RedundancyTemperature control for each holding space.Emergency power for critical services (HVAC, freezers, ventilated racks, isolators)
17 NIH DRM - Basic HVAC Requirements Prescriptive Based ApproachAnimal Facilities shall meet the requirements of “The Guide”Laboratory Spaces shall meet the requirements of the BMBL.Design conditions: ASHRAE 0.4% summer, 99.6% winterEquipment sized for 20% future expansion.15 ACH Small Animal Static Rack/Large Animal10 ACH Small Animal Ventilated RackExhaust fans on emergency power.Dedicated Air SystemsNon-Research FunctionAnimal AreasLab General Research.N+1 Redundancy Required.Emergency Power Required; AHU’s, EF, chillers, boilers, pumps, etc.
18 The Guide – page 35Animal facilities may be subject to unexpected conditions that result in the catastrophic failure of critical systems or significant personnel absenteeism, or other unexpected events that severely compromise ongoing animal care and well-being (ILAR 2010). Facilities must therefore have a disaster plan. The plan should define the actions necessary to prevent animal pain, distress, and deaths due to loss of systems such as those that control ventilation, cooling, heating, or provision of potable water. If possible the plan should describe how the facility will preserve animals that are necessary for critical research activities or the irreplaceable. Knowledge of the geographic locale may provide guidance as to the probability of a particular type of disaster.
19 Potential Loss of Efficiency NIH Guidelines“Spare” Capacity IssuesDifferent than redundancy or reliabilityOwner driven (program revisions)NIH DRM requirements for 20% spare capacityProcess loads (large % of total load)Major equipment turndown IssuesChillersBoilersAHU ComponentsCoilsFiltersFansHumidifiersAirflow StationsExhaust fansn % =Potential Loss of EfficiencyUntil Used
20 D Introduction Disaster Preparedness Regulatory Requirements Physical PlantD
21 “Single Point of Failure” Every system will fail at the least opportunistic time.Design, plan, educate and train to eliminate or provide redundancy for every critical system.
22 “Single Point of Failure” Identify all Critical systems:MEP Systems:Air Handling UnitsExhaust FansCoolingHeatingControlsPotable WaterPower
23 “Single Point of Failure” MEP Critical systems:Need RedundancyNeed Spare PartsNeed Maintenance Staff to Install Spare Parts
24 Physical PlantReliability is a measure of probability that the environmental systems will be operational at the time that it is required.Redundancy is a subset of reliability and can be achieved by the engineering systems, or a combination of engineering systems and protocols2 at 50%3 at 33%4 at 25%
25 Physical Plant No redundancy Scenario One AHU and one EF serves each zoneLab Zone
26 Physical Plant Partial Redundancy Scenario Requires ductwork and control dampers to allow interconnection of air systemsRequires extensive ceiling spaceReduces quantity of equipment to provide redundancyLab Zone
27 Physical Plant Fully Redundant Scenario – 2N or 2@50% Greater equipment requirementsAutomatic OperationLess dependency upon other systemsLab Zone
28 Physical Plant Reliability & Redundancy independent systems N+1 (100%) back-up capability desirableLess than N+1 with load sheddingconsider utilizing systems adjacent to vivarium spaces as an alternate means to provide redundancy
29 Physical PlantAHU fan redundancy optionsFan WallDual Fans
31 Physical Plant Central Utilities (Campus Scenario- Issues) Large Chiller Plants typically not on emergency power backupLarge Boiler Plants typically not on emergency power backup
32 Physical Plant Central Utilities (Campus Scenario-Resolutions) Consider providing small backup air cooled chiller and pumps for critical cooling.Consider providing small backup boiler and pumps for critical heating
33 Physical Plant Potable Water Consider providing potable water backup storage tank if water outage typical.Provide maintenance staff on hand to repair pipe leaks.Ensure shut-off valves are in place in case of emergency.Periodically exercise valves to ensure they will be operational when required.
34 Physical Plant - Power Normal Power Redundant Feeders to a double ended substationRedundancy and independent electric servicesShould come from two separate utility generating stations (Or from two separate substations on a campus configuration)Feeders should be in separate duct banks and routing.Provides redundancy in feeders and in services to building.
35 Physical Plant - Power EM Power Generators Serve critical equipment Supply air handlersExhaust fansCaging systems (IVCs)Heating & Cooling systemsDistribution pumpsBAS system controllersUPSBAS control panels to keep from resetting controls to minimize downtime under any failure scenario
36 Physical Plant…Locate vivarium above flood elevation levels – New facilitiesFlood gates or retaining walls around existing facilitiesLocate physical plant above flood elevation levelsLocate electrical switchgear above floor elevation levels
37 Physical Plant… Provide adequate level of redundancy Provide automated controlProvide Emergency Power BackupLocate generators above flood elevation levelProvide “enough” fuel capacity for sustained duration for outage based on risk assessment
38 Physical Plant… Fail closed reheat coil valves Fail open AHU preheat valveFail open AHU cooling coil valvesInterlock AHU’s with EF’sInterlock supply and exhaust air valvesSecurity systems to prevent unwanted entrySeismic reinforcement
39 Physical Plant…Snowfall issues and AHU shutdowns
40 Physical Plant… Provide snow melt device such as MISTOP Snostop Provide bypass damper across filters that opens on high filter delta PRemove AHU pre-filters before snow occurrences
41 Physical plant – Maintenance Access Outside VivariumLocate Equipment where it is accessibleRoutine InspectionPreventative MaintenanceMinimize Impact on ScienceHigh Tech vs. Low Tech
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