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Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance

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1 Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance
The Lean Enterprise Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance Welcome and introductions. Allow ½ hour to 1 ½ hours to cover this material. (Please retain the free lean site reference with the materials.) Lean Foundations Continuous Improvement Training

2 Learning Objectives Learn the basic philosophy of TPM
Explain OEE and how it contributes to a TPM project, explore OEE components; define and calculate OEE List 6 major components of equipment loss Review and adopt the 7 steps to Autonomous Maintenance

3 TPM – The Need Process Industry relies heavily on equipment that is integrated and runs continuously When down, losses are costly With lower inventories, machines need to be reliable Machining and Assembly industries becoming more mechanized to save manpower and do difficult jobs More machines to maintain Need to save energy

4 TPM – The Philosophy TPM aims at using equipment to its maximum and aids in reducing Life Cycle Costs (LCC) In other words - going all out to eliminate the Losses (Waste) caused by the equipment TPM improves work activities that deal with Equipment Set-up, Operating parameters, Maintenance, Tear down, Repairs and Breakdowns It specifically aims at the complete elimination of the ‘six major losses’ while striving for a goal of zero unscheduled downtime

5 TPM - The Six Major Losses (Waste)
Downtime Losses (1) Equipment failures (2) Set-up and adjustments Speed Losses (3) Idling and minor stoppages (4) Reduced speed (actual operating vs. designed) Defect Losses (5) Defects in process (6) Reduced yield between start of production and stable production

6 ] ] ] OEE Formulas Loss Measure Formula Metric = = =
Availability example: Efficiency Ratio of Quality Products Load – Down Time Load Time 460 min – 60 min 460 The Theoretical Cycle Time x Processed Qty Operating Time 0.5/ unit x 400 units 400 minutes Processed Amount – Amount of Defects Processed Amount 400 – 8 400 1. Unexpected Eq. Breakdown 2. Set-up & adjustments 3. Idling and minor stoppages 4. Reduced speed 5. Defects in Process 6. Reduced Yield Overall Equip. Effectiveness: = x 100% = 87% = 50% = 98% ] = ] ] = .87 x .50 x .98 = %

7 OEE Pareto Analysis by Loss Category
Overall Equipment Effectiveness Loss 1 & 2 Loss 3 & 4 Loss 5 & 6 46.2 % OEE

8 TPM attacks 6 major “Losses” plus Elimination of other Wastes (Mura, Muri, Muda)
Operator Time Losses Manpower losses due to operation time being done more slowly than standard time (Cycle Time > Standard Time) Material Losses Losses in yield due to ‘inherent waste’ (cut-off stock, set-up pieces, prototype, etc) Energy losses such as electricity, gas, and water when machinery is not doing value-added work Idling losses due to inadequate sensors and product buildup on conveyors and chutes

9 Best Practices World-Class Goals (A TPM “Vision”)
Before After Availability % > 90% Performance Efficiency % > 95% Ratio of Quality (Yield) 98% > 99% Overall Eq. Effectiveness 42.6% > 85%

10 TPM – Operational Goals (Qualitative)
Increase number of suggestions Improve level of teamwork of shop floor Improve cross-functional teamwork Establish maintenance throughout the total equipment life cycle People maintain their own equipment Machines available for just-in-time (JIT) application Improve machine availability Improve working environment (6S) Improve Corporate culture and image Improve Business performance

11 TPM – Operational Goals (Quantitative)
Cost Reductions Actual and to be reduced Energy savings Maintenance Equipment Efficiencies Zero failures (ultimate goal) MTBF (mean time between failures) MTTR (mean time between repairs) Idle Time

12 TPM – Operational Goals, cont. (Quantitative)
Safety Zero accidents Quality Zero failures Zero complaints Education Hours of training/ number of sessions Number of KAIZEN projects Number of Suggestions

13 TPM – Definition of ‘Total’
Total Effectiveness Reduction in losses of all equipment to optimize its effectiveness and improve costs Total Maintenance Involves the whole maintenance system inclusive of equipment manufacturer, equipment engineering, and equipment user to improve maintainability Total Participation Everyone has a role to make TPM work Management to set policy Middle management, staff to support and lead Maintenance to maintain and train Operators to take on new maintenance challenges

14 TPM – Role of Maintenance Function
Provides technical support for autonomous maintenance done by operators Restores deteriorated equipment through checks, inspections, and overhauls Identifies Design weaknesses and improves the equipment to error-free function (via poka-yoke) Improves technical maintenance skills for checks, inspections, and overhauls

15 TPM – Role of Operator Function
Maintains basic condition (cleaning and lubrication) Maintains proper condition and standards for equipment usage Partially restores deterioration Basic skill levels in: Changeover and set-up Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments

16 TPM – Autonomous Maintenance
Definition: Operations maintains its own equipment Utilize 7-step plan* (*Source: Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance)

17 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 1 – Initial clean-up (External) “Kick-off” program Closely aligned with 6S (5S + 1) Management and Staff show commitment Clean, Sand and Paint Identify sources of defects: Gauge hidden Limit switch buried in debris Crack in Housing

18 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 2 – Stop sources of defects (External) Ask ‘why ?’ five times Replace parts with cracks Replace worn seals Teach Operators how to modify equipment Conduct Set-up Workshops; Practice Set-ups Modify Equipment for easier checking and to eliminate sources for debris and contamination Guards Chip removal Acrylic covers to see V - belts and moving parts

19 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 3 – Standards Formulation Standards for clean-up and checking What equipment should be cleaned and checked? What points should be checked? Who should check? What check sheet should be used? How to react to changes. Standards are to capture what has been learned in steps 1 and 2

20 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 4 – Overall Checkup (Internal) Leaders (1st line Supervisors) trained Hydraulics Air Pressure Electrical/ Electronics Lubrication Mechanical One point lessons developed (Visual Management) Team up Engineers, Maintenance, and Operators Tear down equipment Analyze defects Present findings

21 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 5 – Autonomous Checkup Develop Standards for routine internal checkup Hydraulics Air Pressure Electrical/ Electronics Lubrication Mechanical Operator executes routine checks

22 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 6 – Orderliness and Tidiness Improve on Supplier Activity Spare parts supply partners Spare parts stores Spare parts inventory Improve on Tool Activity Tool Crib orderliness Tools frequently used at work station (refer to Visual Management/ Visual Control)

23 7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 7 – “All out” Autonomous Management Process never ends Metrics Audits Each process post Result* (actual) against Goal (target) Zero lost time accidents Zero Defects Zero Breakdowns Zero set-up time or at least < 10 minutes Practice Quick Changeovers/ SMED (see separate module) * Utilize Accountability Meetings (see separate module)

24 TPM – Kaizen and Reliability Maintenance
KAIZEN (see separate module) SWAT Team approach to major problems (Focus improvement effort around 6 big Losses) Reduction in Changeover/ Set-up time RELIABILITY Driven by Pareto Analysis to prioritize Data based Reduction in MTTR Increase in MTBF

25 Reliability Maintenance
Meantime to Failure (Goal is to maximize) Machine Breakdown Tool Breakdown Part Failure Meantime to Repair (Goal is to minimize) Diagnose problem Correct problem Set up Machine to make good parts Spare parts control Analyze using Statistical Tools Reliability Measures Problem Solving Tools Vibration Analysis Tools

26 TPM - Reliability Kaizen Examples
1) Tool cutting Tip (Nissan Motors) Life Cycle = 45 pieces KAIZEN #1 – Vibrational analysis to optimize rotational speed. Life cycle = 132 pieces. KAIZEN #2 – Analysis of wear pattern to optimize tool geometry. Life cycle = 305 pieces. 2) Tool cutting (Toyota Motors) Tool expensive and takes long time to set up KAIZEN #1 – Reduced set-up time from 15 minutes to less than 10 seconds. KAIZEN #2 – Studied correlation between life of tool and number of cuts between sharpening – increase life of tool five-fold.

27 Planned Maintenance Best Practices
Maintenance department primarily responsible Re-adjustment of Machines to bring back to original state Feedback information to Maintenance Prevention Group Collection of Reliability Data MTBF MTTR Finding and coping with chronic defects Machine accuracy control (calibration) Schedule boards (Visual Management) Control of Spare Parts Lubrication Vibrational Analysis

28 Maintenance Prevention Best Practices
New equipment design integrated w/ New Product Introduction (NPI) efforts Input from Reliability Maintenance Input from Preventative Maintenance Input from KAIZEN activities Life Cycle Costing Design reviews (Operators, Supervisors, Engineers) Assembly at Supplier Final Inspection at Supplier Maintenance and Operations Manual preparation Safety Issues visible, aware and worked Preventative Maintenance Schedule posted, adhered to

29 TPM – Summary Total Productive Maintenance is about:
improved equipment performance increased equipment availability increased equipment FPY (first pass yield) or also called FTT (first time through) reduced emergency downtime increased return on investment increased employee skill levels increased employee empowerment

30 TPM – Breakout Activity
With a small group, With regard to Maintenance - Decide at least 3 new improvements to put into place in your area. Decide at least 3 new measures/ metrics to adopt to sustain your Maintenance activities. Present your plan to Supervision.

31 Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance
The Lean Enterprise Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance Thank participants for attending. Lean Foundations Continuous Improvement Training

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