Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2. Integrated Logistics Support"— Presentation transcript:
1Lecture 2. Integrated Logistics Support Informatics in Logistics ManagementLecturer:Prof. Anatoly Sachenko
2Lecture Overview Definition and Importance Scope of logistic support managementStandardsIntegrated Logistics Support ElementsAdoptionBenefits and Value of ILSImplementing an ILS SolutionOverview of ILS Process RequirementsSystem Engineering ProcessTOC and CAIVLogistics Support Analysis
3Definition Integrated logistics support (ILS) is an integrated approach to the management of logistic disciplines in the military,similar to commercial product support or customer service organizationsAlthough originally developed for military purposes, it is applied by the private sector as well
4Definition Two popular definitions: 1. ILS – is a management function that provides planning, funding, and functioning controls which help to assure that the system meets performance requirements, is developed at a reasonable price, and can be supported throughout its life cycle2. ILS – encompasses the unified management of the technical logistics elements that plan and develop the support requirements for a system. This can include hardware, software, and the provisioning of training and maintenance resources.
5Definition Integrated definition: “A disciplined, unified and iterative approach to the management and technical activities necessary to:(1) integrate support considerations into system and equipment design;(2) develop support requirements that are related consistently to readiness objectives, to design, and to each other;(3) acquire the required support; and(4) provide the required support during the operational phase at minimum cost”.
6DefinitionIn general, ILS plans and directs the identification and development of logistics support and system requirements for military systems, with the goal of creating systems that last longer and require less support.ILS therefore, addresses these aspects of supportability not only during acquisition, but also throughout the operational life cycle of the system.The impact of ILS is often measured in terms of metrics such as Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Testability (RAMT), and sometimes System Safety (RAMS).
7ImportanceIn the world of Aerospace & Defense programs, Sustainment & Supportability have become a major cost consideration within complex systems.These two facets of the A&D product lifecycle are now being carefully considered and, in some cases, are being given more consideration than the initial purchase price when making the acquisition decision.In fact, the total lifecycle cost is quickly displacing initial system or equipment cost as the criteria for awarding contracts.
8ImportanceFor many of the world’s top A&D firms, the solution to the Sustainability and Supportability issue lies in Integrated Logistics Support (ILS)By installing and applying ILS tools and processes, A&D firms are able to significantly lower sustainment costs, such that they’re able to easily differentiate their products in competitive situations, and win more profitable contractsRead on and discover how ILS is reshaping the way A&D companies are now managing sustainment as part of the overall lifecycle
12StandardsILS has been categorized by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense (UK MoD) Through Life Support (TLS) Directorate into:Reliability Engineering, Maintainability Engineering and Maintenance (preventive, predictive and corrective) PlanningSupply Support (Spare part) / acquire resourcesSupport and Test EquipmentManpower and Personnel
13Standards Training and Training Support Technical Data / Publications Computer Resources SupportFacilitiesPackaging, Handling, Storage, and TransportationDesign Interface
14StandardsIn USA initial efforts to collect logistics information in a standardized way were accomplished by the US Army with the issuance of MIL-STD BMIL-STD-1388 was eventually replaced by MIL-PRF Logistics Management InformationThis change reflected a shift towards identifying a project’s performance outcomes, rather than recording the detailed technique to achieve them.
15Standards in EuropeIn Europe, the Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom adapted the specification to meet their own needs and issued DEF-STAN-00-60This was the first specification to formally link the previously separate disciplines of Provisioning, LSA and Technical Publications under a common specification, and also the first to attempt to formalize a product lifecycle as part of an acquisition process
16Integrated Logistics Support Elements All elements of ILS are ideally developed in coordination with the system engineering effort and with each otherTradeoffs may be required between elements in order to acquire a system that is: affordable (lowest life cycle cost), operable, supportable, sustainable, transportable, and environmentally soundThe planning for ILS for a system may be contained in an Integrated Logistics Support Plan (ILSP)ILS planning activities coincide with development of the system acquisition strategy, and the program will be tailored accordingly
18AdoptionInfluence on Design. ILS will provide important means to identify (as early as possible) reliability issues / problems and can initiate system or part design improvements based on reliability, maintainability, testability or system availability analysis (for example by the proper use of detailed functional and/or piece part FMECA techniques, Event tree and Fault tree analysis / assessments, Reliability Block Diagrams, Importance measurements, Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) / Maintenance steering Group 3 and Monte Carlo techniques).
19AdoptionDesign of the Support Solution for minimum cost. Ensuring that the Support Solution considers and integrates the elements considered by ILS. This is discussed fully below.
20AdoptionInitial Support Package. These tasks include calculation of requirements for spare parts, special tools, and documentation. Quantities required for a specified initial period are calculated, procured, and delivered to support delivery, installation in some of the cases, and operation of the equipment.
21Overview of ILS Process Requirements The Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process provides the basis for the ILS program. Through the LSA, the source data and maintenance plans are generated and documented.The LSA is designed both to examine the product design and to recommend improvements in design that can result in increased maintainability, reliability and supportability of the equipment or system.
22Overview of ILS Process Requirements This is accomplished by defining and recommending changes in design that will result in:1. Reduced time to perform maintenance2. Greater reliability of components3. Maintenance procedures requiring little or no specialized support equipment or specialized training
24TOC and CAIVTotal Ownership Cost (TOC) and Cost As an Independent Variable (CAIV). TOC is the sum of all life cycle costs and the cost of the supporting infrastructure that plans and manages an asset. Over 50% of the TOC is incurred during the sustainment of an asset. One of the primary goals of logistics and the systems engineering process is to provide a system and support at a reasonable/right cost.
25TOC and CAIVAs much as 80% of the TOC is determined during the initial acquisition. The application of TOC procedures through tradeoffs can greatly reduce the out-year costs while maximizing operational effectiveness. Program managers and personnel tasked with acquiring Coast Guard assets shall make the reduction of TOC one of the key components of the acquisition.
26TOC and CAIVThe CAIV concept is based on setting aggressive (low), realistic cost objectives and managing to achieve them by conducting trade-off analyses that consider cost, performance, schedule, and supportability. The objectives must balance operational needs with projected out-year resources. The key principles are:Set realistic but aggressive cost objectives (defined as ranges) early in the acquisition.Manage risk to achieve cost, schedule, performance, and life cycle support objectives.
27TOC and CAIVUse metrics to track progress in setting and achieving the cost objectives.Make use of tools such as cost estimating, requirements analysis, tradeoff risk analysis, Pareto analysis (focus on biggest payback items), and Value Engineering (identify reductions where cost and performance are out of balance).Motivate managers and industry and provide incentives for meeting program objectives.
29Logistics Support Analysis When the optimum design is defined, other ILS elements, such as training, technical publication and provisioning, are planned, guided and completed. This process ensures that the maintenance protocol will meet the program maintenance concept. It also ensures that supportability requirements are considered and incorporated into the design of the equipment or system early in the product design phase.
30Logistics Support Analysis The ILS process typically begins with an LSA Plan. This document gathers and defines program requirements and objectives. This plan would detail the activities to be accomplished to ensure that these requirements and objectives will be met. The plan would include the scheduling of LSA activities relative to program scheduled events, such as the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews.
31Logistics Support Analysis The LSA is not an isolated, internally-based activity. Instead, it requires data/input from subcontractors, vendors, engineering, and the customer. At a high level, there are specific areas that are included in LSA. These include:1. Maintenance Planning2. Supply Support3. Support and Test Equipment/Equipment Support4. Manpower and Personnel
32Logistics Support Analysis 5. Training and Training Support6. Technical Data7. Computer Resources Support8. Facilities9. Packaging, Handling, Storage and Transportation10. Design Interface
33Maintenance planningMaintenance planning begins early in the acquisition process with development of the maintenance concept. It is conducted to evolve and establish requirements and tasks to be accomplished for achieving, restoring, and maintaining the operational capability for the life of the system. Maintenance planning relies on Level Of Repair Analysis (LORA) as a function of the system acquisition process. Its planning will:Define the actions and support necessary to ensure that the system attains the specified system readiness objectives with minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC).
34Maintenance planningSet up specific criteria for repair, including Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) requirements, testability, reliability, and maintainability; support equipment requirements; automatic test equipment; and manpower skills and facility requirements.State specific maintenance tasks, to be performed on the system.Define actions and support required for fielding and marketing the system.Address warranty considerations.
35Maintenance planningThe maintenance concept must ensure prudent use of manpower and resources. When formulating the maintenance concept, analysis of the proposed work environment on the health and safety of maintenance personnel must be considered.Conduct a LORA repair analysis to optimize the support system, in terms of LCC, readiness objectives, design for discard, maintenance task distribution, support equipment and ATE, and manpower and personnel requirements.Minimize the use of hazardous materials and the generation of waste.
36Supply supportSupply support encompasses all management actions, procedures, and techniques used to determine requirements to:Acquire support items and spare parts.Catalog the items.Receive the items.Store and warehouse the items.Transfer the items to where they are needed.
37Supply support Issue the items. Dispose of secondary items. Provide for initial support of the system.Acquire, distribute, and replenish inventory.
38Support and test equipment Support and test equipment includes all equipment, mobile and fixed, that is required to perform the support functions, except that equipment which is an integral part of the system. Support equipment categories include:Handling and Maintenance Equipment.Tools (hand tools as well as power tools).Metrology and measurement devices.Calibration equipment.Test equipment.
39Support and test equipment Automatic test equipment.Support equipment for on- and off- equipment maintenance.Special inspection equipment and depot maintenance plant equipment, which includes all equipment and tools required to assemble, disassemble, test, maintain, and support the production and/or depot repair of end items or components.
40Manpower and personnel Manpower and personnel involves identification and acquisition of personnel with skills and grades required to operate and maintain a system over its lifetime. Manpower requirements are developed and personnel assignments are made to meet support demands throughout the life cycle of the system. Manpower requirements are based on related ILS elements. Human factors engineering (HFE) or behavioral research is frequently applied to ensure a good man-machine interface.
41Manpower and personnel Manpower requirements are predicated on accomplishing the logistics support mission in the most efficient and economical way. This element includes such requirements during planning and decision process:Man-machine and environmental interfaceSpecial skillsHuman factors considerations during the planning and decision process
42Training and training devices Training and training devices support encompasses the processes, procedures, techniques, training devices, and equipment used to train personnel to operate and support a system. This element defines requirements for the training of operating and support personnel throughout the life cycle of the system.
43Training and training devices It includes requirements for:Competencies managementFactory trainingInstructor and key personnel trainingNew equipment training teamResident trainingSustainment trainingUser training
44Technical dataTechnical Data and Technical Publications consists of scientific or technical information necessary to translate system requirements into discrete engineering and logistic support documentation. Technical data is used in the development of repair manuals, maintenance manuals, user manuals, and other documents that are used to operate or support the system.
45Technical data Technical data includes, but may not be limited to: Technical manualsTechnical and supply bulletinsTransportability guidance technical manualsMaintenance expenditure limits and calibration proceduresRepair parts and tools listsMaintenance allocation chartsCorrective maintenance instructionsPreventive maintenance and Predictive maintenance instructions
46Technical data Drawings/specifications/technical data packages Software documentationProvisioning documentationDepot maintenance work requirementsIdentification listsComponent listsProduct support dataFlight safety critical parts list for aircraftLifting and tie down pamphlet/references
47Computer resources support Computer Resources Support includes the facilities, hardware, software, documentation, manpower, and personnel needed to operate and support computer systems and the software within those systems. Computer resources include both stand-alone and embedded systems. This element is usually planned, developed, implemented, and monitored by a Computer Resources Working Group (CRWG) or Computer Resources Integrated Product Team (CR-IPT) that documents the approach and tracks progress via a Computer Resources Life-Cycle Management Plan (CRLCMP).
48Computer resources support Developers will need to ensure that planning actions and strategies contained in the ILSP and CRLCMP are complementary and that computer resources support for the operational software, and ATE software, support software, is available where and when needed.
49Packaging, handling, storage, and transportation (PHS&T) PHS&T includes resources and procedures to ensure that all equipment and support items are preserved, packaged, packed, marked, handled, transported, and stored properly for short- and long-term requirements. It includes material-handling equipment and packaging, handling and storage requirements, and pre-positioning of material and parts.System constraints (such as design specifications, item configuration, and safety precautions for hazardous material)
50Packaging, handling, storage, and transportation (PHS&T) Special security requirementsGeographic and environmental restrictionsSpecial handling equipment and proceduresImpact on spare or repair parts storage requirementsEmerging PHS&T technologies, methods, or procedures and resource-intensive PHS&T proceduresEnvironmental impacts and constraints
51FacilitiesThe Facilities logistics element is composed of a variety of planning activities, all of which are directed toward ensuring that all required permanent or semi-permanent operating and support facilities (for instance, training, field and depot maintenance, storage, operational, and testing) are available concurrently with system fielding. Planning must be comprehensive and include the need for new construction as well as modifications to existing facilities.
52FacilitiesIt also includes studies to define and establish impacts on life cycle cost, funding requirements, facility locations and improvements, space requirements, environmental impacts, duration or frequency of use, safety and health standards requirements, and security restrictions. Also included are any utility requirements, for both fixed and mobile facilities, with emphasis on limiting requirements of resources.
53Design interfaceDesign interface is the relationship of logistics-related design parameters of the system to its projected or actual support resource requirements. These design parameters are expressed in operational terms rather than as inherent values and specifically relate to system requirements and support costs of the system. Programs such as "design for testability" and "design for discard" must be considered during system design.
54Design interface The basic requirements: Reliability Maintainability StandardizationInteroperabilitySafetySecurity UsabilityEnvironmental and HAZMATPrivacy, particularly for computer systems
55Benefits and Value of ILS This data, if developed in an integrated logistics environment, will be used as part of the analysis and design improvement process. It will then be leveraged to produce the training, provisioning and technical publications required to support the system or equipment. Here are some specific examples of realized benefits:Initial Design ImprovementsProvisioning DataTechnical PublicationsTraining and eLearning
56Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach It is clear that ILS offers tremendous benefits to manufacturers, hence its adoption as a best practice for the A&D industry. Since compliance is increasingly being demanded by customers, the question that needs to be answered is: What are the most common pitfalls in an ILS implementation, and how can they be overcome?
57Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach To meet ILS requirements, organizations must deploy specialized and highly structured solutions with such core elements:a basic LSA sub-systema provisioning sub-systema technical publication development sub-systema training/eLearning solution sub-systeman information publishing delivery system
58Implementing an ILS Solution: Pitfalls of a Point-Solution Approach Even when a point solution is architected and deployed within an organization, it is often incomplete and lacks the necessary automation. Thus, organizations are left to define the processes of:1. Accessing and reusing design information in the various sub-systems2. Creating graphics and illustrations specific to product configurations3. Triggering documentation updates when designs or configurations change
59ReferencesJames V. Jones. Integrated Logistics Support Handbook. McGraw-Hill Logistics Series, p.Blanchard B.S. System Engineering Management, Prentice-HallBlanchard B.S., Fabrycky W.J. Systems Engineering and Analysis, 3rd Edition, Prentice-HallEbeling C. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, McGraw-HillMark Willis. System Supportability Engineering – SMART Integrated Logistics Support. 14th International Mirce Symposium, 1-3 December 2004, Woodbury Park, Exeter, UK.
60HandbooksMIL-HDBK-217, Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment, U.S. Department of Defense.MIL-HDBK-338B, Electronic Reliability Design Handbook, U.S. Department of Defense.MIL-HDBK-781A, Reliability Test Methods, Plans, and Environments for Engineering Development, Qualification, and Production, U.S. Department of Defense.NASA PRA - Probabilistic Risk Assessment HandbookNASA Fault Tree Assessment handbook
61StandardsArmy Regulation Integrated Logistics Support, 27 September 2007British Defence Standard Integrated Logistics Support for MOD ProjectsFederal Standard 1037C in support of MIL-STD-188MIL-STD-785, Reliability Program for Systems and Equipment Development and Production, U.S. Department of Defense.MIL-STD A Logistic Support Analysis (LSA)MIL-STD B Requirements for a Logistic Support Analysis RecordMIL-STD-1629A, Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode, Effects and criticality analysis