3 The Brose Group Implements SAP – One Site at a Time (1) The Brose Group supplies windows, doors, seat adjusters, and related products for more than 40 auto brands.In the 1990s, Brose enjoyed rapid growth but found that existing information system were unable to support the company’s emerging needs.Too many different information systems meant a lack of standardization and hampered communication among suppliers, plants, and customers.
4 The Brose Group Implements SAP – One Site at a Time (2) Brose decided to standardize operations on SAP R/3, an ERP application licensed by SAP that supports more than a thousand different business processes.The Brose/SAP Consulting team decided on a pilot approach.The team constructed the implementation to be used as a prototype for installations at additional plants.
5 The Brose Group Implements SAP – One Site at a Time (3) The first time that Brose/SAP consulting team installed system was in a new plant in Curitiba, Brazil. Developing the first implementation was no small feat, because it involved information systems for sales and distribution, material management, production planning, quality management, and financial accounting and control.The second implementation, in Puebla, Mexico, required just 6 months for first operational capability.And the next implementation, in Meerane, Germany, was operational in just 19 weeks.
6 The Brose Group Implements SAP – One Site at a Time (4) Modern manufacturing seeks to improve productivity by reducing waste, which means eliminating ：-- Overproduction that leads to excess inventories-- Unavailable needed and parts, which idle workers and facilities-- Wasted motion and processing due to poorly plannedmaterials handling and operations activitiesManufacturing that eliminates these wastes is called lean manufacturing.
7 The Brose Group Implements SAP – One Site at a Time (5) To accomplish lean manufacturing, SAP has invented a business process it calls just-in-sequence（JIS） manufacturing.JIS is an extension of just-in-time（JIT）, the pull manufacturing philosophy.Parts not only arrive just in time, but also arrive in just the correct sequence.To achieve JIS, Brose used SAP R/3 combined with a supplementary SAP module called SAP for Automotive with JIS.
8 Question 1Reflect on the nature of JIS planning. In general terms, what kinds of data must Brose have in order to provide JIS to its customers? What does Brose need to know? It certainly needs a bill of materials for the items it produces. What other categories of information will Brose need?
9 What does Brose need to know? (1) What kinds of data that will be used in the production.-- the name of Parts-- the quantity of Parts-- where the parts will be used-- when the parts will be needed-- what categories the parts belong-- products patternQuantity 數量
10 What does Brose need to know? (2) What other categories of information will Brose need-- product scheduling-- the bill of materials specifying thecomponents needed for the product beingmade-- the time that product manufacture cost
12 Question 2According to the description on page 396, the SAP system included applications for sales and distribution, materials management, production planning, quality management, and financial accounting and control. Describe, in general terms, features and functions of these applications that are necessary to provide JIS.根據 p.396的敘述，SAP 系統包含了針對「銷售和配銷、材料管理、生產規劃、品質管理、財務會計和控制」的應用程序。解釋在通常的情況下，這些應用程序的特性和功能that 是必要的以提供JIS。
13 JIS is mainly implemented with automobile manufacturing. The Description of JISJust in Sequence (JIS) is an inventory strategy that matches Just In Time and complete fit in sequence with variation of assembly line production.When implemented successfully, JIS improves a company's return on assets (ROA), without loss in quality or overall efficiency.JIS is mainly implemented with automobile manufacturing.JIS的說明JIS是一個存貨策略，需要搭配 JIT 並且在符合帶有變異的裝配線生產序列的狀態下完成。當 JIS 成功地實作，JIS 增進了一家公司的資產報酬率 (ROA) ，也沒有失去品質 , 整體效率 。JIS 主要實作於汽車製造。
14 The Efficiency of Sequencing The sequencing allows companies to eliminate supply buffers as soon as the quantity in component part buffers necessary is reduced to a minimum.If not sequencing according to scheduled variety of production, all required components must be stocked in buffers.序列的效益排序使得公司消除供應緩衝區的數量 ，當必要組成零件被減至最小值如果沒有按照生產順序來排序 ，則所有需要的組成零件都必須存放在緩衝區
15 Implementing JIS concepts A production sequence or final assembly sequence must be shared upwards to suppliers and sub-contractors.Feedback to customers must be organized according to the scheduled output to earn all positive financial effects.For this reason, the actual production sequence must be "broadcast" out to all relevant parties once it is firm.實施 JIS 概念生產序列或是最終裝配序列 必須向上分享給供應商和分包商利用預先計劃的產出來辨識出回饋資訊給顧客，以賺得正面的財務效益基於這個理由，真實的生產序列必須廣播給所有相關的各方
16 Limitations of JISIn many manufacturing operations, the actual production sequence cannot be planned ahead of time with enough certainty to enable sequencing.The main reason is that some manufacturing processes require re-work frequently so that a scheduled sequence becomes irrelevant.JIS 的限制實際生產序列沒有辦法有足夠把握地在時間之前正確地排序。主要的原因是因為有些製造程序需要頻繁地重工，因此一個預先計畫好的序列變的無關緊要。
17 The Features and Functions of Sales and Distribution The turnkey solution for the integrated handling of all tasks for sales, shipping and billing.This covers(1) fix a price(2) enter customer orders(3) set up deliveries(4) update stock levels(5) pack(6) monitor delivery(7) report on customers’ current balances(8) manage all billing and accounts receivables(9) risk management綜合處理所有銷售、運輸、計費任務的解決方案Turnkey 總控鑰匙功能 ：(1) fix a price 定價(2) enter customer orders 輸入顧客訂單 ---> 客戶訂單處理(3) set up delivers 成立交付(4) update stock levels 更新庫存(5) pack 包裝(6) monitor delivery 監督運輸(7) report on customers' current balances 報告客戶目前餘額(8) manage all billing and accounts receivables 管理結算和應收帳款(9) risk management 風險管理
18 Features and Functions of SD that are necessary to provide JIS (1) set up delivers -- When the delivery was set up, it will send a signal to production planning. (2) update stock levels -- When finding out the inventory is not enough, it will send a signal to material management.成立交付當交付時成立，它會發出一個信號給生產計劃。(2) 更新庫存當發現庫存是不夠的，它會發出一個信號給物料管理。
19 The Features and Functions of Material Management It can deal with logistics that deal with the tangible components of a supply chain .It covers(1)acquire spare parts and replacements(2)control the quality purchasing and ordering such parts(3)the standards involved in ordering, shipping, and warehousing the said parts.庫存與採購模組可以處理供應鏈裡有形元素的物流Acquisition 購置 spare parts 備用零件 logistics 物流 tangible 有形的這涵蓋：(1)購置備用零件和更換零配件(2)控制購買和訂購零配件的品質(3)管理標準對於訂貨，運輸，倉儲零配件。
20 Features and Functions of MM that are necessary to provide JIS (1)acquire spare parts and replacements-- Materials management notifies thesuppliers of the material requirementsand the sequence in which they will be needed.(1)購置備用零件和更換零配件物料管理通知供應商將會需要用到的材料和序列。
21 The Features and Functions of Production Planning Production planning performs capacity planning and creates a daily/weekly/monthly production schedule for a company’s manufacturing plants.It involves(1)forecast(2)schedule production(3)plan material生產計劃執行產能規劃，並建立每日/每週 /每月生產安排在公司的製造工廠。它包括：預測安排生產規劃物料
22 Features and Functions of PP that are necessary to provide JIS (1)schedule production -- Production planning uses the demand signal to schedule product production.安排生產生產計劃使用的需求信號來安排產品的生產。
23 The Features and Functions of Quality Management The system for quality assurance in all areas of the logistic chain throughout their entire product life cycle and react quickly when unexpected issues arise.It covers(1) plan quality(2) inspect quality(3) certificate quality(4) notify quality(5) control quality(6) test equipment management質量管理：質量保證的系統在物流鏈的所有領域並且貫穿整個產品生命週期，並且當出現意外問題時能夠快速反應它涵蓋：(1) 規劃品質 -- 創建和管理主數據是必需的（在其他項目）以計劃和執行品質檢驗。(2) 檢驗品質(3) 證明品質 -- 證實材料或產品的品質。質量認證包含文本，規範值，檢驗結果。(4) 通知品質 -- 當發生不良的產品或服務時可以透過通知系統來處理內部或外部的問題。(5) 控制品質 -- 實施不同的預防，監測和糾正的活動。這些活動是根據規格表質量規劃和評價的質量檢查和質量的通知。(6) 試驗設備管理 -- 測試設備管理功能可以用於實驗室或工廠現場測試或測量設備分級檢測(inspection)的計畫與執行。
24 Features and Functions of QM that are necessary to provide JIS (1) inspect quality (2) certificate quality -- Quality Management needs to inspect and certificate the quality of components. Improper components won’t be used even though they reached the customers at the right time, in the right sequence.(2)檢驗品質(3)證明品質 -- 證實材料或產品的品質。質量認證包含文本，規範值，檢驗結果。QM需要檢驗並証明元件的品質。不適合的元件不會被採用即使它們在對的時間對的順序下到達。
25 The Features and Functions of Financial accounting Handle all your financial transactions in one system, with comprehensive tools and reports.It involves(1)handle financial transactions, including general ledger, journal entries, budgeting(2)setup account財務會計 處理所有財務交易 ，在一個系統內，全面的工具和報告。它包括：處理財務交易 , 包括總帳、日記帳分錄、預算設置帳戶維護
26 Features and Functions of FI that are necessary to provide JIS (1)handle financial transactions, including general ledger, journal entries, budgeting -- When transactions occur, Financial Accounting need to make records for them.(1)處理財務交易 , 包括總帳、日記帳分錄、預算當交易發生時，FI 需要為此作紀錄。
27 The Features and Functions of Controlling It covers(1)provide all function activities from controlling and planning, such as budget planning (expense) and sales planning (income)(2)provide standard reporting system in coordinating all finance/accounting internal process and documents.(1)提供所有的功能活動的控制和規劃，如預算規劃（費用）和銷售規劃（收入）。(2)還提供標準的報告制度，用以協調所有金融/會計內部流程和文件。
28 Features and Functions of CO that are necessary to provide JIS (1)provide all function activities from controlling and planning -- Controlling Module controls the sequence to ensure components reach customers at the right time, in the right sequence.(1)提供所有的功能活動的控制和規劃CO模組控制序列以確保元件在對的時間對的順序下到達客戶端。
30 Question 3The Brose factory in Brazil produces more than doors for General Motors. The factory must coordinate the door orders with orders for other products and orders from other manufacturers. What kinds of IS are necessary to provide such coordinated manufacturing planning?
31 OutlineIS that provide coordinated manufacturing planning 1. Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) ♦ What is MES ♦ Function of MES 2. Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) ♦ What is APS ♦ Function of MESCompare MES & APS ♦ Similarity ♦ Difference
32 What Is MESMES is an modular information system that can manage operations from receiving the order, internal production began to product completion, planning and coordinating all production activities.It can make products on-time delivery, improve inventory turns by making manufacturing schedule.When production activities in an emergency, you can also provide on-site emergency treatment information.MES(Manufacturing Execution System，製造執行管理系統/生產執行系統。
33 Function of MESFunction for coordinated manufacturing planning : 1. Manufacturing/Operations SchedulingCollecting and analyzing data from orders, and concluding useful information like priority or characteristic of orders. Then making manufacturing scheduling by those information.2. Dispatching production ordersAssigning operations that are necessary. Allow modifying schedule that has made if there had any exception event occurring.
34 What Is APSAPS has powerful manufacturing planning and scheduling functions. Because it uses many progressive management planning techniques, including Theory of Constraints (Theory of Constraints, TOC), Operations Research (Operations Research, OR), genetic algorithms play (Genetic Algorithms, GA), etc.It’s used to support and coordinate the manufacturing planning-related decisions. Limited resources, the pursuit of the balance between supply and demand planning; the same time, the use of information storage and analysis capabilities in the shortest possible time, to achieve the most effective planning.先進規劃與排程系統 (Advanced Planning and Scheduling,APS)
35 Function of APS(1)Function for coordinated manufacturing planning : 1.Synchronized planningAccording to business objectives, while considering the company's overall supply and demand conditions, it makes supply planning and demand planning Optimization planningAt the same time taking into consideration corporate limits, to work out a feasible and optimized manufacturing planning.
36 Function of APS(2) 3. Real-time planning Collecting a variety of real-time production data and real-time analysis and planning immediately, so planners can deal with many unexpected situations. It can deal with exception event such as delays in the supply of materials or emergency plug single immediately and quickly Provide decision support capabilities APS predicted by simulation, and analysis tools available will help planners to use in the analysis, and then made the right decisions.
37 Compare MES & APS(1) Similarity： MES Reducing manufacturing cycle. AdvantageMESReducing manufacturing cycle.Reducing order processing error.Reducing time of managing schedule.Dealing with exception event .Satisfying customer’s order rapidly and Flexibility.APS
38 Compare MES & APS(2) Difference： MES APS Advantage Disadvantage MES is a huge system, which includes all operations in the production process, not just the scheduling plan. Selecting it at the same time, also get other functions such as collect information, coordination, implementation and supervision of production functions.However, if you just want to find a system for schedule planning, many of its features may be with your original system to produce conflict.APSAfter comparing with MES, APS as a system for schedule planning, which can be both its advantages, but also can be a disadvantage, depending on the needs of the administrator why.
40 Question 4Brazilians speak Portuguese, workers in the United States speak English and Spanish, and personnel at the Brose headquarters speak German. Summarize challenges to Brose and SAP Consulting when implementing a system for users who speak four different languages and live in (at least) four different cultures.
42 Language Differences(1) 1.Communication and understanding problem :Cause : users may not understand how to operate systemSolution : need to provide multi-languages functions, but some translation may not be very accurate.(e.g. computer=laptop=desk-top computer=notebook but laptop focus on putting it on the lap, desk-top computer usually put on the desk, notebook is focus on it's portable ,even it means all the same thing, but it focus on different things. Cause Americans call it based on it's use.)
43 Language Differences(2) 2.Accent problem :Cause : users may make misunderstanding when contacting company talking about the system problemsSolution: use automatic online translators (Portuguese、 English、German、Spanish) or use s instead of phone.(link – someone is asking for help and saying “we are sinking”, but the one get this message heard wrongly as the word “thinking”, so he asked what are you thinking about?)3.口音不同(Accent) >accent is very heavy in German , and lighter in USA and speaking is very fast in brazilian
44 Language Differences(3) 3. Dialect problem :Cause : users may make misunderstanding or not understand when contacting company talking about the system problemsSolution : use each country's official language, rather than 1 standard language(e.g. Brazil use Portuguese ; Germany use German ; USA use English )and use automatic online translators (Portuguese、English、 German、Spanish)
45 Cultural Differences(1) Thoughts problem :Jokes 1: If there’s a fly in the beer, Chinese may drink it half then ask for compensate , then do it again at next store, put fly in the beer ; American will find lawyer immediately ; French won’t pay ; England people may say something humorous ; but German may pick fly out ,and test seriously whether there are germs in the beer. (link)想法不一樣(Thoughts) 還有一則笑話是說，如果啤酒裏有一個蒼蠅，中國人會直接喝半杯 在要求賠償 ,在到下一家做一次 把蒼蠅放到啤酒裡;美國人會馬上找律師，法國人會拒不付錢，英國人會幽默幾句，而德國人則會用鑷子夾出蒼蠅，並慎重其事地化驗啤酒裏是否已經有了細菌。(http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/6/11/28/n htm)
46 Cultural Differences(2) Joke 2 :If losing one dollar in the street , Chinese spit and say the one who pick it up then buy some medicine; American may call police, report case and left phone number, then leaving with chewing gum; England people never panic, just walk away gentlemanly; Japanese must hate himself without carefulness, and Examines himself repeatedly at home; German may draw coordinate within losing 100 meter square , and using magnifier to search it .(link)一則是說，若是在大街上遺失一元錢，中國人而是狠狠地在地上吐口吐沫，然後大罵一句："哼，誰拾到誰就去買藥吃！"於是心理上就平衡了。這種阿Ｑ主義曾被魯迅先生深刻地批判過，我們周圍就有這樣的人，不算醜化。,,,,英國人決不驚慌，至多聳一下肩就依然很紳士地往前走去，好象什麽事也沒發生一樣。美國人則很可能喚來警察，報案 之後留下電話，然後嚼著口香糖揚長而去。日本人一定很痛恨自己的粗心大意，回到家中反復檢討，決不讓自己再遺失第二次。惟獨德國人與衆不同，會立即在遺失 地點的１００平方米之內，劃上座標和方格，一格一格地用放大鏡去尋找。
47 Cultural Differences(3) 1.Thoughts problem :Cause : the ways users operate system may differentSolution : Ask them why they do things this way, maybe the system need to correct to be more simple to use ,train users how to use, and communicate more(e.g. of communicate more : Make presentation, , write reports…etc.)
48 Cultural Differences(4) 2. Habits problem :Cause : the ways users operate system may different(e.g. Germans are more careful than others)Solution : make guidelines for operating system and train users how to manipulatesystem
49 Cultural Differences(5) 3. Management form problem :Cause : Brose headquarters may cause management system failureSolution : There are 3 management types :1.Arbitrary 2.democracy 3.mixedChoose what it suits for users, and train users how to manage and maintain system .專斷型、混合型、民主型三種
50 Cultural Differences(6) 4 . Emphasize on products problem :Cause : the needs of function when users operate system may different.Solution : After hearing all users’ opinions, making the best method to fit different needs.(e.g. US focus on efficiency , but Germany focus on quality, then find a way to manage system and produce very few defection to make it safely and high production.)4Emphasize on productsex: US—efficiency <Lexus、Toyota、GM、Ford>(銷量大) ; Germany—quality<BMW、Porsche、Benz、Audi>(技术含量高，安全性高)
52 Question 5Visit and investigate SAP for Automotive with JIS. What features and functions does this product have that standard SAP R/3 does not have? What advantages does SAP obtain by creating and licensing this product? What advantages do SAP’s customers obtain from this product? In your response, consider both R/3 customers who are and who are not automotive manufacturing.
53 SAP for Automotive – Overview Video SAP for Automotive: Technology to Drive the Future (video link)
54 SAP for Automotive – Users Automotive component and material suppliersAutomotive manufacturersAutomotive dealersAutomotive sales and service organizations使用SAP for Automotive系統的組織有：汽車零件供應商，例如本文所提的Brose Group汽車製造商汽車經銷商汽車銷售與服務據點
55 SAP for Automotive – Business Process Workforce and Talent ManagementFinancial Performance ManagementOperations ManagementProduct ManagementSales and ServiceSAP for Automotive可以改善以下企業流程：勞動力與人才管理財務績效管理營運管理產品管理銷售與服務
56 Workforce and Talent Management Core human resources and payrollStandardize and consolidate all workforce-related process and data onto one platform.Talent ManagementIncrease organizational performance, avoid loss of key talent, and reduce recruiting and training costs.Workforce scheduling and optimizationImprove the productivity of the field service workforce.Optimize the usage of resources for field service and plant maintenance scheduling.1. 核心人力資源與薪資SAP for Automotive會將所有與人力資源相關的流程和資料整合到一個平台使用者可以在平台上管理員工資料、計算薪資……2. 人才管理人才管理可以提高組織績效避免重要人才的損失，也可以減少了招募與訓練的成本3. 人力調度與最佳化適當的人力調度可以提高現場人力的生產力將設備資源最佳化
57 Financial Performance Management (1) Enterprise performance managementProvide optimal control and empower all stakeholders to respond quickly to dynamic business conditions.Financial closeAutomate and standardize labor-intensive tasks, and then enable faster cycle times, greater accuracy, and lower operating costs.1. 企業績效管理提供了最佳的控制並授權給所有的股東，使他們能快速反應企業狀況2. 財務結算將勞力密集型的工作自動化與標準化，像是做分類帳及公司間的對帳，都可以透過這個產品自動化這樣將使準確性提高、營運成本降低
58 Financial Performance Management (2) Financial analytics and reportingGive users the information and analytical tools that they need to conduct value-added analysis.Risk managementAutomate and monitor key risks and controls to maximize strategic and operational effectiveness.3. 財務分析與報告給使用者一些資訊與分析工具，例如：使用者可以利用這個軟體進行附加價值分析4. 風險管理這個產品會自動監控風險，可以提高策略和營運效益
59 Operations Management (1) Make-to-order manufacturingMake-to-order is a manufacturing process in which manufacturing starts only after a customer's order is received.Improve capacity utilization while reducing work-in- process inventories, material cost, and working capital requirements.※名詞定義Make-to-order manufacturing：收到顧客訂單後才開始製造Work-in-process inventory：尚未完成、仍在製造中的產品Capacity utilization：產能利用率=實際產出/設計產能*100%1. 按訂單生產按訂單生產可以提高產能利用率，並且減少在製品庫存、原料成本，以及營運資金的需求
60 Operations Management (2) Inbound logisticsSave time and money and improve operational efficiency when users order parts using forecast, just-in-time, or supplier-managed inventory.Outbound logisticsFacilitate internal and external logistics collaboration to increase speed and efficiency, improve capacity utilization, and reduce logistics cost.2. 對內物流（供應商公司，採購）藉由訂購零件時採用預測的方式、just-in-time，或供應商管理庫存等方法，節省時間與金錢，提升營運效率3. 對外物流（公司客戶）促進內部和外部物流的合作，提高速度與效率、增進產能利用率，以及減少物流成本※名詞定義Supplier-managed inventory(供應商管理庫存)：供應商收到下游顧客的銷售資料及目前的存貨水準後，再依據預先制定的存貨水準來補顧客的存貨。
61 Product Management Continuous product and service innovation Improve competitive differentiation and help ensure profitable growth by responding quickly and successfully to customer and market needs.Integrated product developmentIntegrate product development processes to accelerate time to profit for new products.1. 持續的創新產品與服務增加產品的競爭差異性，使產品在同業競爭中脫穎而出並且快速回應顧客與市場的需求，確保收益的增長2. 整合產品發展整合產品發展的流程，加快新產品的獲利時間
62 Sales and Service Aftersales support and service Align all aftersales service to maximize revenue, improve customer service, and reduce costs.Dealer business managementStreamline and automate dealer operations, making it easier for customers to buy automobile and acquire need services or accessories.※名詞定義售後服務包括了：服務的銷售與行銷、顧客服務、服務傳遞、服務的零件物流經銷商作業包括了：顧客管理、汽車銷售與管理、汽車服務與零件的管理1. 售後服務將售後服務做好，可以增加利潤、增進顧客服務，以及減少成本2. 經銷商企業管理將經銷商作業自動化，使顧客更容易購買汽車或是得到所需的服務或汽車配件
63 Question 5-1What features and functions does this product (SAP for Automotive) have that standard SAP R/3 does not have?Answer 5-1Operations Management – Make-to-order manufacturingReason:Make-to-Order is a manufacturing process, so this function is suitable for manufacturing industry, such as the automotive manufacturing industry.比較SAP for Automotive和SAP R/3SAP for Automotive 與 SAP R/3 的功能相似，但 SAP for Automotive 的功能是針對汽車製造加以設計SAP for Automotive是適用於汽車業的ERP系統，而 SAP R/3 是一般行業皆可以使用的ERP系統The component SAP for Automotive enhances SAP ERP Core Component (SAP ECC) with industry-specific functions for the complex demands of the automotive industry.
64 Answer 5-1Product Management – Continuous product and service innovationReason:The above-mentioned words, “product” and “service”, mean that automotive product and service. SAP for Automotive would investigate the demand of automotive customers and market, enable the automotive industry to continue product and service innovation.Product Management – Integrated product developmentThe above-mentioned word, “product” , means that automotive product. SAP for Automotive must understand the automotive manufacturing process, enable automotive industry to integrate the product development.
65 Question 5-2What advantages does SAP obtain by creating and licensing this product (SAP for Automotive) ?Answer 5-2Stable customer source and incomeCustomers and buyers who belong to the automotive industry are locked in, and SAP will have the stable customer source and income.Promote the other productsAt the same time, SAP can promote the other products to the users of SAP for Automotive.SAP公司從這個產品獲得了什麼利益？
66 Question 5-3What advantages do SAP’s customers obtain from this product (SAP for Automotive) ?In your response, consider both R/3 customers who are and who are not automotive manufacturing.SAP的顧客可以從這個產品(SAP for Automotive)獲得什麼利益？
67 Answer 5-3 ★ For the customer who are automotive manufacturing: Improved efficiencyThis product allows user to maximize revenue opportunity, manage and control costs, improve quality, and accelerate time to delivery.Reduce riskThis product allows user to get early warning of variation in demand, customer requirement, and economic conditions.
68 Answer 5-3 3. Higher sales 4. Faster time to market This product enables user to anticipate and adapt to market needs, identify new business opportunities, and explore new ways to grow market share revenues, and profits.4. Faster time to marketThis product accelerate time to market by enhancing communication, improving collaboration.
69 Answer 5-3 5. Improved supply chain management Locate-to-Order, make-to-order, and make-to-stock processes provide insights into demand, inventory, and capacity.6. Enhanced aftermarket serviceWith this product, user can understand customer needs, enhance customer service, and provide better support to maximize revenues.Locate-to-Order：比其他經銷商更快找到特定車型（參考網路的）In MTS (Make to Stock), products are manufactured based on demand forecasts.
70 Answer 5-3 ★ For the customer who are not automotive manufacturing: Customers in other industries do not have to purchase a product with specific functionality for automotive that do not apply to them.
72 Question 66.1 Brose seeks to provide JIS service to its customers. Does this goal necessitate that Brose suppliers also provide JIS service to Brose?6.2 What can Brose do if its suppliers do not provide such service?6.3 Is there any reason why Brose would not want them to provide such service?
73 6.1 Brose seeks to provide JIS service to its customers. Does this goal necessitate thatBrose suppliers also provide JIS service toBrose?Yes, this goal necessitates that Brose suppliers also provide JIS service to Brose.1. Pick-to-sequence:Reduce buffers in production area, improving wip and cycle time.2. Ship-to-sequence then Receive-to-sequence:Reduce the amount of component and semi-finished goods inventory overall in the plant, freeing up cash, and reducing carrying costs.3. Make-Assemble-Build-to-sequence:Reduce the amount of finished goods or semi-finished goods in inventory, freeing up additional cash, and reducing carrying costs.
74 6.2 What can Brose do if its suppliers do not provide JIS service?Brose can:1. Zero inventory makes Brose dosen’t need to spend any cost on building storehouse.2. Efficient productions by JIS service.3. Show the SAP Appraisal table to Brose suppliers to prove Brose have had a lower cost by JIS service.
75 6.3 Is there any reason why Brose would not want Brose suppliers to provide JIS service? If the inflation of raw materials is happened, the zero inventory will make Brose get the raw materials more expensive, that is, if the suppliers have the stocks, Brose will get much cheaper raw materials to save its costs.
76 How Brose suppliers provide JIS to Brose 1. A production sequence or final assembly sequence must be shared upwards to suppliers and sub-contractors.2. Production sequence must be "broadcast" out to all relevant parties once it is firm. This "broadcast" can be done over the phone, paper, , or other automated IT system.3. Once the sequence is broadcast, each party must immediately take action to deliver sequenced parts in time.4. Quality inspection and poka-yoke must be implemented in the sequencing step to guarantee that the sequenced components match the assembly sequence perfectly.
77 Poka-yoke1. A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka).2. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur.
79 Question 7Describe Three Specific Ways That Brose’s Investment In SAP Will Help It Survive The Automotive Crisis.
80 CrisisBrose found that too many IS will cause lack of standardization and hampered communication.When using the new ERP application, Brose’s employers do not really know how it works.Brose increased productivity, but cause some problem.OverproductionUnavailable needed parts.Wasted process
81 Specific Ways Use SAP R/3- an ERP application licensed by SAP SAP lead the projectLean ManufacturingJust in Sequence
82 SAP R/3Definition:SAP R/3 is the former name of the main enterprise resource planning software produced by SAP AG.An enterprise-wide information system designed to coordinate all the resources, information, and activities needed to complete business process.SAP公司的R / 3 是以前的名稱，主要 企業資源規劃 軟件製作的 SAP公司 。 這是一個企業級信息系統，旨在協調所有的資源，信息和活動所需的完整的業務流程
83 SAP R/3 SAP R/3 solve crisis 1. Brose use SAP R/3 to standardize operations.
84 SAP lead the projectSAP team provided process consulting and implementation support and it trained users.SAP’s consultant and Brose’s experts worked openly , flexibly and constructively.
85 Lean manufacturing Definition Lean Manufacturing , referred to as lean , eliminate waste non-use of continuous rather than batch processesSolve crisis 3It can eliminate excess inventoriesIt can eliminate idle workers and facilitiesIt can eliminate wasted process精益生產(Lean Manufacturing)，簡稱“精益”，利用杜絕浪費和無間斷的作業流程──而非分批和排隊等候──的一種生產方式。
86 JISDefinition :JIS extends JIT so that parts not only arrive just in time , but also arrive in just the correct sequenceTo achieve JIS , Brose used SAP R/3 combined with a supplementary SAP module called SAP for Automotive with JISJIS solve crisis 3.為了達成精實生產，SAP發明了一種JIS的生產流。JIS 是JIT的延伸。JIS讓零件不僅剛好抵達，而且是以剛好正確的順序抵達。
90 Introduction (1)Accelerated SAP (ASAP) is SAP’s standard implementation methodology.It contains the Roadmap, a step-by-step guide that incorporates experience from many years of implementing R/3.
91 Introduction (2)The ASAP methodology adheres to a specific road map that addresses the following five general phases:
92 Phase 1: Project Preparation During this phase the team goes through initial planning and preparation for SAP project.1Goal SettingDefine project goals and objectives2Implementation strategy1.Clarify the scope of implementation2.Establish the project organization and relevant committees and assign resources3Implementation SequenceDefine sequence in project has to be executed4TeamCore team + project team + consultant team5Sign OffAt the end of phase every above steps will be documented and will be signed off with the client
93 Phase 2: Business Blueprint The purpose of this phase is to achieve a common understanding of how the company intends to run SAP to support their business.The result is the Business Blueprint, a detailed documentation of the results gathered during requirements workshops.
94 Phase 3: RealizationThe purpose of this phase is to implement all the business process requirements based on the Business Blueprint.The system configuration methodology is provided in 2 work packages:1.Baseline (major scope)2.Final configuration (remaining scope).In this phase also we have create documentation for the configuration implemented and it has to be taken sign off from client.
95 Phase 4: Final Preparation The purpose of this is to complete the final preparation,which includes to the following.1Unit TestingTesting within each module.2Integration TestingIntegrate testing of module ie., combine testing of all the modules which is implemented.3User training and TestingEnd users of each module will be provided training by corresponding module consultant. End user training document and user manuals has to be prepared. This documents has to be taken sign of f from the client4Cut over StrategyBefore Go Live phase there will cut-over period for business process is carried. During Cut-Over period the master data and transaction data from legacy system will be migrated to SAP system. There are various tools available for this purpose LSMW, SCAT, BDC.
96 Phase 5: Go Live and Hyper care The purpose of this phase is to move from a project- oriented, pre-production environment to live production operation.After Go Live the system is kept under motoring for support for a small period, “Hyper care.”
97 Oracle E-Business Suite Implementation Methodology
99 Phase 1: Planning (1) Planning Phase consists of two Activities: Project SetupProject Kick Off
100 Phase 1: Planning (2) Project Setup This step consists of working with the Project board to plan all future activities, agreeing the scope of project, roles and responsibilities, resources and setting up project controls.
101 Phase 1: Planning (3) Project Kick Off A kick off meeting is organized which introduces the team resources from both client and implementer, setting the scene and briefing all resources on their roles and responsibilities.
102 Phase 2: Design (1) Design Phase consists of 3 steps: Initial Training Business Flow DemosAnswer Questionnaire
103 Phase 2: Design (2) Initial Training This is a high level training of the clients resources of the Accelerator process being followed, ensuring that they all understand the steps involved and their involvement in that process.
104 Phase 2: Design (3) Business Flow Demos This is designed to facilitate user understanding of how the processes operate, identify differences to their own processes, so that the consultants can identify configuration settings and changes required to meet the customer needs.
105 Phase 2: Design (4) Answer Questionnaire The Questionnaire is pre-loaded with industry standard setup information, such as the Organization Structure, the Chart of Accounts and standard value sets for account codes.
106 Adjust Design As Required Phase 3: Build (1)Build Phase has 5 steps:Run Setup ToolGap AnalysisAdjust Design As RequiredRun Setup Toolon new instance
107 Phase 3: Build (2) Run Setup Tool Based on the answers in the questionnaire, a setup script will be created which is run on a test instance.
108 Phase 3: Build (3) Gap Analysis The consultants will review the issues and gaps and determine what course of action is required to overcome the issues.Depending on the nature and severity of the change required these may be handled as change notices to the project scope.
109 Phase 3: Build (4)Run Setup tool on new instance if changes are required to the core design.If changes to the setup tool are required, then a second run of the tool can be carried out on a clean database.
110 Phase 4: Testing (1) The Testing Phase consists of 3 steps: Review/Modify Testing ScriptsPerform System TestingSystem Acceptance
111 Review/Modify Test Scripts Phase 4: Testing (2)Review/Modify Test ScriptsTest scripts should reflect the implemented business processes with user data and should cover all business scenarios to ensure the business needs are met.
112 Perform System Testing Phase 4: Testing (3)Perform System TestingSystem Acceptance Testing is carried out by the Client users, supported by the consultants to ensure that the system functions as designed.
113 Phase 4: Testing (4) System Acceptance Once the system acceptance testing is satisfactorily completed, the system is ready to be implemented.
114 Phase 5: Transition and Go-Live Final Data LoadThe transition period also needs to be carefully managed to ensure smooth transition between use of legacy systems and use of the new implementation system.Go LiveThis is the ramping up of activity within the new system, and involves ensuring that all transactions are working correctly and that all users understand the activities they need to follow.
116 (iii) Describe the ERP system implementation methodology provided by Oracle for PeopleSoft Enterprise
117 (iii) Describe the ERP system implementation methodology provided by Oracle for PeopleSoft Enterprise(1)1.Project Planning:Plan the engagement to the task level based upon the current information2.Analysis and Design:Gather additional data in order to prepare preliminary designs to meet the desired results
118 (iii) Describe the ERP system implementation methodology provided by Oracle for PeopleSoft Enterprise(2)3.Configuration and Programming: Configure the application to process in such a manner to meet expectations using best practices4.Testing:Test the functionality of the configured system and the operational readiness
119 (iii) Describe the ERP system implementation methodology provided by Oracle for PeopleSoft Enterprise(3)5.Transition:Coordinate and inform all organizations of the solution6.Post Production:Make appropriate adjustments and fine tune the solution
120 (iv) Describe the ERP system implementation methodology provided by Oracle for JD Edwards EnterpriseOne(1)ASSESS(2)PLAN & ANALYZE(3)DESIGN & CONSTRUCT(4)TEST(5)DEPLOY & SUPPORT
121 1.ASSESS - (1)Business drivers – which business issues are motivating actionStakeholders – who will benefit and are investing in the solutionProject objectives – what are the specific objectives that must be met to achieve successFunctional review – identify business requirements for system alignment
122 1.ASSESS – (2)Technical review – assess current and desired-state infrastructure requirementsResources – assess the organizational capacity to support a change initiativeAssess project risks, assumptions and constraintsDefinition of preliminary scope
123 2.PLAN & ANALYZE – (1) Project strategy workshop Definition of final project scopeIdentification/commitment of project resourcesDefinition of project roles/responsibilitiesDevelopment of communications plan
124 2.PLAN & ANALYZE – (2) Assessment of project risk Determination of project documentation standardsProject kickoff meetingInstallation of softwareData conversion
125 3.DESIGN & CONSTRUCT Net change/technical staff training Software configurationDevelopment of preliminary menusDevelopment of security strategyValidation of data conversionsDevelopment of custom code (reports, interfaces, modifications) requirements and specificationsDevelopment/unit tests of custom codeDevelopment of technical documentationDevelopment of end-user documentation
126 4.TEST Development of test scripts Integration testing Performance testingUser acceptance testingAdjustments to software configurationAdjustments to custom codeAdjustments to securityPerformance tuning
127 5.DEPLOY & SUPPORT Review and resolve outstanding issues Deliver remaining end-user trainingDevelop cutover planDeliver cutover communicationsPerform final data conversionValidate final data conversionProvide post go-live support
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