Presentation on theme: "BLE 211: Principles of Agriculture and Forestry"— Presentation transcript:
1BLE 211: Principles of Agriculture and Forestry Lecture 6
2Farm StructuresMany Farm production processes must be carried out under more closely controlled conditions in order to maximize output.Animals often need to be protected from wind, rain and sun.Animals must also be kept in conditions where diseases and parasites are more readily controlled.Stored crops must be protected from damaging elements of water, excessive temperatures, insects and fungi.Farm machinery must be protected from rain and dirt and kept under conditions where corrosion and general degradation is kept to a minimum.
3Categories of Farm structures There are many types of structures on farms depending on the type of farming activities being carried out on the farm.The sizes of individual farm structures may in some cases be influenced by the size of the farming project they would be serving.On a large dairy farm, the milking parlour would be bigger and better developed than on a small dairy farm with only a few animals.
4Categories of Farm structures They include:FencesLivestock production structuresCrop growing structuresFarm BuildingsFences are used for:Marking boundaries of the farmSeparating land selected for growing crops from that for pastures.Dividing pasture into paddocks for controlled grazing to be carried out.Controlling the movement of animals thus prevent the formation of unnecessary paths.
5Forms of Fences Mainly two forms. Dead fences include Live fences includingDead fences includePosts and wires (plain, woven, barbed or electric wires)Posts and wooden racksStonesTrench fences. Common near National parks and Game reserves. The trench should be fairly wide and deep enough to hold tightly any animal that falls into it.Live fences composed mainly of growing trees or shrubsSuch fences are commonly called hedges or thorn fences.The most common trees or shrubs used are Mauritius thorn, Kei Apple, Euphorbia, Cypress, Cactus and Sisal.
6Livestock StructuresLivestock production structures facilitate various livestock production activities carried out on the farm These structures include:Handling structures such as crushes, spray races and Dips.They are used to control animals when applying chemicals to prevent ticks.Housing structures including dairy sheds, calf pens, rabbit hutches, piggery, and poultry pens, goats and sheep pens.They are constructed to shelter the specific animals from bad weather (wind, heat, rain, and cold).They also protect livestock from wild animals and thieves.They can also be used for feeding the animals.
7Crop growing structures and Farm Buildings Include the greenhouses and irrigation set-ups.They are used to modify the growing environment for the crops.Farm Buildings found on a typical farm include:Farm house for the farmer and his familyLabour units for the workersStores for harvested produce, animal feed and seedsMachinery sheds and workshopsFactories for processing farm produce such as coffee, tea, sugarcane and sisal among other products.
8Important factors when planning for Farm Structures Total Farm PlanThe various farm activities to be developed in the farm should be planned for.Size of enterpriseDetermines the size of the individual structure for that enterprise.The potential of the enterprise should be considered so that plans for future expansion of the enterprise can be made.SpaceEnough space should be left between farm buildings and the homestead to accommodate the type of transport system to be used on the farm.ViewThe homestead should be located in such a way that it is possible to have a good view of the farm.
9Important factors when planning for Farm Structures AccessibilityStructure should be easily accessible from most parts of the farmStructures with related uses should be put close together, should be easily accessible without the workers wasting a lot of time when moving from one structure to the other.DrainageGood drainage is of paramount importance to prevent the structures from being destroyed.Wind DirectionThe homestead should be situated away from the direction of the prevailing winds to avoid bad smells.TopographyThe structures should be located in a fairly level ground. A sloppy site may limit construction operations and levelling of such a site may be very expensive.
10Farm PowerThe primary purpose of power units is to operate farm machinery and equipment for farming operations such as land preparation, cultivation, harvesting, processing, handling, pumping and transporting.These operations demandTractive power to pull the equipmentRotative power to drive implementsPulley power to operate stationary machinesAutomotive power for haulage.
11Categories of Power Units There are three distinct categories of power units for operating farm equipment. They includeHand-powerAnimal-powerMechanical power.The extent to which use is made of each different type differs in different tropical countries.
12Human/Hand-powerThis refers to the use of human labour to accomplish various tasks in the farm including land clearing, cultivation using a hand hoe, harvesting and simple transport by carrying loads on the head or back.This kind of power is exclusive to small-scale farmers who have no alternative but to do most of the jobs themselves.DisadvantagesHuman efficiency declines as the hours worked per day increase.It cannot cope with large acreages.Health condition of the workers influences the work done.It is in the long run more expensive because it is slower and more unpredictable than using machines.
13Animal PowerEffective use of animals as a source of power requires that they be in good health, be fully-grown and well fed.The animals including donkeys, camels, horses and oxen provide power for cultivation and transportation.Advantages of Animal powerDoes not require skilled workers as compared to engine power.Can transport heavier loads than hand-power and carry out other farm operations such as fetching water and fodder cutting for silage or hay.Animals operate very well where land is fragmented.The initial investment and maintenance costs of animals and their implements are lower than those of tractors and other machinery are.A larger acreage can be cultivated than is possible with human power.
14Disadvantages of Animal Power A big portion of land is required for grazing the animals as part of their maintenance.Animals tire quickly, thus reducing the amount of work to be done.The animals health will affect the amount of work doneAnimals damage crops when they are used for weeding.They are slower than tractors and other fuel powered machinery.
15Mechanical Power Mechanical power units on the farm include: The internal combustion engineThe electric motorThe steam engineThe water wheel and windmillThe internal combustion engine and the electric motor are the most important mechanical power units because of their versatility and flexibility.
16Mechanical PowerApart from some stationary machines which are operated by electric motor, practically all power for operating modern farm equipment comes from internal combustion engines most of which are mounted on tractors.Fossil fuels including oil, gas and coal are the main sources of energy for of the mechanical power units.Petroleum is the main source of energy for farm tractors.
17Mechanical PowerSolar energy, biomass energy, nuclear energy and controlled fusion are some potential energy sources still being explored for application in agriculture.The use of solar energy for drying farm products is of course a well-established technique that is still commonly used in tropical agriculture.Wind energy provides rotary windmill power used by rural populations for:Pumping water for domestic use and for watering livestock and irrigation of crops.Threshing and grinding grains, crushing sugarcane and cutting wood.
18Mechanical PowerHydroelectric energy and geothermal energy are sometimes used to generate electricity for both rural and industrial purposes.Although petroleum is a non-renewable and exhaustible resource, it will nevertheless remain the main energy supplement to human and animal energy in agriculture for several decades.
19Farm MachineryFarmers are often enabled to do various operations on their farms by machines.The machines help the farmers to practice efficient timing of farm operations during the seasons.They relieve the farmers of drudgery and long hours of work.Where machines are used, fewer workers are required hence releasing labour for other farm operations and saving money.The use of machines ensures better quality produce especially in processes difficult to execute by hand.
20Types of Farm Machinery There are three types of farm machinery including:Hand-operated farm implementsAnimal-Powered farm equipmentTractor-Operated Farm MachineryIn the tropics, land is still cultivated mainly with hand-operated farm implements.Hand tools areSimple to makeEasy to repair and maintain.Usually inexpensiveGive many years of useful service.
21Hand-operated farm implements Some of the predominant farm hand tools include:HoeThis is a tool with wooden handle and a metal blade that is an all-purpose tool.SickleThis is a special grain-harvesting knife with a sickle shape and has a wooden handle and a metal blade.MacheteIt has a wooden handle and a metal blade and is an all-purpose tool.Weeding knifeThis is a tool with two wooden handles and a metal blade. It is curved into a U-shape and is mainly used for weeding.
22Animal-Powered farm equipment Animal Power supplements human power in some tropical developing countries.Oxen are the most common animals that are used for pulling tillage and other cultivation implements such as ploughs.Donkeys are used to transport agricultural products.Some examples of the common oxen-driven implements includePloughsSeeders/plantersCultivatorsFertilizer applicatorsThreshersMowers.
23Tractor-Operated Farm Machinery There are several types of tractor operated farm machinery including:Primary tillage equipment e.g. the mouldboard and disc ploughs.Secondary tillage equipment e.g. spike-tooth harrow, spring-tooth harrow and disc harrow.Planting equipment e.g. maize planters, cassava planters, wheat planters.Manure and fertilizer spreadersWeedersSprayersHarvesters and threshers
24Selection of Farm Machinery The requirements in planning for farm mechanization include a detailed study of the management of the individual farm and suitable adjustment of the management policy.To undertake mechanization successfully the farmer must:Choose a set of equipment suited to the particular needs of the farm.Learn the most efficient techniques for operating all the equipmentEnsure effective maintenance of the machinery.In order to achieve an optimum economic return, efficient selection of field machinery requiresThe availability of powerService and spare parts andLabour and calculation of time-use and costs
25Factors Affecting Farm Machinery Performance Knowledge of the performance of any piece of equipment if of fundamental importance in its selection, adaption and use.The performance of an implement depends on several factors that vary from place to place. These factors include:Ecological conditionsThe physical and mechanical properties of the soilVegetationClimate (rainfall, temperature, humidity) andTopography.
26Factors Affecting Farm Machinery Performance Agronomic practices includingMonocroppingMixed cropping plantingRow plantingBroadcastingTypes of crops grown.Systems of machinery useDepending on whether machinery has private ownership, joint ownership, and contract work or is hire service.Technical factors including:AdaptabilityAvailability of spare parts and fuelEase of adjustmentManoeuvrabilityTrailed, semi-mounted or self-propelledMulti-purpose and material of construction.
27Factors Affecting Farm Machinery Performance Operator-Machine suitabilityErgonomicsOperator’s skills andMechanical aptitude.Management factorsDepending on whether the farm has trained personnel and good supervision, good workshop and repair facilities, adequate system of keeping records and incentives.Socio-political factorsGovernment assistance, tax reduction, import reduction and social inhibitions.
28Constraints to Farm Mechanization Many small-scale farmers may not afford to mechanize their farms due to:Lack of money to buy machines.Farmer’s conservatism and rejection of new methods of farming.Lack of technical know-how to operate and maintain machinery and equipment.Land fragmentation into uneconomical units.Topography and land relief.Hilly areas are difficult to farm by machine.Lack of qualified staff to advertise machines and advice farmers on how to use them.Unavailability of spare parts to repair machines which break down.