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Bill Zavatkay PE, LEED AP BD+C – HDR

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Presentation on theme: "Bill Zavatkay PE, LEED AP BD+C – HDR"— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing to Prevent Disasters: Mechanical System Failures and Physical Plant Design
Bill Zavatkay PE, LEED AP BD+C – HDR Mechanical Engineering Section Manager

2 Introduction Disasters Regulatory Requirements Physical Plant A

3 By definition, a disaster is, "an occurrence causing widespread destruction and distress, a grave misfortune, a total failure..." A disaster is often further defined as being either a man-made or natural event that results in death, injury, and property damage which cannot be managed through normal, routine channels. (Source: Google…Author not indicated).

4 Introduction Disasters Regulatory Requirements Physical Plant B

5 What we typically think of as a Disaster?

6 Widespread flooding from levee breaches and storm surge

7 Widespread flooding from levee breaches and storm surge

8 Wind and flood damage

9 Wind damage to buildings

10 Tree damage to buildings

11 Impassable roads

12 Natural disasters occur and make big headlines, but more likely events include:
Facility Failures Operational Issues Power Outages

13 Fires Failed Equipment Broken Pipes

14 Introduction Disasters Regulatory Requirements Physical Plant C

15 Regulatory Requirements
Green / Sustainable / LEED / Energy Star / ASHRAE 90.1 = “SAVE THE PLANET” Building codes / GUIDE / BMBL / WHO / NIH DRM / AALAC / USDA = Safety for building occupants as well as “the public” Minimum exhaust stack velocities (vs energy savings) Redundant equipment (increased electrical load) Spare capacity (effects on operation energy use) “Safety” Combined equals your Project

16 The Guide – Basic HVAC Requirements
Performance Based Approach Temperature and humidity control to minimize variations. Pressurization Control – Directional Airflow HVAC system to be designed for reliability, ease of maintenance and energy conservation. Temperature: deg F, maintain +\- 2 degrees F (varies based on species) Maintain Humidity 30-70% year round. Redundancy Temperature control for each holding space. Emergency power for critical services (HVAC, freezers, ventilated racks, isolators)

17 NIH DRM - Basic HVAC Requirements
Prescriptive Based Approach Animal Facilities shall meet the requirements of “The Guide” Laboratory Spaces shall meet the requirements of the BMBL. Design conditions: ASHRAE 0.4% summer, 99.6% winter Equipment sized for 20% future expansion. 15 ACH Small Animal Static Rack/Large Animal 10 ACH Small Animal Ventilated Rack Exhaust fans on emergency power. Dedicated Air Systems Non-Research Function Animal Areas Lab General Research. N+1 Redundancy Required. Emergency Power Required; AHU’s, EF, chillers, boilers, pumps, etc.

18 The Guide – page 35 Animal facilities may be subject to unexpected conditions that result in the catastrophic failure of critical systems or significant personnel absenteeism, or other unexpected events that severely compromise ongoing animal care and well-being (ILAR 2010). Facilities must therefore have a disaster plan. The plan should define the actions necessary to prevent animal pain, distress, and deaths due to loss of systems such as those that control ventilation, cooling, heating, or provision of potable water. If possible the plan should describe how the facility will preserve animals that are necessary for critical research activities or the irreplaceable. Knowledge of the geographic locale may provide guidance as to the probability of a particular type of disaster.

19 Potential Loss of Efficiency
NIH Guidelines “Spare” Capacity Issues Different than redundancy or reliability Owner driven (program revisions) NIH DRM requirements for 20% spare capacity Process loads (large % of total load) Major equipment turndown Issues Chillers Boilers AHU Components Coils Filters Fans Humidifiers Airflow Stations Exhaust fans n % = Potential Loss of Efficiency Until Used

20 D Introduction Disaster Preparedness Regulatory Requirements
Physical Plant D

21 “Single Point of Failure”
Every system will fail at the least opportunistic time. Design, plan, educate and train to eliminate or provide redundancy for every critical system.

22 “Single Point of Failure”
Identify all Critical systems: MEP Systems: Air Handling Units Exhaust Fans Cooling Heating Controls Potable Water Power

23 “Single Point of Failure”
MEP Critical systems: Need Redundancy Need Spare Parts Need Maintenance Staff to Install Spare Parts

24 Physical Plant Reliability is a measure of probability that the environmental systems will be operational at the time that it is required. Redundancy is a subset of reliability and can be achieved by the engineering systems, or a combination of engineering systems and protocols 2 at 50% 3 at 33% 4 at 25%

25 Physical Plant No redundancy Scenario
One AHU and one EF serves each zone Lab Zone

26 Physical Plant Partial Redundancy Scenario
Requires ductwork and control dampers to allow interconnection of air systems Requires extensive ceiling space Reduces quantity of equipment to provide redundancy Lab Zone

27 Physical Plant Fully Redundant Scenario – 2N or 2@50%
Greater equipment requirements Automatic Operation Less dependency upon other systems Lab Zone

28 Physical Plant Reliability & Redundancy independent systems
N+1 (100%) back-up capability desirable Less than N+1 with load shedding consider utilizing systems adjacent to vivarium spaces as an alternate means to provide redundancy

29 Physical Plant AHU fan redundancy options Fan Wall Dual Fans

30 Physical Plant Failure Protection - Automation normal operation
exhaust failure – supply reacts supply failure – exhaust reacts BAS controls & interlocks maintain directional airflow (positive or negative pressurization) consider ‘load shedding’ strategies

31 Physical Plant Central Utilities (Campus Scenario- Issues)
Large Chiller Plants typically not on emergency power backup Large Boiler Plants typically not on emergency power backup

32 Physical Plant Central Utilities (Campus Scenario-Resolutions)
Consider providing small backup air cooled chiller and pumps for critical cooling. Consider providing small backup boiler and pumps for critical heating

33 Physical Plant Potable Water
Consider providing potable water backup storage tank if water outage typical. Provide maintenance staff on hand to repair pipe leaks. Ensure shut-off valves are in place in case of emergency. Periodically exercise valves to ensure they will be operational when required.

34 Physical Plant - Power Normal Power
Redundant Feeders to a double ended substation Redundancy and independent electric services Should come from two separate utility generating stations (Or from two separate substations on a campus configuration) Feeders should be in separate duct banks and routing. Provides redundancy in feeders and in services to building.

35 Physical Plant - Power EM Power Generators Serve critical equipment
Supply air handlers Exhaust fans Caging systems (IVCs) Heating & Cooling systems Distribution pumps BAS system controllers UPS BAS control panels to keep from resetting controls to minimize downtime under any failure scenario

36 Physical Plant… Locate vivarium above flood elevation levels – New facilities Flood gates or retaining walls around existing facilities Locate physical plant above flood elevation levels Locate electrical switchgear above floor elevation levels

37 Physical Plant… Provide adequate level of redundancy
Provide automated control Provide Emergency Power Backup Locate generators above flood elevation level Provide “enough” fuel capacity for sustained duration for outage based on risk assessment

38 Physical Plant… Fail closed reheat coil valves
Fail open AHU preheat valve Fail open AHU cooling coil valves Interlock AHU’s with EF’s Interlock supply and exhaust air valves Security systems to prevent unwanted entry Seismic reinforcement

39 Physical Plant… Snowfall issues and AHU shutdowns

40 Physical Plant… Provide snow melt device such as MISTOP Snostop
Provide bypass damper across filters that opens on high filter delta P Remove AHU pre-filters before snow occurrences

41 Physical plant – Maintenance
Access Outside Vivarium Locate Equipment where it is accessible Routine Inspection Preventative Maintenance Minimize Impact on Science High Tech vs. Low Tech

42 The Biodesign Institute at ASU


44 Physical plant

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49 Questions?

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