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Unit 4 Respond the following ten statements by saying true or false. If it is false, turn it into a true one. Respond the following ten statements by saying.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Respond the following ten statements by saying true or false. If it is false, turn it into a true one. Respond the following ten statements by saying."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Respond the following ten statements by saying true or false. If it is false, turn it into a true one. Respond the following ten statements by saying true or false. If it is false, turn it into a true one. You cannot read most efficiently if you do not write between the lines. You cannot read most efficiently if you do not write between the lines. As soon as you have bought a book, the book belongs to you. As soon as you have bought a book, the book belongs to you. According to the author, books should not be kept as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. According to the author, books should not be kept as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. According to the author, you can mark up any books that belong to yourself. According to the author, you can mark up any books that belong to yourself. Marking up a book while reading can keep you from dozing off. Marking up a book while reading can keep you from dozing off. Books should be read in a state of relaxation. Books should be read in a state of relaxation. Your reading is active when you have filled the pages of the book with your notes. Reading a book is somewhat like having a conversation with the author. Your reading is active when you have filled the pages of the book with your notes. Reading a book is somewhat like having a conversation with the author. Learning means absorbing whatever you are exposed to on the subject. Learning means absorbing whatever you are exposed to on the subject. By marking a book, the author only means writing in the margin of the page. By marking a book, the author only means writing in the margin of the page.

2 This article can be divided into three parts: This article can be divided into three parts: A (Para 1) The author puts forward his argument directly --- Unless you write between lines, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading. A (Para 1) The author puts forward his argument directly --- Unless you write between lines, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading. B (Para 2 10) The author tells us the importance of marking up a book. B (Para 2 10) The author tells us the importance of marking up a book. C (Para 11) Marking a book is an expression of the reader s agreements or differences of opinion with the author. This serves as a convincing ending. C (Para 11) Marking a book is an expression of the reader s agreements or differences of opinion with the author. This serves as a convincing ending. This article has a close structure, vivid and friendly in writing. The This article has a close structure, vivid and friendly in writing. The author uses a great deal of rhetorical expressions such as comparison, author uses a great deal of rhetorical expressions such as comparison, figure of speech, classification and so forth which make the whole figure of speech, classification and so forth which make the whole article sound lively and cordial. So reader can naturally agree with the article sound lively and cordial. So reader can naturally agree with the author s arguments. author s arguments.

3 Words and phrases: Words and phrases: 1. persuade: vt. cause(sb.) to do sth. by reasoning, arguing,etc. 1. persuade: vt. cause(sb.) to do sth. by reasoning, arguing,etc. persuade sb. of sth. persuade sb. of sth. persuade sb. that … persuade sb. that … eg: How can I persuade you of my sincerity / that I am sincere? eg: How can I persuade you of my sincerity / that I am sincere? persuade sb. into / out of doing sth. persuade sb. into / out of doing sth. eg: Can you persuade her out of her foolish plan? eg: Can you persuade her out of her foolish plan? we finally persuaded grandpa into moving to the city. we finally persuaded grandpa into moving to the city. persuade sb.to do sth. persuade sb.to do sth. eg: He was persuaded to stay in bed for three days more. eg: He was persuaded to stay in bed for three days more.

4 2. property: (collectively) things owned; possessions 2. property: (collectively) things owned; possessions eg: Much of his property was destroyed by the fire. eg: Much of his property was destroyed by the fire. 3. prelude: action, event, etc. that serves as an introduction 3. prelude: action, event, etc. that serves as an introduction eg: The discussions were a prelude to the treaty. eg: The discussions were a prelude to the treaty. 4. possession: n. possessing; ownership; (pl.) property 4. possession: n. possessing; ownership; (pl.) property eg: He had few possessions. eg: He had few possessions. in one s (sb s) possession (= in the possession of sb.) in one s (sb s) possession (= in the possession of sb.) eg: The house has been in the family s possession for nearly 90 years. eg: The house has been in the family s possession for nearly 90 years.

5 5. transfer: vt. hand over the possession of; change officially from one position,etc. to another 5. transfer: vt. hand over the possession of; change officially from one position,etc. to another eg: That world-famous soccer star has been transferred from a Spanish club to an Italian one. eg: That world-famous soccer star has been transferred from a Spanish club to an Italian one. 6. absorb: vt.take or suck in (liquids); take in (knowledge, ideas. etc.) 6. absorb: vt.take or suck in (liquids); take in (knowledge, ideas. etc.) eg: White surfaces do not absorb much heat or light. eg: White surfaces do not absorb much heat or light. The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him. give him.

6 7. dig into: read or study for a short time or without much attention 7. dig into: read or study for a short time or without much attention eg: In my spare time, I like to dip into my favorite authors. eg: In my spare time, I like to dip into my favorite authors. Some books are to be read seriously, others to be dipped into. Some books are to be read seriously, others to be dipped into. 8.resume: vt.go on after stopping for a time 8.resume: vt.go on after stopping for a time eg: They resumed their journey after a short rest. eg: They resumed their journey after a short rest. After lunch he resumed reading where he had left off. After lunch he resumed reading where he had left off. 9.literally: ad. actually; virtually 9.literally: ad. actually; virtually eg: The children were literally starving. eg: The children were literally starving.

7 Language Points: 1 ….you have to read between the lines to get the most out of anything: 1 ….you have to read between the lines to get the most out of anything: … while reading you must look for what is implied if you want to get the greatest benefit from any reading material … while reading you must look for what is implied if you want to get the greatest benefit from any reading material 2. mark up a book: make symbolic marks in a book for the purpose of comment, emphasis, etc. 2. mark up a book: make symbolic marks in a book for the purpose of comment, emphasis, etc. 3. If you decide that I am right about the usefulness of marking books … : 3. If you decide that I am right about the usefulness of marking books … : If one conclude that I am correct in saying that it s useful to mark books … If one conclude that I am correct in saying that it s useful to mark books …

8 4. There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for clothes and furniture. But this act of purchase is only the prelude to possession. Full ownership comes … : 4. There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for clothes and furniture. But this act of purchase is only the prelude to possession. Full ownership comes … : If one buys a book, he becomes its owner. In other words, he has established the property right over the book by paying for it. This is the usual meaning of ownership. The author proposes a second Meaning, what he calls full ownership. Buying a book is not enough fully own it, he argues. One has to read it carefully to make it fully his. If one buys a book, he becomes its owner. In other words, he has established the property right over the book by paying for it. This is the usual meaning of ownership. The author proposes a second Meaning, what he calls full ownership. Buying a book is not enough fully own it, he argues. One has to read it carefully to make it fully his.

9 5. I d no more scribble all over a first edition of Paradise Lost than I d give my baby a set of crayons and an original Rembrandt: 5. I d no more scribble all over a first edition of Paradise Lost than I d give my baby a set of crayons and an original Rembrandt: I wouldn t write carelessly on the pages of a first edition of Paradise Lost, just as I wouldn't give my baby a set of crayons and an original painting by Rembrandt and risk the danger of having the picture ruined. I wouldn t write carelessly on the pages of a first edition of Paradise Lost, just as I wouldn't give my baby a set of crayons and an original painting by Rembrandt and risk the danger of having the picture ruined. 6. You don t absorb the ideas of John Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of Mr. Vallee: 6. You don t absorb the ideas of John Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of Mr. Vallee: You do not take in the profound ideas in the books written by John Dewey in the same manner as you enjoy Mr. Vallee s soothing songs. You do not take in the profound ideas in the books written by John Dewey in the same manner as you enjoy Mr. Vallee s soothing songs.

10 7. You have to reach for them: 7. You have to reach for them: You have to make a great effort to understand the ideas of John Dewey. You have to make a great effort to understand the ideas of John Dewey. 8. an integrated structure: 8. an integrated structure: a structure in which the parts are brought into a whole; an organic whole a structure in which the parts are brought into a whole; an organic whole 9. This outline is, to me, the measure of my understanding of the work: 9. This outline is, to me, the measure of my understanding of the work: To my mind, this outline is a check on how much I have understood the work. To my mind, this outline is a check on how much I have understood the work.

11 Unit 5 Network Designer Tim Berners-Lee

12 1. Internet 1. Internet The Internet is an international computer system that links both business and private users, one of the greatest inventions of the human history. The Internet is an international computer system that links both business and private users, one of the greatest inventions of the human history. 2. Other terms: protocols, packet switching, hypertext, HTML, HTTP and W3 Consortium 2. Other terms: protocols, packet switching, hypertext, HTML, HTTP and W3 Consortium Please refer to the Student s Book, Page Please refer to the Student s Book, Page 86-86

13 3. Introductory questions: 3. Introductory questions: 1) What nationality is Tim Berners-Lee? 1) What nationality is Tim Berners-Lee? 2) Is he a university graduate? 2) Is he a university graduate? 3) When did he begin to take an interest in the computer? 3) When did he begin to take an interest in the computer? 4) Did he work in a research institute specializing in computer science? 4) Did he work in a research institute specializing in computer science? 5) Was he given the assignment of designing the World Wide Web or did he hit upon the idea just by accident? 5) Was he given the assignment of designing the World Wide Web or did he hit upon the idea just by accident? 6) What was it that made WWW a reality? 6) What was it that made WWW a reality?

14 II. Language points II. Language points 1. launch: to send something straight into the air. 1. launch: to send something straight into the air. Rockets or certain jet planes are launched. Rockets or certain jet planes are launched. China is very good at launching satellites. China is very good at launching satellites. a ship a ship an artificial satellite an artificial satellite launch one's son into the world launch one's son into the world a new enterprise a new enterprise an attack an attack a mass production movement a mass production movement

15 2. zip off: move or act with a speed that suggests such a sound: 2. zip off: move or act with a speed that suggests such a sound: act or proceed swiftly and energetically: act or proceed swiftly and energetically: The cars zipped by endlessly. The cars zipped by endlessly. The young boy zipped through her homework so that he could go swimming with his buddies. The young boy zipped through her homework so that he could go swimming with his buddies.

16 3. exotic: from another part of the world; foreign 3. exotic: from another part of the world; foreign e.g. exotic tropical plants in a greenhouse e.g. exotic tropical plants in a greenhouse intriguingly unusual or different; excitingly strange: intriguingly unusual or different; excitingly strange: e.g. exotic costumes from the Far East e.g. exotic costumes from the Far East an exotic purple bird an exotic purple bird

17 4. encumber: put a heavy load on; burden 4. encumber: put a heavy load on; burden a hiker who was encumbered with a heavy pack; a hiker who was encumbered with a heavy pack; a life that has always been encumbered with responsibilities. a life that has always been encumbered with responsibilities. a plantation encumbered with mortgages a plantation encumbered with mortgages

18 5. father: to procreate (offspring) as the male parent. 5. father: to procreate (offspring) as the male parent. to act or serve as a father to (a child). to act or serve as a father to (a child). to create, found, or originate. to create, found, or originate. 6. build on : 6. build on : This part of the hospital was built on later. This part of the hospital was built on later. His argument is built on facts. (base on) His argument is built on facts. (base on) The insurance business is built on trust. The insurance business is built on trust.

19 7. come across: to meet or find by chance: 7. come across: to meet or find by chance: Surprisingly enough, I came across my old college roommate in town today. Surprisingly enough, I came across my old college roommate in town today. 8. access to the Internet --- the opportunity to use the Internet 8. access to the Internet --- the opportunity to use the Internet Access: the means or opportunity or right to use or see something, always following by the preposition to Access: the means or opportunity or right to use or see something, always following by the preposition to In a university library, we have access to large numbers of academic books. In a university library, we have access to large numbers of academic books. In our country, every child is granted access to education. In our country, every child is granted access to education.

20 9. Where excellence is not an act but a habit. 9. Where excellence is not an act but a habit. Where high quality is not just something someone does on certain occasions, but rather something that one does regularly and that one finds it difficult to stop doing. Where high quality is not just something someone does on certain occasions, but rather something that one does regularly and that one finds it difficult to stop doing. 10. It started, of all places, in the Swiss Alps. 10. It started, of all places, in the Swiss Alps. Surprisingly enough, such a fact did not take place in an industrial city or town but in the Swiss Alps, Surprisingly enough, such a fact did not take place in an industrial city or town but in the Swiss Alps, which seemed to be remote from industry. which seemed to be remote from industry.

21 11. on the seventh day: (phrase from the Bible, the last day of creation) 11. on the seventh day: (phrase from the Bible, the last day of creation) 12. fashion: v. give shape or form to; make: 12. fashion: v. give shape or form to; make: He fashioned the clay into a jar. He fashioned the clay into a jar. The carpenter fashioned a table from a redwood burl. The carpenter fashioned a table from a redwood burl. 13. hack: work on the computer skillfully 13. hack: work on the computer skillfully hack --- hacker hack --- hacker 14. pretend: a. imitation; make-believe 14. pretend: a. imitation; make-believe pretend money; pretend pearls. pretend money; pretend pearls.

22 15. overstate: exaggerate 15. overstate: exaggerate overstate one's case overstate one's case 16. be content to do sth.: to be satisfied or pleased with 16. be content to do sth.: to be satisfied or pleased with With my new bedroom furniture, I am very content. With my new bedroom furniture, I am very content. She was content to step down after four years as chief executive. She was content to step down after four years as chief executive. 17. cash in: take advantage or profit 17. cash in: take advantage or profit Let s cash in on the fine weather and go out for the day. Let s cash in on the fine weather and go out for the day. Profiteers cashed in during the gasoline shortage. Profiteers cashed in during the gasoline shortage. 18. head: v. proceed or go in a certain direction 18. head: v. proceed or go in a certain direction head for town. head for town. head over heels in debt / love head over heels in debt / love

23 Unit 6 Predators, Parasites and Other relationships

24 1. Names of some animals 1. Names of some animals buffalo yak donkey golden monkey orangutan chimpanzee baboon antelope sika / spotted deer anteater squirrel hedgehog giant panda leopards / panthers koala lioness raccoon polar bear spotted leopard rhinoceros gorilla kangaroo zebra giraffe quail ostrich penguin swan lionet / cub hawk / eagle peafowl / peacock turkey mandarin duck wild goose pigeon hummingbird kingfisher woodpecker red-crested crane / sacred crane cuckoo sparrow canary magpie bird of paradise crows parrot swallow green turtle frog / toad tortoise buffalo yak donkey golden monkey orangutan chimpanzee baboon antelope sika / spotted deer anteater squirrel hedgehog giant panda leopards / panthers koala lioness raccoon polar bear spotted leopard rhinoceros gorilla kangaroo zebra giraffe quail ostrich penguin swan lionet / cub hawk / eagle peafowl / peacock turkey mandarin duck wild goose pigeon hummingbird kingfisher woodpecker red-crested crane / sacred crane cuckoo sparrow canary magpie bird of paradise crows parrot swallow green turtle frog / toad tortoise

25 python / boa cobra house lizard alligators / crocodile tuna hairtail eel shark sardine oyster hippopotamus duckbill / platypus dolphin tropical fish pearl oyster seal sea horse whale sperm whale shrimp lobster crab octopus hermit crab / pagurian starfish sponge cuttlefish coral jellyfish / medusa jellyfish dragonfly mantis locust cockroach / roach grasshopper cricket bedbug cicada firefly / lightning bug beetle moth cockchafer silkworm ladybug / ladybirds butterfly mosquito honeybee spider seven-spot ladybug caterpillar python / boa cobra house lizard alligators / crocodile tuna hairtail eel shark sardine oyster hippopotamus duckbill / platypus dolphin tropical fish pearl oyster seal sea horse whale sperm whale shrimp lobster crab octopus hermit crab / pagurian starfish sponge cuttlefish coral jellyfish / medusa jellyfish dragonfly mantis locust cockroach / roach grasshopper cricket bedbug cicada firefly / lightning bug beetle moth cockchafer silkworm ladybug / ladybirds butterfly mosquito honeybee spider seven-spot ladybug caterpillar

26 predator: a wild animal that lives on other animals by killing and eating them predator: a wild animal that lives on other animals by killing and eating them Parasite: a plant or animal that lives on or in another and gets hood from it Parasite: a plant or animal that lives on or in another and gets hood from it Ecosystem: a system which relates all the plants, animals and people in an area to their surroundings Ecosystem: a system which relates all the plants, animals and people in an area to their surroundings

27 exposition: one of the basic forms of communication, means explanation or putting across some information or ideas. Its primary function is not to tell a story or relate a happening, although it often uses narration or description as one of its associated techniques. Nor is its primary function to create vivid pictures for the reader. Rather, it explains something logically, and shows relationship. exposition: one of the basic forms of communication, means explanation or putting across some information or ideas. Its primary function is not to tell a story or relate a happening, although it often uses narration or description as one of its associated techniques. Nor is its primary function to create vivid pictures for the reader. Rather, it explains something logically, and shows relationship. In this article, the author put across his idea vividly by supplying definitions for the technical terms, quoting directly from famous biologists to give authority to what he wants to express, and by citing an example of poetic exaggeration ( only a little ) by Jonathan Swift about parasites. In this article, the author put across his idea vividly by supplying definitions for the technical terms, quoting directly from famous biologists to give authority to what he wants to express, and by citing an example of poetic exaggeration ( only a little ) by Jonathan Swift about parasites.

28 Language Points People usually believe that predicators have an easy time of it, killing defenseless prey. People usually believe that predicators have an easy time of it, killing defenseless prey. People usually think that predators do not have to make an effort to kill the prey animals, since they (the prey) have no means of protecting themselves. People usually think that predators do not have to make an effort to kill the prey animals, since they (the prey) have no means of protecting themselves. have easy time of it get what one desires without having to work hard for it; do something which requires little effort have easy time of it get what one desires without having to work hard for it; do something which requires little effort People tend to take it for granted that the heavyweight boxing champion will have an easy time of it, but beating his opponent might be harder than everyone thinks. People tend to take it for granted that the heavyweight boxing champion will have an easy time of it, but beating his opponent might be harder than everyone thinks. The general manager doesn t have an easy time of it, running a firm with a staff of over The general manager doesn t have an easy time of it, running a firm with a staff of over 1600.

29 carnivore: a flesh-eating animal carnivore: a flesh-eating animal carnivorous: flesh-eating carnivorous plants carnivorous: flesh-eating carnivorous plants prime: of the best quality prime: of the best quality -----This meat is very dear This meat is very dear Yes. But it s a prime joint of beef Yes. But it s a prime joint of beef. The prime time of my life has gone forever. I m aging fast. The prime time of my life has gone forever. I m aging fast.

30 The reverse is true of parasites. The reverse is true of parasites. Parasites have the opposite characteristics, i.e., they are smaller but greater in number than their hosts. Parasites have the opposite characteristics, i.e., they are smaller but greater in number than their hosts. to be true with be true of, which is more commonly used to be true with be true of, which is more commonly used Langston Hughes didn t see Jesus at that special meeting. The same might well have been true with /of all the other little lambs. Langston Hughes didn t see Jesus at that special meeting. The same might well have been true with /of all the other little lambs. What you said about doctors in your lectures is also true with /of us teachers. What you said about doctors in your lectures is also true with /of us teachers. John was greatly impressed by the Great Wall --- the same tends to be true with / of all visitors. John was greatly impressed by the Great Wall --- the same tends to be true with / of all visitors.

31 in hopes that: hoping that in hopes that: hoping that Maggie s husband made a list of resolutions on the New Year s Eve in hopes that he would become a better father and husband. Maggie s husband made a list of resolutions on the New Year s Eve in hopes that he would become a better father and husband. The little sinners sat on the mourners bench in hopes that they could be saved. The little sinners sat on the mourners bench in hopes that they could be saved. Another two phrases in hope that and in the hope that are more commonly used. Another two phrases in hope that and in the hope that are more commonly used. take to begin as a practice take to begin as a practice My father took to smoking cigars when he was fifty and only now has he quit. My father took to smoking cigars when he was fifty and only now has he quit. Our neighbor has taken to repairing radios in his spare time. Our neighbor has taken to repairing radios in his spare time.

32 warn … of … tell … about possible danger warn … of … tell … about possible danger Even though we are continually being warned of the dangers of smoking, there are still a lot of heavy smokers around. Even though we are continually being warned of the dangers of smoking, there are still a lot of heavy smokers around. Since the publication of Rachel Carson s book Silent Spring in which she warned the people of the dangers of pollution by insecticides and chemical fertilizers, there has happened a series of boos on the topic. Since the publication of Rachel Carson s book Silent Spring in which she warned the people of the dangers of pollution by insecticides and chemical fertilizers, there has happened a series of boos on the topic. The organisms that make up a lichen couldn t survive long apart. The organisms that make up a lichen couldn t survive long apart. The organisms that a lichen is composed of could not live long separately. The organisms that a lichen is composed of could not live long separately. survive: to live longer than; outlive: survive: to live longer than; outlive: She survived her husband by five years. She survived her husband by five years. to live or persist through: to live or persist through: These new plants can survive frosts These new plants can survive frosts The house survived the storm. The house survived the storm.

33 9. array: an ordered force or army 9. array: an ordered force or army an array of heavily armed troops; an array of heavily armed troops; an array of spare parts an array of spare parts The crowd were met by an array of policemen. The crowd were met by an array of policemen. 10. advance: a. made or given ahead of time 10. advance: a. made or given ahead of time an advance payment an advance payment an advance party an advance party an advance copy an advance copy

34 bespeak: to be or give a sign of; indicate bespeak: to be or give a sign of; indicate to engage, hire, or order in advance to engage, hire, or order in advance We have bespoken three tickets for tomorrow. We have bespoken three tickets for tomorrow. Today's events bespeak future tragedy. Today's events bespeak future tragedy. 13. refract: cause light to change when passing through 13. refract: cause light to change when passing through Water refracts light Water refracts light In the Quartet reality is refracted through a variety of eyes (Elizabeth Kastor) In the Quartet reality is refracted through a variety of eyes (Elizabeth Kastor)


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